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Stage of Production Vs Nutritional Requirements
• As animals grow and mature, their nutritional needs change.
– Younger animals need diets high in protein.
– As the animal matures, the animal needs a diet higher in
Stage of Production Nutritional Requirements
• Calving to breeding Highest
• Breeding to weaning Moderate
• Mid Gestation Lowest
• Late Gestation High
• the most important nutritional factor
• Two sources
• the food ingested.
• the energy stored in its body in the form of fat.
• Energy balance:
Negative energy balance:
• High producing cows are in negative energy
balance during early lactation because they
cannot consume adequate feed to meet the
nutrient requirements for high levels of milk
• Energy stores in body tissues are
mobilized and weight losses occur.
Negative energy balance:
• Puberty is determined by body weight not by age of
• Generally the heavier the animal the more fertile,
– but overfat animals may have difficulty mating, conceiving,
• Low Body Weight:
– reach sexual maturity later
– longer interval to first ovulation.
– increased incidence of silent estrus.
– Lower conception rates
– Longer calving intervals
The consequences of negative energy balance on reproduction in dairy cowsThe consequences of negative energy balance on reproduction in dairy cows
Metabolic changesMetabolic changes Endocrine changesEndocrine changes Functional changesFunctional changes
Impaired synthesis andImpaired synthesis and
secretion of GnRH andsecretion of GnRH and
•poor follicular growth andpoor follicular growth and
estrogenic capacityestrogenic capacity
•delayed LH peak and ovulationdelayed LH peak and ovulation
•poor oestruspoor oestrus
•poor quality of oocytepoor quality of oocyte
•increased early embryonicincreased early embryonic
Emergency energyEmergency energy
production from adiposeproduction from adipose
tissue and proteinstissue and proteins
increased levels of triacylglycerolsincreased levels of triacylglycerols
in circulation (impaired liverin circulation (impaired liver
•increased levels of urea inincreased levels of urea in
impaired immune function ofimpaired immune function of
endometrium and increasedendometrium and increased
susceptibility to uterinesusceptibility to uterine
•uterine environment lessuterine environment less
favourable for the embryofavourable for the embryo
Increased metabolism ofIncreased metabolism of
oestradiol andoestradiol and
progesterone in the liverprogesterone in the liver
decreased levels of oestradiol indecreased levels of oestradiol in
general circulationgeneral circulation
•decreased level of progesterone indecreased level of progesterone in
general circulationgeneral circulation
poor oestruspoor oestrus
delayed LH peak and ovulationdelayed LH peak and ovulation
•Early Embryonic MortalityEarly Embryonic Mortality
• Under nutrition in late pregnancy, particularly in
ewes carrying twins, may cause pregnancy toxaemia.
This has given rise to the practice of steaming up.
• Steaming up is feeding technique where females are
put on a rising plane of nutrition in the latter stage of
• It increases birth weight and milk production.
Excess positive energy balance
• Excessive energy intake during late lactation
and the dry period
–“fat cow” problems
–lower reproductive efficiency in the next
– Higher incidence of retained placenta
– more uterine infections
– more cystic ovaries
– They also have a higher incidence of
– poor reproductive performance.
• Protein is the second limiting nutrient in most rations.
• It is the principal building block of most tissues.
• The amount of crude protein in an energy sufficient
diet ranges from 8 to 12%
• Reduced feed intake results in both a protein and
• Large excesses of protein in the diet may also depress
• Prolonged inadequate protein intake - reduce
• Reproductive performance may be impaired if protein
is fed in amounts that greatly exceed the cow’s
• Poor nutrition
– may reduce sperm quantity and quality.
• Feeding a high energy and high protein diet
for about six weeks before the mating season.
• Phosphorus is commonly referred as the "fertility" mineral.
• Required for bone and tissue development, energy utilization
and milk production
• Deficiency affect reproductive performance:
• delayed puberty (associated with poor appetite and growth rate)
• Delayed sexual maturity
• Increased number of services required per conception.
• Low conception rates
• Reduced milk production and consequently lower calf weaning weights.
• Phosphorus supplementation 0.4% - 0.6% of the ration
• Phosphorus requirements increase by 12 per cent from mid
pregnancy to the last month of gestation.
• After calving, phosphorus requirements increase by 50%.
