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E-Assessment: an E-Business Enabler in Higher Education

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E-Assessment: an E-Business Enabler in Higher Education

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In the context of higher
education, e-business can be viewed as the
series of interconnected processes initiated
with student application for entry and
completed upon graduation. While
e-learning is an integral component of this
process, the assessment component remains
primarily manual. This leads to an
educational paradox whereby students are
encouraged to e-learn, on one hand, while
they are imposed in old-fashioned
assessment practices, on the other. It also
establishes a business paradox whereby
universities strive to maximize their
financial incomes through research funding
but still do not exploit ICTs to minimize
their costs in the pillar of assessment. As
ICT skills span the requirements of
university students horizontally and across
departments, developing an e-Assessment
System for ICT skills could address both
paradoxes. This paper presents an
e-Assessment system implemented within a
nursing university department setting with
79 participants in Cyprus. Findings of a
quasi-experimental design that validated
the system’s effectiveness indicate that
performance of students who used the
system were significantly different than
those students who followed a traditional
learning process.

In the context of higher
education, e-business can be viewed as the
series of interconnected processes initiated
with student application for entry and
completed upon graduation. While
e-learning is an integral component of this
process, the assessment component remains
primarily manual. This leads to an
educational paradox whereby students are
encouraged to e-learn, on one hand, while
they are imposed in old-fashioned
assessment practices, on the other. It also
establishes a business paradox whereby
universities strive to maximize their
financial incomes through research funding
but still do not exploit ICTs to minimize
their costs in the pillar of assessment. As
ICT skills span the requirements of
university students horizontally and across
departments, developing an e-Assessment
System for ICT skills could address both
paradoxes. This paper presents an
e-Assessment system implemented within a
nursing university department setting with
79 participants in Cyprus. Findings of a
quasi-experimental design that validated
the system’s effectiveness indicate that
performance of students who used the
system were significantly different than
those students who followed a traditional
learning process.

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E-Assessment: an E-Business Enabler in Higher Education

  1. 1. Published by Siam Technology Press, Srisakdi Charmonman Institute, Siam Technology College Special Issue of IJCIM Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on e-Business The Computer Association of Thailand Under the Royal Patronage of HM the King The Interdisciplinary Network of the Royal Institute of Thailand Under the Royal Patronage of HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Srisakdi Charmonman Institute, Siam Technology College The Interdisciplinary Network Foundation for Research and Development Asia-Pacific eLearning Association, Thailand Chapter of the Internet Society Thailand Chapter of the Computer Society of the IEEE Thailand Chapter of the ACM, Thailand Internet Association Association of Thai Internet Industry, Prof. Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman Foundation Organized by IJCIM INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE COMPUTER, THE INTERNET AND MANAGEMENT Senior Editor-in-Chief: Srisakdi Charmonman Editor-in-Chief: Pornphisud Mongkhonvanit www.charm.SiamTechU.net www.ijcim.th.org www.eBusiness2016.com Volume 24 Number SP2 17 November 2016 ISSN 0858-7027
