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[HCI] Week 06 Design Thinking and Sketching

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Hartson, R., & Pyla, P. (2012) The UX Book : Process and Guidelines for Ensuring a Quality User Experience, Morgan Kaufmann, Chapter 7.

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[HCI] Week 06 Design Thinking and Sketching

  1. 1. Lecture 6 Design Thinking and Sketching Human Computer Interaction / COG3103, 2015 Fall Class hours : Tue 1-3 pm/Thurs 12-1 pm 6 & 8 October
  2. 2. DESIGN THINKING, IDEATION, AND SKETCHING Textbook Chapter 7. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 3 Figure 7-1 You are here; the first of three chapters on creating an interaction design in the context of the overall Wheel lifecycle template.
  4. 4. DESIGN PARADIGMS • Engineering Paradigm – a practical approach to usability with a focus on improving user performance, mainly through evaluation and iteration. – The engineering paradigm also had strong roots in human factors, where work was studied, deconstructed, and modeled. – Success was measured by how much the user could accomplish, and alternative methods and designs were compared with statistical summative studies. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 4
  5. 5. DESIGN PARADIGMS • Human Information Processing (HIP) Paradigm – based on the metaphor of “mind and computer as symmetrically coupled information processors” – About models of how information is sensed, accessed, and transformed in the human mind and, in turn, how those models reflect requirements for the computer side of the information processing, was defined by Card, Moran, and Newell (1983) and well explained by Williges (1982). – it is about human mental states and processes; it is about modeling human sensing, cognition, memory, information understanding, decision making, and physical performance in task execution. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 5
  6. 6. DESIGN PARADIGMS • Design-Thinking Paradigm – “phenomenological matrix.” – brings a vision of the desired user experience and product appeal and how the design of a product can induce that experience and appeal. – They used participatory design techniques to experiment with and explore design through early prototypes as design sketches. – The design-thinking paradigm is about social and cultural aspects of interaction and the design of “embodied interaction” because it is about interaction involving our whole bodies and spirit, not just our fingertips on a keyboard. It is also about “situated” design because it is about the notion of “place” with respect to our interaction with technology. – A primary characteristic of the design-thinking paradigm is the importance of emotional impact derived from design—the pure joy of use, fun, and aesthetics felt in the user experience. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 6
  7. 7. DESIGN THINKING • Design Thinking – Design thinking is a mind-set in which the product concept and design for emotional impact and the user experience are dominant. It is an approach to creating a product to evoke a user experience that includes emotional impact, aesthetics, and social- and value-oriented interaction. As a design paradigm, design thinking is an immersive, integrative, and market- oriented eclectic blend of art, craft, science, and invention. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 7
  8. 8. DESIGN THINKING • Ideation – Ideation is an active, creative, exploratory, highly iterative, fast-moving collaborative group process for forming ideas for design. With a focus on brainstorming, ideation is applied design thinking. • Sketching – Sketching is the rapid creation of free-hand drawings expressing preliminary design ideas, focusing on concepts rather than details. Multiple sketches of multiple design ideas are an essential part of ideation. A sketch is a conversation between the sketcher or designer and the artifact. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 8
  9. 9. DESIGN PERSPECTIVES • Ecological Perspective – is about how the system or product works within its external environment. – is about how the system or product is used in its context and how the system or product interacts or communicates with its environment in the process. within its external environment. • Interaction Perspective – is about how users operate the system or product. • Emotional Perspective – is about emotional impact and value-sensitive aspects of design. – is about social and cultural implications, as well as the aesthetics and joy of use. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 9
  10. 10. USER PERSONAS • What Are Personas? – Personas are a powerful supplement to work roles and user class definitions. Storytelling, role-playing, and scenarios go hand in hand with personas. – A persona is not an actual user, but a pretend user or a “hypothetical archetype” (Cooper, 2004). – A persona represents a specific person in a specific work role and sub- role, with specific user class characteristics. Built up from contextual data, a persona is a story and description of a specific individual who has a name, a life, and a personality. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 10