• Angiogenic property (lysyl oxidase enzyme)
• Vessel integrity
• Vasculature in the genital organs
• Development of fetus
• Haemoglobin synthesis (Ceruloplasmin enzyme)
• Absorption and transport of iron- Hb synthesis- Aneamia
• Antioxidant (Cu-Zn- Dismutase enzyme)
• Protection against free radicals
• Melanin pigment synthesis (Tyrosinase enzyme)
• Interaction between Cu and estrogen
• Infertility associated with Anaemia
• Poor fertility
• Reduced conception
• oxidative damage
• Abnormal fetal development
• Damage of testicular tissue- sterile bull
• Neonatal ataxia
• Nymphmenia in ewe
• Bone disorder
• Impaired ketatinization
• Requirement: 10ppm
• Glutathione peroxidase enzyme
– Protection from harmful peroxide in developing
– Production of correct architecture of middle piece
during sperm maturation
– Covalent cross links in protein of capsule of
– Helix of mitochondria in the middle piece of spermatozoa
• Activation of thyroid hormone- metabolic pathway
– Iodothyronine deiodinsae
• Stimulation of proliferation of small follicles
• Stimulation of gonadotropins
• Metabolism of arachidonic acid
- Normal functioning of Neutrophils
Impaired functioning of Neutrophils:
– Emryonic mortality
– Retained placenta
– Impaired testicular growth
– Degeneration in the epididymis
– Reduced number of spermatozoa
– Immotile sperm
– Diets should contain at least 0.1 ppm selenium on dry matter basis.
– blood level of 8-10 mg/100 ml should de maintained
• Alcohol dehydrogenase- Vitamin A interrelationship
– Maintenance of normal vitamin A concentration in plasma
– Maintenance of uterine lining
– Affect development of primary and secondary Sex organs
– Inefficient testicular development
– Affect spermatogenesis by atrophy of somniferous tubule
– Fetal mummification
– Lower birth weigh
• Synthesis of thyroid hormones
• Normal development of reproductive organs
• Stimulation of anterior pituitary gonadotropin secretion
• Effect on thyrotropin releasing factor
- stimulate prolactin secretion
- length of estrus cycle
– Delayed puberty
– Poor conception rate
– Reduced ovarian activity
– Longer gestation period
– Calevs may be born hairless, weak or dead
• Requirement: 15-20 mg of iodine each day.
• Component of B12
• Cofactor of methylmalonyl coA isomerase
• Propionic acid metabolism
• Energy metabolism
• Thymine synthesis
• Thymine required for DNA synthesis
• Cell division
• Lower conception rate
• Incomplete uterine involution
• Maintenance of healthy tissue in the reproductive tract
• ovarian progesterone production.
– Delayed sexual maturity
– Delayed first estrus after calving
– Delayed ovulation
– Increased incidence of cystic ovaries
– Birth of dead or weak calves
– Retained placenta
– Delayed uterine involution
• The recommended daily supplementation for dairy cows is 30,000-50,000
• Fresh greens are rich in β -carotene (precursor of vitamin A)
• Formation of structural components of biological
• Influence the conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic
• Influence the formation of Prostaglandins E from
• Requirement: 1200 IU/day or 88 IU/kg diet
Consequences of mineral deficiency
MgMg KK SS FeFe CuCu CoCo II ZnZn MnMn SeSe
Poor OverallPoor Overall
Herd HealthHerd Health
•• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••
Grass TetanyGrass Tetany •• ••
Milk FeverMilk Fever ••
Change in HairChange in Hair
More Days toMore Days to
First HeatFirst Heat
•• •• ••
Mineral requirement for reproduction
NutrientNutrient UnitUnit RequirementRequirement
Absorbable CaAbsorbable Ca g/dayg/day 21.521.5
Dietary CaDietary Ca %% 0.450.45
Absorbable PAbsorbable P g/dayg/day 20.320.3
Dietary PDietary P %% 0.230.23
MgMg %% 0.120.12
ClCl %% 0.150.15
KK %% 0.520.52
NaNa %% 0.100.10
SS %% 0.20.2
CoCo Mg/kgMg/kg 0.110.11
CuCu Mg/kgMg/kg 1313
II Mg/kgMg/kg 0.40.4
FeFe Mg/kgMg/kg 1313
MnMn Mg/kgMg/kg 1818
SeSe Mg/kgMg/kg 0.30.3
ZnZn Mg/kgMg/kg 2222
Vitamin requirement for reproduction
NutrientNutrient UnitUnit RequirementRequirement
Vitamin AVitamin A IU/dayIU/day 10000001000000
Vitamin DVitamin D IU/dayIU/day 2500025000
Vitamin EVitamin E IU/dayIU/day 12001200
Vitamin AVitamin A IU/kgIU/kg 60306030
Vitamin DVitamin D IU/kgIU/kg 16441644
Vitamin EVitamin E IU/kgIU/kg 8888
What can be done?