  2. 2. Foreword The Eleventh International Conference on e-Business For the eleventh year in a row, I am very pleased that the International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management (IJCIM) has the privilege of publishing Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on e-Business including 45 papers from 13 countries. To once again devote an entire issue to e-Business is thus an extraordinary opportunity for us. Sample papers are on Financial Technology and E-Business; Massive Open Online Courses Business Models; E-Assessment: an E-Business Enabler in Higher Education; Towards a Maturity Model for C2C Social Commerce; Entrepreneurial Intent for E-Business among Students in Thailand; Fraud Pattern in S-Commerce: a Case Study in Thailand; Factors Affecting School Teachers’ Perceptions of the Sustainable Implementation of Digital Technologies; Effect of Age on Perceived Quality of Service of IP-Based Communication Applications; Free-to-Play User Behavior via Gameplay Analytics: a Case Study from “Dummy-Online”; and A Gamification-Based Model for Implementing Agile Project Management in E-Commerce SMEs. In my capacity as the Senior Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management, I would like to thank those who have made the Eleventh International Conference on e-Business and its Proceedings possible. The main organizers are the Computer Association of Thailand Under the Royal Patronage of HM the King, The Interdisciplinary Network of the Royal Institute of Thailand Under the Royal Patronage of HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Srisakdi Charmonman Institute of Siam Technology College, The Interdisciplinary Network Foundation for Research and Development, Asia-Pacific eLearning Association, Thailand Chapter of the Internet Society, Thailand Chapter of the Computer Society of the IEEE, Thailand Chapter of the ACM, Thailand Internet Association, Association of Thai Internet Industry, Prof. Srisakdi Charmonman Foundation, and Siam Technology College. Also crucial has been our sponsoring organizations, Siam Technology College. Finally, I must also thank all the members of the Organizing Committee, as well as the staff of the Office of President Emeritus of Siam Technology College, and staff of the IJCIM. (Prof. Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman) Senior Editor-in-Chief of IJCIM Srisakdi Charmonman Institute, Siam Technology College
  3. 3. CONTENTS Message from the Prime Minister iii Report to the Chairman of the Opening Ceremony iv Opening Address by the Chairman,the National GoodGovernance Organization v Message from the President of Siam Technology College vi Foreword vii Financial Technology and E-Business By Prof. Dr. Srisakdi Charmonman and Pornphisud Mongkhonvanit (Thailand) Massive Open Online Courses Business Models By Moncef Bari (Canada) 1.1-1.9 2.1-2.6 E-Assessment: an E-Business Enabler in Higher Education By Panicos Masouras (Cyprus), Poonsri Vate-U-Lan (Thailand), and Donna Quigley (Canada) 3.1-3.6 Towards a Maturity Model for C2C Social Commerce By Supattana Sukrat and Borworn Papasratorn (Thailand) 4.1-4.9 Entrepreneurial Intent for E-Business among Students in Thailand By Inpong Luanglath (Laos) 5.1-5.5 Fraud Pattern in S-Commerce: a Case Study in Thailand By Atchara Leeraphong and Borworn Papasratorn (Thailand) 6.1-6.7 Factors Affecting School Teachers’ Perceptions of the Sustainable Implementation of Digital Technologies By Abraham van der Vyver and Sifiso Dlamini (South Africa) 7.1-7.8 Effect of Age on Perceived Quality of Service of IP-Based Communication Applications By Sunisa Sathapornvajana and Borworn Papasratorn (Thailand) 8.1-8.9 Free-to-Play User Behavior via Gameplay Analytics: a Case Study from “Dummy-Online” By Pisal Setthawong, Sittichai Theppaitoon, and Tuang Dheandhanoo (Thailand) 9.1-9.7 A Gamification-Based Model for Implementing Agile Project Management in E-Commerce SMEs By Antti Nyrhinen (Thailand) 10.1-10.6 Implementation Augmented Reality as Promotion Media Bed Cover By Hening Artdias and Albertus Dwi Yoga Widiantoro (Indonesia) 11.1 Augmented Reality for Media Introduction to the Pandawa Hero of Early Childhood By Veinta Sonrizky Mayo, Wahyu Febriyanto, and Brenda Chandrawati (Indonesia) 12.1
  4. 4. Player Interest in Graphic Simple Game By Wahyu Febriyanto, Veinta Sonrizky Mayo, and Brenda Chandrawati (Indonesia) 13.1 Design Data Flow Diagram for Supporting the User Experience in Applications By Wati Wulandari and Albertus Dwi Yoga Widiantoro (Indonesia) 14.1 Observed the Statistics Fight of Mobile Engagement Samsung vs Apple By Sri Desi Mulyaningsih and Brenda Chandrawati (Indonesia) 15.1 Toward Ambient Assisted Living with IoT Smart Gardening By Tuul Triyason, Worarat Krathu, Suree Funilkul, and Wichian Chutimaskul (Thailand) 16.1 The Impact of Culture and Gender on Attitudes toward Social Media Use for Educational Purposes By Adam Acar (Turkey) 17.1 The Interest in the Use of E-Filling for Personal Taxpayers By Trisni Suryarini, Dani Puspitasari, and Linda Agustina (Indonesia) 18.1 A Suitable B2C E-Commerce Model for Elderly Thai People By