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Nucleus
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Cell Nucleus

  1. 1. Topic: Nucleus Presented by: D.Sairam Course: Life Science: Fundamentals of Biology Course Code:BSBT-201 Course Instructor: Dr.Subhabrata Kar Presentation Code: U1P1
  2. 2. Overview  Introduction  History  Composition  Functions  Recent Revelations  References
  3. 3. Introduction • Eukaryotic Membrane Based Organelle • Comprises of Linear DNA molecules. • Monitors Cellular Activity by Gene Regulation. • Enclosed in a Double Membrane Envelope • Comprises of Pores to allow Transport of Molecules. • Largest Cell Organelle in Animals • Comprises of Viscous Fluid (Nucleoplasm) throughout the Organelle
  4. 4. Discovery of Nucleus • It was discovered by A .V Leeuwenhoek for first time. • Franz Bauer in 1802 also described it • Scottish botanist Robert Brown explained it in more detail. • Later it was concluded that it is a membrane bounded organelle found in eukaryotic cells
  5. 5. Composition of Nucleus  Nuclear membrane.  Nuclear pores.  Nuclear lamina.  Chromosomes.  Nucleolus  Other Sub Nuclear Bodies ( Cajal Bodies,PML,Speckles etc.)
  6. 6. Nuclear Membrane  Comprises of Two Membranes i.e. Inner and Outer. ( 10 to 50 nm Separation)  Encloses the Nucleus; Prevents diffusion of Macromolecules.  Outer Membrane continuous with RER studded with Ribosomes.  Space between the two Membranes is called Perinuclear Space.
  7. 7. Nuclear Pores • Eightfold-symmetric ring-shaped structures. • 3000-4000 in number and 9 nm wide. • Allow Selective passage of small water soluble molecules.
  8. 8. Nuclear Lamina  Organised Network of Filaments inside the Nuclear Envelope. Provide Structural support for the Nuclear Envelope systems provide structural support for the nuclear envelope.  Comprise of Lamin Proteins
  9. 9. Chromosomes • DNA inside the Nucleus organised to form Chromosomes. • Comprises of a matrix called Chromatin. • Euchromatin: Contains genes that are frequently used. • Heterochromatin: Contains Genes that are Infrequently Transcribed.
  10. 10. Nucleolus It is a discrete densely stained structure found in the nucleus.  Main role is to synthesize rRNA in NOR.  Cohesion and Density of the Nucleolus relies on the activity of rRNA synthesis.
  11. 11. • FC:Fibrilliar Centres • DFCs : Dense Fibrilliar Centres • GC: Granular Centres
  12. 12. Other Subcellular Bodies  Cajal Bodies: Circular Coiled bodies performing different Functions related to RNA Processing.  PML Bodies: Comprise of Promyelocytic Leukaemia protein. It plays a vital role in assembling Nuclear Bodies. Absent in Mice.  Speckles: Enriched in mRNA factors. Serve as a model for studying Gene Expression.
  13. 13. Recent Revelations about the Nucleus  Mutations in Lamin genes leads to Laminopathies ( e.g. Progeria).  IQGAP1 protein helps in Amplification of Cancer Cells.  Dicer is a protein forms RISC (RNA Induced Silencing Complex) and plays a vital role in RNAi
  14. 14. Progeria: Leads to Premature Aging as seen here.
  15. 15. References • www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9UPY3 • www. cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/66/18/9074.ful • www.biology4kids.com/files/cell_nucleus.html • www.ck12.org/biology/Cell-Nucleus/lesson/Cell-Nucleus/ • www.ncbi.nlm.nih.org/220818899 • www.jcb.rupress.org/content/148/2/283.full.pdf • www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016748890800267X •

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