Diets based on crop residues can be improved by providing
supplementary nutrients, including:
- leguminous & non-leguminous green forages
- specific nutrient supplements in the form of
In the tropics such supplements are often in short supply and
expensive. Their incorporation must be specific to the type of
animal being fed.
Sources of minerals
• The sources are variable and depend on the
system of feeding and regional traditions in India.
• The common sources of minerals for the farm
1. Minerals in the feedstuff
2. Minerals in drinking water, minerals in soil (grazing
animals consume considerable amount of soil) and,
3. Mineral supplements.
Assessing Mineral Status
• Objectively analyze production
– Rule out other factors
• Determine mineral supply
– Forage, supplement, and water
• Directly sample the animal
– Blood or liver
• Sample the forages that cattle are grazing
• Sample silages or delivered feeds periodically
to monitor changes
• Minerals in feeds and forages are not 100%
– 50% is a reasonable guideline
• Don’t forget the water
• Depend on
– Physiological state
– Level of performance
– Presence of antagonists
• Primary sources of minerals
– Forage (grazed or harvested)
– Supplemental feed ingredients
– Supplemental minerals
• Bolus (Co and Se bullets and soluble glass boluses containing Co, Se and
Cu have been successfully used).
• Injected (as subcutaneous injections and in controlled release systems).
• Topdressing the pasture using fertilizer as a carrier
• Adding it to drinking water and salt blocks
• Via oral administration as a drench
– Animal requirements
– Minerals in feeds and forages
Compare mineral supply to requirements
– Potential antagonists
– Sources and Bioavailability
- Maximum Levels
Sterilized bone-meal, fine powderedSterilized bone-meal, fine powdered 4545
Ground chalkGround chalk 1010
Di-calcium phosphateDi-calcium phosphate 1212
Common saltCommon salt 3030
Yellow oxide of ironYellow oxide of iron 0.50.5
Potassium iodidePotassium iodide 0.250.25
Sodium carbonateSodium carbonate 0.750.75
Sodium thiosulphateSodium thiosulphate 0.750.75
Add forAdd for 50 kg50 kg
Cobalt chlorideCobalt chloride 22 g22 g
Copper sulphateCopper sulphate 113 g113 g
Manganese sulphateManganese sulphate 141 g141 g
Zinc sulphateZinc sulphate 140 g140 g
Suggested formula for mineral mixture
Characteristics of a good free choice cattle mineral
a) Minimum of 6-8 % total P
b) Ca: P ratio not substantially over 2:1
c) Provide a significant proportion (i.e. about 50%) of
trace mineral requirement. In trace mineral deficient
areas it should provide 100%
d) High quality mineral salts with best biological
availability without any toxic effects
e) Sufficiently palatable for adequate consumption to
meet the requirements.
f) Acceptable particle size.
h) Formulated for the area involved, the level of animal
productivity, the environment (temperature,
humidity etc.) in which it will be fed.
i) As economical as possible.
Suggested concentrate mixture
IngredientIngredient Inclusion level (%)Inclusion level (%)
Cereal by productsCereal by products
(wheat Bran/ Rice polish)(wheat Bran/ Rice polish)
Oil seed Cake/Dal ChunniOil seed Cake/Dal Chunni 3232
Mineral mixtureMineral mixture 22
Common SaltCommon Salt 11
RATION AS PER THUMB RULE FOR CATTLE & BUFFALO
Feed stuff For zebuCross breed /Buffalo
Straw 4 kg 6 kg
Concentrate 1 – 1.25 kg 2 kg
(DCP = 14 – 16%)
(TDN = 68 – 72%)
2. Gestation :-
Extra concentrate 1.25 kg 1.75 kg
3. Production :-
Extra concentrate 1 kg/2.5 kg 1 kg/ 2kg
milk (4% fat) milk (6%fat)
6 kg Berseem = 1 kg Concentrate
5 kg Leucern = 1 kg Concentrate
12 Kg Non-leguminous Grass = 1 kg Concentrate & 3 Kg Bhusa
Tips for feeding dairy cattle
Concentrate must be fed individually according to production.