Nattavee Utakrit (Thailand) 19.1 Legal Aspects of Sale through Internet Media: the Study Law Internet and Electronic Transaction No.11 of 2008 By Wiwik Pratiwi (Indonesia) 20.1 Electronic Financial Behavior Profile for Improving SMEs Financial Literacy in Semarang By Anindya Ardiansari, Dwi Cahyaningdyah, and Achmad Slamet (Indonesia) 21.1 Improving Business Performance through Creative Entrepreneur, Superior Business, and Entrepreneurial Networks By Murwatiningsih, Rini Setyo Witiastuti, and Nina Oktarina (Indonesia) 22.1 Implementation of Records Management in Schools to Improve the Quality of Service at SMA 11 Semarang By Nina Oktarina, Hengky Pramusinto, and Joko Widodo (Indonesia) 23.1 A Comparative Study of People-to-People Recommender Algorithms in Hybrid Method By Elizabeth Irenne Yuwono and Nehemia Sugianto (Indonesia) 24.1 Comparison of Head Movement Recognition Algorithms in Immersive Virtual Reality Using Educative Mobile Application By Nehemia Sugianto and Elizabeth Irenne Yuwono (Indonesia) 25.1 Determinants of Fraud Based on Islamic Paradigm: Case Study in Islamic Financial Services Cooperatives By Kusumantoro, Ahmad Nurkhin, Hasan Mukhibad, and Kiswanto (Indonesia) 26.1 A Study of Accessible Game Applications on Smartphone for Visually- Impaired Users By Pisit Prougestaporn (Thailand) and Nutsiri Kidkul (USA) 27.1
  5. 5. Behaviors in Using Social Networks and Application on Business Learning Enhancement for the Marketing Students By Chusak Narkprasit (Thailand) 28.1 Internet Financial Reporting (IFR): the Role and its Impact on Firm Value By Linda Agustina, Kuat Waluyo Jati, and Dhini Suryandari (Indonesia) 29.1 Improvement Efforts in Marketing Value Drivers through E-Marketing for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Superior Processed Products in Semarang Regency, Indonesia By Rini Setyo Witiastuti, Vini Wiratno Putri, Andhi Wijayanto, and Ketut Sudarma (Indonesia) 30.1 Improving Institutional Performance of Study Program Based on Knowledge Management Roles and Academic Information System Mediated by Strategic Planning By Andhi Wijayanto, Sri Wartini, and Rini Setyo Witiastuti (Indonesia) 31.1 The Use of Information and Communication Technology in Economics Teaching and Learning By Kardoyo, Ahmad Nurkhin, Rediana Setiyani, and Ratieh Widhiastuti (Indonesia) 32.1 Study of Brand Love as Consequence of Virtual Brand Community Engagement By Marissa Chantamas and Kriengsin Prasongsukarn (Thailand) 33.1 Governments Governance Model on the MSME (Micro Small Medium Enterprises) of Industrial Centers in the City of Magelang in Order toward the Prosperous Society By Lucia Rita Indrawati, Endang Kartini Panggiarti, and Lorentino Togarlaut (Indonesia) 34.1 Game as a Media Anticipation Premanisme and Bullying in Elementary School By Veinta Sonrizky Mayo and Leocadia Desy Pranatalisa (Indonesia) 35.1 Integrated System Job Search System By Albertus Dwiyoga Widiantoro (Indonesia) 36.1 Online Learning: Challenges for Teachers By Dima Assad (France) and Mark Kolenberg (Belgium) 37.1 Various Govt. and Private Initiatives in India to Promote E-Entrepreneurs By Arvind Singhy (India) 38.1 E-WOM Factors Influencing E-Reservation: an E-Receiver’s Perspective on Hotel Reservation By Shirzad Mansouri (Iran) 39.1 Organizational Citizenship Behavior Effect on Employee’s Performance of Islamic Hospital in Magelang By Sudati Nur Sarfiah, Lucia Rita Indrawati, and Lorentino Togarlaut (Indonesia) 40.1 Stock Price Prediction by Deep Learning By Arnat Leemakdej (Thailand) 41.1
  6. 6. Smart Mobility Information Quality: an Evaluation Framework from the User Perspective By Siam Yamsaengsung and Borworn Papasratorn (Thailand) 42.1 Performance Evaluation of Public Administration and Finance Section in Supporting Excellence Service at PPs Universitas Negeri Semarang By Joko Widodo and Nina Oktarina (Indonesia) 43.1 The Business Junction of IoT and AI By Sudha Jamthe (USA) 44.1 The Decision Support System for Health Check Booking By Narongrit Phuangphairot, Sooksawaddee Nattawuttisit, and Pipat Duangkamsawat (Thailand) 45.1 Appendix A. Editorial Board 46.1 Appendix B. Organizing Committee 47.1 Appendix C. Supporting Personnel 48.1 Appendix D. Author Names 49.1 Appendix E. About the Senior Editor-in-Chief 50.1 Appendix F. About the Editor-in-Chief 51.1 Appendix G. Supporting Organizations 52.1 Appendix H. Index Copernicus 53.1 Appendix I. Thai Citation Index 54.1 Appendix J. ASEAN Citation Index 55.1
  7. 7. The Eleventh International Conference on e-Business, 17 November 2016, Siam Technology College, Thailand 3.1 E-Assessment: an E-Business Enabler in Higher Education Panicos Masouras1 , Department of Nursing, Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus 1 panicos.masouras@cut.ac.cy Poonsri Vate-U-Lan2 , and Donna Quigley3 Graduate School of eLearning, Assumption University of Thailand, Thailand 2 poonsri.vate@gmail.com 3 home196726@hotmail.com Abstract - In the context of higher education, e-business can be viewed as the series of interconnected processes initiated with student application for entry and completed upon graduation. While e-learning is an integral component of this process, the assessment component remains primarily manual. This leads to an educational paradox whereby students are encouraged to e-learn, on one hand, while they are imposed in old-fashioned assessment practices, on the other. It also establishes a business paradox whereby universities strive to maximize their financial incomes through research funding but still do not exploit ICTs to minimize their costs in the pillar of assessment. As ICT skills span the requirements of university students horizontally and across departments, developing an e-Assessment System for ICT skills could address both paradoxes. This paper presents an e-Assessment system implemented within a nursing university department setting with 79 participants in Cyprus. Findings of a quasi-experimental design that validated the system’s effectiveness indicate that performance of students who used the system were significantly different than those students who followed a traditional learning process. Keywords - E-Assessment, Higher Education, ICT Skills, Nursing, Performance-Based Assessment I. INTRODUCTION Commonly held beliefs that students have either been “born digital” [1] or being “digital natives” [2] may lead universities to decide not to offer any computer literacy courses. Universities also consider the new generation of students as computer literate who do not have to learn computer skills ICT but simply live it and experience it [3]. As referenced by Murray et al. “Most universities do not require a computer literacy course in the core curriculum” [4, 5]. Critical information technology competencies are often taken for granted, to the detriment of students who lack basic computer and Internet skills. While this may be due to the fact that curriculum of secondary education has nowadays been enriched with computer literacy courses which were previously taught at university level [6, 7] presents a list of US based universities which include a computer literacy course in their requirements. Overall, the gap that usually exists between the expectations or requirements of universities as to the level of computer skills of their freshman students, on one hand, and their reported computer self-efficacy levels, on the
  8. 8. E-Assessment: an E-Business Enabler in Higher Education The Eleventh International Conference on e-Business, 17 November 2016, Siam Technology College, Thailand 3.2 other, enlarges the misconception that university students can perform well in college without a course on computer literacy. It reported that students self-assessed ICT skills are usually unjustifiably overrated compared to their objective performance results [8]. After all, ICT skills must “be assessed, not assumed” in order to objectively be considered as valid [9]. II. E-ASSESSMENT A. Definition of E-Assessment Based on their activity and final deliverable, e-assessment is distinguished as follows [9, 10]: 1. Computer-based assessment (CBA) refers to assessments delivered and marked completely by computer without any human intervention. A typical example is a test with multiple choice or true/false type of questions delivered via a computer at the end of which the computer gives a score (and perhaps other information) to the test taker and the test designer. 