Good quality roughage saves concentrates.
20 kg grass or 6-8 kg legume fodder =1 kg concentrate mixture.
Regularity in feeding should be followed.
Feed Concentrate mixture before milking – half in the morning
and the other half in the evening.
Feed the roughage after milking and watering.
High yielding animals may be fed three times a day .
Increasing the frequency of concentrate feeding will help
maintain normal rumen motility and optimum milk fat levels.
Tips for feeding dairy cattle
Abrupt change in the feed should be avoided.
Over feeding conc. may result in off feed & indigestion.
Grains should be ground to medium degree of fineness.
Long and thick-stemmed may be chopped.
Mix Legume fodders with straw to prevent bloat.
Silage and other feeds, which may impart flavour to milk,
may be fed after milking.
Concentrate mixture in the form of mash may be
moistened with water and fed immediately. Pellets can
be fed as such.
Optimum roughage : concentrate ratio should be 40:60
for high yielders
1. Weight 1.0 kg granular, fertilizer grade urea in glass or steel
container and heat it with 500 ml (half litre) water, till it
dissolves. Avoid over heating. While hot
2. Pour this solution (I) into a plastic tub containing 10.500 kg
molasses, and mix with steel spoon.
II. Urea Molasses Mineral lick
3. Prepare mixture of 1.0 kg common salt, 1.0 kg vitamin-
mineral mixture, and 1.0 kg dolomitic lime or calcite.
4. Pour all-mineral mixture into urea-molasses solution and go
on mixing till homogenous suspension of urea-molasses-
mineral is obtained.
5. Take 7.500 kg wheat bran
in a large sized plastic
tub and add to it 0.500
kg de-oiled soybean meal
or any oil-seed cake.
6. To this mixture, pour suspension of urea-molasses mineral
ingredients (III), and mix all these contents till there is
coating of (III), over the wheat bran-soya meal mixture.
Tharparkar Bull Feeding upon Compact Feed Block
Buffalo Feeding on
Multi-nutrient Feed Block
Block Feeding to Buffalo
1. Increased Feed intake and
2. Corrected pica,
3. Increased daily milk yield by
23% (7.2-8.8 lit).
4. 2-kg block in a buffalo last for 5-
It is densifiedproduct, containingbothroughage& conc. in
desiredproportionto meet therequirement of target animal
•Manufactured in complete feed blockmaking machine
•The machine is Simple in operation
•Can compact all kinds of feed materials to square shape of
desired thickness & weight
II. Complete Feed Block
Non-conventional,less palatable feeds used to make ration economic.
5-8 times forroughage alone
4-6 time forcomplete feed
During storage, prepared feed blocks required one third less space as
compared to loose formand Reduces storage cost
Transportation of such blocks is convenient and trouble free.
-Reduces transportation cost.
Increased voluntary intake
Increased nutrient utilization
Stable rumen environment
Minimal fermentation losses
Prevents loss of lighternutrients resulted animal during feeding like
Reduces the wastage of feed material by sneezing and
Save labouron feeding management
Advantages of complete feed blocks
Performance of heifers on complete feed block
DMI % 3.58±0.05
DCP (g/d) 673.76
Weight gain(g/d) 768.5±39.66
Parameter Block Mesh
DMI (% b.wt.) 4.38 4.12
N Balance (g/d) 8.0 5.9
15% higher b.wt. gain obtained in block feeding
III. Protected Nutrients
IV.a. Bypass Fat
• Immediately post calving, the Energy requirements remain high and
appetite is low- Negative energy balance
• This can result in low milk yield.
• Two ways to correct negative energy balance- cereal grain and fat
• 1. In high yielding herds, cereals, will not be sufficient to meet the
requirements of the Dairy Cow. High levels of grain may also cause rumen
acidosis, and may ultimately result in low milk and milk fat production.
• 2. Fat can be added to increase the energy density of the diet. Fat
supplementation also increases absorption of fat-soluble nutrients and
reduced dustiness of feed.
• During early lactation, the rumen is already working at full capacity so it will
not be able to handle additional 'work load by the rumen'.
• Fat supplementation is toxic to rumen bacteria, especially to
fibre degrading bacteria thus, reduces fibre digestion, thereby,
defeating the objective of increasing the availability of energy.
• Therefore, the supplementation of fat for dairy cows is
achieved by means of bypass fats, which pass the rumen
without any degradation.
• Rumen bypass fats are inert in the rumen and are digested in
the lower GI tract at acidic pH, hence they are not harmful to
rumen bacteria and directly absorbed in the intestine
Composition & Effects of By-pass fat
Eg. Dairylac, Magnapac, Megalac, etc
• The protected fats are mostly either calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids or
• Moisture 5 % Fat 80.5% Ash 12.5% Calcium 9%Fibre 0%
Feeding systems and rates
• Dose rate 0.4 to 0.8kg/cow/day in the post-calving ration.
• Gradually incorporate the product into the ration over a few days to help acclimatise
the cow to the new ingredient.
• Improve milk yield and milk fat %.
• Reduced risk of ketosis and fatty liver syndrome.
• Because of the pungent soap taste, there is usually poor acceptance of the feed.
• Sometimes larger amounts of feed concentrate, impair the stability of calcium soaps resulting in
the release of the unsaturated fatty acids, which, may negatively influence milk fat formation
and may also disturb ruminal digestion
IV.b. Bypass protein
• High yielding dairy cows require a well-balanced source of protein.
• Some oilcakes are highly degradable in the rumen and need to be
protected from ruminal degradation, the concept of by-pass protein
for ruminant feeding was put forth.
• Feeding rumen by-pass protein (or rumen-protected protein, rumen-
escape protein) supplement the limiting essential amino acids to high-
yielding dairy animals.
• Bacterial protein provides a proportion of the cows’ amino acid
requirements, but the balance must be provided by rumen undegraded
• The rumen by-pass protein technology addresses the problem of
inefficient use of dietary proteins by ruminants, increases nutrient use
efficiency and optimises the productive and reproductive
Method of protein protection
• Cottonseed cake and fish meal - naturally-occurring rumen by-pass proteins
• Groun dnut, mustard and rapeseed are highly degradable in the rumen. These
cakes need protection against degradation by rumen proteolytic enzymes.
• Among the physical methods, heat treatment is an effective method, but it is not
• Formaldehyde treatment (1.0–1.2 g per 100 g of cake protein) is cheaper and
formaldehyde is readily degraded to carbon dioxide and water in the liver.
• Formalin (38–42 percent formaldehyde) is sprayed on ground cake in a closed
• The sprayed cake is mixed thoroughly and put into plastic bags which are then,
sealed. The treated cake is used as a feed ingredient after 4 days of reaction
• During the reaction period formalin gets adsorbed on the cake particles resulting
in reversible and pH dependent protection of proteins against proteolytic
enzymes. In the acidic pH of the abomasum, these bonds are loosened and the
protein is set free for digestion.
IV.c. Bypass amino acids
• The Essential amino acid methionine is often the first limiting amino acid
for milk production. However, in order to increase the supply of
methionine to the small intestine, it must be protected from breakdown
in the rumen.
• Data from research trials has demonstrated improvements in milk yield
and milk protein concentration by inclusion of ruminally protected
methionine in the diet.
• Methionine also plays a key role in fat metabolism and has an important
role in maintaining liver function. In this role, supplementing protected
methionine can help reduce build-up of fat in the liver, particularly
important in early lactation when cows are mobilising body fat, and also
improve milk fat production.
Advantages of bypass protein
• An increase in milk yield by 10 to 15 percent
• An increase in growth rate by 30 to 40 percent
• Because of the faster growth rate, calves attain early
maturity leading to an early age at first calving.
• In young bulls, by-pass protein feeding resulted in increased
libido and better semen quality,
• possibly due to enhanced amino acid supply.
• The lower plasma ammonia levels due to bypass protein
feeding also lessened the interfering effect on
embryonic/fetal growth in cows and buffalo, which resulted
in better conception rates.