2. Computer-assisted assessment (CAA) refers to assessment practices that depend and rely partly on computers and partly on human intervention. Typical examples include the use of online discussion forums for peer- assessment, audience response systems in group work, preparation and submission of assignment work electronically, e-portfolios submitted for assessment. B. Drivers of E-Assessment Τhe factors that make e-assessment possible and successful and consider the financial gains as a major driver for its adoption and implementation are addressed by [11]. Taking a purely financial and cost effective view, e-assessment contributes to the increased registration and retention of students and creates opportunities for the introduction of new courses, new forms and methods of delivery programs and degrees based on flexible, open and distance learning thus opening new horizons for an institution’s financial upgrading. Consequently, in terms of administrative drivers that lead to its adoption is the pivotal role it can play in forming strategies to cope with large number of students and university candidates in contrast with the limited space available to accommodate large cohorts for in- class assessment. A study found that the demand for portable qualifications linked to the job market and the cost-effectiveness as important financial drivers for adopting e-assessments [12]. Universities need to consider the potential for access to large student markets via online education and distance education programmes. C. Barriers to E-Assessment At the academic level, the limited time of academic staff, lack or inadequacy of training on e-assessment platforms, methodologies and techniques to develop e-assessment items, organizational structures and cultures that prevent academic innovative e-champions to diffuse their new assessment approach are identified as the major barriers to the development and adoption of institution-wide e-assessment policy [11]. III. ICT SKILLS & THE BUSINESS CASE OF E-ASSESSMENT Although taken for granted by many academics, the students’ ICT skills play a pivotal role to the students’ development in their early academic life. To this end, the paradox becomes even more intriguing when it comes to the assessment of students’ ICT skills whereby students are using web based platforms to learn and enhance such skills that are subsequently assessed by collecting the students’ work and ma-assessed. Such a process leads to the break of the e-business chain in the educational context, thus requiring manual and human intervention to be completed and unmatched high costs for its successful execution and completion. In such scenarios, CBA proves essential and effective. However, the business case of CBA in relation to ICT skills assessment is questioned, as the process needs to address a number of technical and business issues. From the
  9. 9. Panicos Masouras, Poonsri Vate-U-Lan, and Donna Quigley The Eleventh International Conference on e-Business, 17 November 2016, Siam Technology College, Thailand 3.3 technical point view, the inherent complexity of integrating software applications commonly used by students within the underlying CBA system needs to be resolved. From a business perspective, the system needs to appear as integral component of the university’s unified learning management system (LMS); thus exploiting existing resources without the need to invest in the acquisition of additional systems. IV. E-ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS IN HIGHER EDUCATION University academic publishers often enhance their portfolio of services by offering a variety of assessment systems. Integrated within LMSs these systems include objective test banks and simulators that grade tasks performed in a flash-based imitation of an MS Office environment. Task evaluation is performed by comparing the recorded user- generated mouse/keyboard events with a set of possible correct mouse/keyboard combinations. Such systems could be used in a “credit-by- exam” process by university administrators whereby university students could be exempted from the computer literacy course if they passed a test prior to registration [13]. The benefits being brought to educational establishments across the United States by ICT skills learning environments, such as MyITLab, are highlighted to include the decrease in drop/failure/withdrawal rates from 50 to less than 20 per cent and the increase of the mean scores among students to the level of 80 per cent [14]. Results of a survey undertaken among instructors and student users of their ICT skills management system also confirm the reduction of instructors’ workloads with auto- graded assignments and exams. Considerable reduction of turnaround time for grading projects and the ease of cheating identification are reported by instructors; while anytime and anywhere access, step-by step instructions, and the ability to learn at their own pace are indicated by university students as the most important benefits gained [15]. V. THE E-ASSESSMENT SYSTEM FOR ICT SKILLS A. Design Decisions and Architecture To ensure interoperability with existing systems, the system was integrated with the university’s