V. Chelated Minerals
• Mineral deficiency occur in Livestock &
May be sufficient amount in diet but bioavailability
Interaction between minerals
Presence of Anti nutritional factors
Mineral absorption in ruminant
Extent of absorption (%)Extent of absorption (%)MineralsMinerals
Factor affecting absorption
1. Chemical form – Organic, Inorganic
2. Other dietary factor –pH, Solubility etc.,
3. Absorption of mineral in Non-ruminant is little higher than
Effect of sources on availability of Zn
Zn SO4 10.2
Zinc Chelate 14.1
Relative bioavailability of minerals from
Source Fe Cu Zn Mn
Inorganic 100 100 100 100
1. Cornell Univ. 140 125 121
2. Illinois univ. 174
120 170 136
How to increase absorption
Complexing inorganic element with organic compound.
This is called ‘Chelates’.
It is a cyclic compound which is formed between an
organic molecule and a metallic ion. Held with in the
organic molecule as if by a “claw”.
Chelate -Greek word - ‘Claw’
Naturally occurring chelates :
Complexation and Chelates
Metalic ion + Ligand Complex
complex may be as simple as only one bond
Or complex contain many bond - Chelates
+ NH3 [Cu (NH3)2
(Lewis acid) (Lewis base)
1. Metal (specific amino acid) Complex – The product
resulting from complexing a soluble metal salt with a specific
amino acid. When used as a commercial feed ingredient, it
must be declared as a specific metal, i.e copper lysine
complex, zinc lysine complex etc.
Classification of organic mineralsClassification of organic minerals
•Copper lysine complex
•Zinc lysine complex
•Ferric methionine complex
•Manganese methionine complex
•Zinc methionine complex
Classification of organic mineralsClassification of organic minerals
2.Metal proteinate is the product resulting from the
chelation of a soluble salt with amino acids and/or partially
hydrolyzed protein. It must be declared as a ingredient as the
specific metal proteinate.
Classification of organic mineralsClassification of organic minerals
3. Metal Polysaccharide Complex – is the product
resulting from complexing of a soluble salt with a
polysaccharide solution declared as a ingredient as
the specific metal complex
•Copper polysaccharide complex
•Iron polysaccharide complex
•Zinc polysaccharide complex
•Magnesium polysaccharide complex
How to prepare a chelate
mineral salt +
enzymatically prepared Amino acid/ peptide
Ligand bind the metal atom at one or more point
Mode of action
Stable in rumen environment & abomasum
Delivered in small intestine as such.
Absorbed through active transport (more blood level)
It act as biological complex (more tissue level)
Enter into different pool
Metabolizable in differently 93
Primary chelated mineral used in animal feeds arePrimary chelated mineral used in animal feeds are
It prefer to form co-ordinate covalent bond- a hybrid
form of linkage – stable complex
Mineral Amino Acid complex
Zinc methionine has been studied greatest extend.
Use of Chelates in Animal Nutrition
1. Reduction of antagonism, interferences and competition
2. Improve the bioavailability of minerals –milk production
3. Counteract antinutritional factors, affecting minerals
4. Performance improvement
5. Health improvement (immune status, functional nutrition)
6. Improvement in animal product quality (meat, milk, egg, wool)
7. Reduce degenerative effect of trace minerals on vitamins
in premixes and feed.
8. Protect environment by reducing metal pollution.
VII. Feed Processing Technologies
Sources of Roughages:
A. Dry roughage:
I. Dry cereal crop residues:-
Paddy straw, Wheat Bhusha, Maize stover
II. Pulses straw:
Moong straw, Pea straw, Gram straw etc.
III. Dry mixed natural grasses
B. Green fodders:
I. Leguminous fodder: Berseem, Cowpea, Leucerne
II. Cereal Fodder: Maize, Sorghum, Oats etc.
III. Grasses: Hybrid napier, Sudan grass
IV. Tree leaves: Pipal, Jhunjhuna, Pakar, Jamun
~ Seasonal and limited availability at high cost
Feed characteristics of crop residues:
• Deficient in almost all nutrients
• High ligno- cellulose content
– ~ Resistant to microbial digestion
• Low palatability
• Low dietary intake
• Low digestibility of nutrients
• Fungal toxin in Bajra straw
• Presence of anti-nutritional factors
High silica content (8-13%) in paddy straw & sugar cane tops
High oxalate (binds with calcium) in paddy straw
Crop Residues~ Poor quality roughage
• In spite of poor nutritive
value and high anti-nutritive
factors, use of crop residues
in ruminant feeding is the
only option in India because
good quality roughage
sources are in poor supply
compared to demand.