LMS, Moodle, that exploited the use of student management functionality on one hand, while ensuring that the system remains a separate and independent component on the other, a service-oriented approach to the system architecture was adopted. Implemented through Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), services are platform independent reusable software components that can be integrated to solve a problem or establish and execute a business process [16]. B. Development Approach To address the urgency for making the system available at the beginning of the spring semester of 2015/2016 academic year, a Rapid Application Development (RAD) was employed. A highly collaborative development environment was established that engaged stakeholders, both students and teachers, who created prototypes and test cases. This interactive process led to the continuous evolvement of the users’ requirements and their implementation within the system [17]. In this context, Moodle served as the workbench for all testing stages of development whereby components were tested by students and teachers during the learning process. C. Components of System Architecture Although the current implementation requires the standard MS Office 2010 or higher version to be installed on the student machine, the system could equally operate using a cloud-based solution such as MS Office 365. Access to the system is possible through Moodle when students log in with their credentials thus providing a unified learning and assessment experience to the student. Seamless and transparent data exchange is
  10. 10. E-Assessment: an E-Business Enabler in Higher Education The Eleventh International Conference on e-Business, 17 November 2016, Siam Technology College, Thailand 3.4 achieved using the Extended Mark-up Language (XML) standard [18]. At the end of the assessment process students can view a performance report and task items’ grades accumulated at the student’s station are transmitted and stored in Moodle’s gradebook. Both instructors and students can then process and view them. The system architecture and the user interface are shown in figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 1 E-Assessment System Architecture Fig. 2 E-Assessment System User Interface D. ICT Skills Assessment Domains The system comprises of two major components that assess ICT skills in the domains of spreadsheets and databases respectively. A group of nine subject matter experts that included nursing and ICT academics and professionals undertook the validation of the set of skills in the two domains that comprise the assessments developed. VI. QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN To assess the effectiveness of the developed system in the learning process, a quasi- experimental design was undertaken within the framework of a first year course in the nursing department of the Cyprus University of Technology. 41 nursing students participated in the experimental and 39 in the control group with the former using the e-assessment system and the latter following a traditional instructor- led learning process. Both a pre-test and a post-test were administered to both groups. As the results of pre-tests in both domains were not significantly different, it could be concluded that students in the two groups initiated their learning from an equal footing. However, results of the post-tests indicate that students in the experimental group achieved a significantly different performance than the ACTIONS on TASKS NAVIGATION Amongst Tasks Task Item STEM MS OFFICE API (MS EXCEL)
  11. 11. Panicos Masouras, Poonsri Vate-U-Lan, and Donna Quigley The Eleventh International Conference on e-Business, 17 November 2016, Siam Technology College, Thailand 3.5 students in the control group; thus leading to the conclusion that the use of the e-assessment system had a catalytically positive effect on the performance of the students in the experimental group. The table below depicts the results of t-test analysis for difference performed on the pre- tests and post-tests. TABLE I T-TEST ANALYSIS FOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS Test Group N Mean SD T Df Sig. Mean diff. Pre-test Spreadsheets (MS Excel) Experimental 41 13,85 5,64 -1,781 78 ,079 -2,12 Control 39 15,98 4,99 Post-test Spreadsheets (MS Excel) Experimental 40 23,95 4,37 3,706 75 ,000 4,11 Control 37 19,84 5,33 Pre-test Databases (MS Access) Experimental 41 3,29 1,83 1,892 76 ,062 1,02 Control 37 2,27 2,87 Post-test Databases (MS Access) Experimental 41 