~The shortage of dry
fodder and green fodder is
27 and 48%, respectively.
Optimizing animal productivity using poor
quality roughage can be achieved by:
– Supplementing a poor quality roughages to correct
nutritional imbalances and thereby create optimum
rumen conditions for efficient microbial
• Providing a good quality forage in small amount to
maintain flow rate of digesta from the rumen.
• Providing rumen-non degradable protein sources to
provide relatively insoluble protein to provide amino
acids and peptides in the lower gut.
• Supplementation of minerals and vitamins.
II. Processing of crop residues:
Processing of Poor quality roughages:
– To increase voluntary feed intake
– To increase palatability
– To dissociate cellulose and hemicellulose from
lignin and silica for increasing microbial action
~ increase in digestibility.
– To increase energy availability by reducing losses
in digestive processes.
– To increase surface area for providing more
exposed surface for the action of enzymes and
microbes for higher digestibility.
– To reduce the bulkiness through densification. 100
Dry roughage processing methods:
• I. Physical Methods
b. Bhoosa making
c. Water treatment
d. Steam treatment
• II. Chemical Methods
a. Acid treatment
b. Alkali treatment
• III. Biological Methods
a. White rot fungi treatment
c. Mushroom 101
• Cut into 1 to 4 cm long pieces
~ Improves feed intake
~It avoids wastage
II. Bhoosa making:
• Long straw is broken into dusty fine
particles to long pieces of 5 cm length by threshing
~ Expanded and softer then long straw
~ Improves feed intake.
• Dry and chaffed roughage are grind in hammer mill
~ allow uniform mixing of fodder with other feed ingredients for
complete feed in the shape of pellet.
Radiation sources like X-ray and gamma rays breaks the
ligno-cellulose bond and improves digestibility
~ No practical utility due to high cost and health hazard. 102
Physical Methods cont…
V. Water washing:
• Chaffed straw is deeded in water for about 2 hours and then water is
• Some farmers in hilly areas store paddy straw on the branches of
trees for washing by rain water and drying by aeration.
Benefits : Water soluble harmful compound `Oxalate` is removed.
Ca+ Oxalate= Ca-Oxalate
~ Better calcium utilization.
VI. Water soaking:
Deeping of dry roughage in the water for
more then 3-4 hours Dry fodder gets
saturated with absorbed water which
causes swelling and softening of straw.
Increases voluntary feed intake.
` Saani` method of traditional feeding system in Bihar 103
Chemical treatment of dry roughages
• A. Alkali treatment:
Alkali breaks ligno-cellulose bond (Ester linkage) of straw
I. Sodium Hydroxide treatment:
• 4 kg of sodium hydroxide dissolved in 200 liters of water is sprinkled
on 100kg of straw.
• The treated straw is left for 3-4 hours for reaction before feeding.
Drawback: Sodium hydroxide is costly and corrosive in nature.
II. Calcium hydroxide treatment:
• 4 kg of calcium hydroxide dissolved in 100 liters of water is sprinkled on 100
kg of straw.
Drawback: High cost and Low solubility in water.
Chemical treatment of dry roughages cont..
• III. Ammonia treatment:
– Alkali breaks ligno-cellulose bond (Ester linkage) of straw.
– Improves digestibility of straw
– Improves nitrogen content of straw
A. Anhydrous ammonia:
• 100 kg of straw wrapped with polythene cover injected
with 3 litre of of anhydrous ammonia.
» Very costly
» Not freely available
» Transportation gaseous ammonia is difficult.
» Need much care and skilled person
B. Ammoniation through urea hydrolysis:
• Method of urea -ammoniation:
Urea Ammonia + Carbon dioxide
4 kg urea dissolved in
40 kg water
Spray uniformly over 100 kg straw or bhusha
Preserve the treated material under air tight
condition using plastic sheets
3 weeks in hot season
4-5 weeks in cold season.
Benefits of Urea-Ammoniation:
• Increases the protein content
Rice straw 9%
wheat Bhusha 10%
• Improves the palatability of straw
• Improves the digestibility of straw
• Better rumen degradability
• Preservation of high moisture material preventing mould attack.
• Relative inexpensive
• Improves milk production
Nutrition is one of the
most important factors
production and health
care of livestock.