28,88 2,76 7,840 50,25 ,000 7,59 Control 35 21,29 5,13 VII. CONCLUSIONS Education as a service (EaaS), an analogue derived from the technology concept of software as a service (SaaS), is the foundation of the success of Massive Online Open Courses (MOOC). The lack of ICT skills assessment course offerings on the popular MOOC platforms of edX [19] and Coursera [20] opens horizons of opportunities for universities to invest in the field thus reaching millions of students, employees and career seekers whose common denominator is the proof of their ICT skills. Within universities, resolving the educational paradox remains a challenge. It can be addressed if university authorities take a holistic approach to their e-business of education provision and establish e-assessment as equally important pillar to e-learning that jointly contribute to the maximization of students’ learning experience and performance in the short-term, and serve their strategy and vision to become e-universities in the long- term. Until then, e-assessment will remain the missing link in the e-business of education chain. REFERENCES (Arranged in the order of citation in the same fashion as the case of Footnotes.) [1] Palfrey, J.G. and Gasser, U. (2008). “Born digital: Understanding the first generation of digital natives / John Palfrey and Urs Gasser”. New York: Basic Books, c2008. [2] Prensky, M. (2001). “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants Part 2: Do They Really Think Differently?”. Horiz., Vol. 9, No. 6, p. 1. [3] Nasah, A., DaCosta, B., Kinsell, C., and Seok, S. (2010). “The digital literacy debate: An investigation of digital propensity and information and communication technology”. Educ. Technol. Res. Dev., Vol. 58, No. 5, pp. 531-555. [4] Murray, M., Myers, M., and Pérez, J. (2007). “Learner-Centered Reflections on Computer Literacy in the Digital Age”. in Educause Learning Initiative Annual Conference. [5] Liao, L. and Pope, J.W. (2008). “Computer Literacy for Everyone”. JCSC, Vol. 23, No. 6. [6] Yahya, A.H. (2010). “The Interaction Between High School Curriculum and
  12. 12. E-Assessment: an E-Business Enabler in Higher Education The Eleventh International Conference on e-Business, 17 November 2016, Siam Technology College, Thailand 3.6 First-Year College Courses: The Case of Computing”. in SIGCSE’10 Proceedings, pp. 406-410. [7] McDonald, D.S. (2004). “Computer Literacy Skills for Computer Information Systems Majors: A Case Study”. J. Inf. Syst. Educ., Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 19-33. [8] Easton, A.C., Easton, G., and Addo, T. (2006). “But I’m Computer Literate: I Passed The Test”. J. Coll. Teach. Learn., Vol. 3, No. 2, , No. 2, pp. 39-44. [9] Thomas, B.S., Delaney, C.W., and Weiler, K. (1992). “The affective outcomes of course work on computer technology in nursing”. J. Nurs. Educ., Vol. 31, pp. 165-170. [10] Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). (2007). “Effective practice with e-assessment: An overview of technologies, policies and practice in further and higher education”. <http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents /themes/elearning/effpraceassess.pdf>. Accessed 2 July 2014. [11] Whitelock, D., Mackenzie, D., Whitehouse, C., Ruedel, C., and Rae, S. (2006). “Identifying innovative and effective practice in e-assessment: findings from seventeen UK case studies”. Loughborough University. [12] Swithenby, S.J. (2006). “E-assessment for open learning”. In European Association of Distance Teaching Universities (EADTU) Annual Conference. [13] Robbins, R. and Zhou, Z. (2007). “A Comparison of Two Computer Literacy Testing Approaches”. Issues Inf. Syst., Vol. 7, No. 1. [14] Pearson Education. (2012). “Raising the Bar: A Compendum of Case Studies on the Effectiveness of MYLAB and Mastering from Pearson”. [15] CENGAGE Learning. (2013). “Skills Assessment Manager (SAM): Personalization, Productivity & Preparation to Increase Student Outcomes”. [16] World Wide Web Consortium. (2000). “Simple Object Access Protocol”. Simple Object Access Protocol. Accessed 21 June 2016. [17] Ruparelia, N.B. (2010). “Software Development Lifecycle Models”. ACM SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 8-14. [18] World Wide Web Consortium. (2016). “Extensible Markup Language (XML)”. <http://www.w3.org/XML/>. Accessed 21 June 2016. [19] edX Inc. (2016). “edX”. <www.edx.org>. Accessed 3 October 2016. [20] Coursera Inc. (2016). “Coursera”. <www.coursera.org>. Accessed 3 October 2016.

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