  11. 11. USER PERSONAS • What Are Personas Used For? Why Do We Need Them? – Edge cases and breadth • Personas are essential to help overcome the struggle to design for the conflicting needs and goals of too many different user classes or for user classes that are too broad or too vaguely defined. • What if the user wants to do X? Can we afford to include X? Can we afford to not include X? How about putting it in the next version? • “Sorry, but Noah will not need feature X.” Then someone says “But someone might.” To which you reply, “Perhaps, but we are designing for Noah, not ‘someone.’” – Designers designing for themselves • Because of their very real and specific characteristics, personas hold designers’ feet to the fire and help them think about designs for people other than themselves. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 11
  12. 12. USER PERSONAS • How Do We Make Them? – Identifying candidate personas – Goal-based consolidation – Selecting a primary persona Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 12 Figure 7-2 Overview of the process of creating a persona for design.
  13. 13. USER PERSONAS • Mechanics of Creating Personas – Your persona should have a first and last name to make it personal and real. – Mockup a photo of this person. – Write some short textual narratives about their work role, goals, main tasks, usage stories, problems encountered in work practice, concerns, biggest barriers to their work, etc. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 13
  14. 14. USER PERSONAS • Characteristics of Effective Personas – Make your personas rich, relevant, believable, specific, and precise – Make your personas “sticky” – Where personas work best • Goals for Design – As Cooper (2004) tells us, the idea behind designing for a persona is that the design must make the primary persona very happy, while not making any of the selected personas unhappy. Buster will love it and it still works satisfactorily for the others. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 14
  15. 15. USER PERSONAS • Using Personas in Design – As you converge on the final design, the nonprimary personas will be accounted for, but will defer to this primary persona design concerns in case of conflict. If there is a design trade- off, you will resolve the trade-off to benefit the primary persona and still make it work for the other selected personas. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 15 Figure 7-3 Adjusting a design for the primary persona to work for all the selected personas
  16. 16. IDEATION • Essential Concepts – Iterate to explore – Idea creation vs. critiquing • Doing Ideation – Set up work spaces – Assemble a team – Use ideation bin ideas to get started – Brainstorm Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 16
  17. 17. IDEATION Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 17 Figure 7-4 The Virginia Tech ideation studio, the “Kiva” (photo courtesy of Akshay Sharma,Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  18. 18. IDEATION Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 18 Figure 7-4 Individual and group designer work spaces(photo courtesy of Akshay Sharma,Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  19. 19. IDEATION Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 19 Figure 7-6 Ideation brainstorming within the Virginia Tech ideation studio, Kiva (photo courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Department of Industrial Design).
  20. 20. SKETCHING • Essential Concepts – Sketching is essential to ideation and design – What sketching is and is not – Sketches are not the same as prototypes – Sketching is embodied cognition to aid invention Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 20 Figure 7-7 Comparison between Buxton design exploration sketches and traditional low-fidelity refinement prototypes.
  21. 21. SKETCHING • Doing Sketching – Stock up on sketching and mockup supplies – Use the language of sketching • Everyone can sketch; you do not have to be artistic • Most ideas are conveyed more effectively with a sketch than with words • Sketches are quick and inexpensive to create; they do not inhibit early exploration • Sketches are disposable; there is no real investment in the sketch itself • Sketches are timely; they can be made just-in-time, done in-the-moment, provided when needed • Sketches should be plentiful; entertain a large number of ideas and make multiple sketches of each idea • Textual annotations play an essential support role, explaining what is going on in each part of the sketch and how Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 21
  22. 22. SKETCHING Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 22 Figure 7-8 A sketch to think about design (photo courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  23. 23. SKETCHING Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 23 Figure 7-9 Freehand gestural sketches for the Ticket Kiosk System (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  24. 24. SKETCHING Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 24 Figure 7-10 Ideation and design exploration sketches for the Ticket Kiosk System (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  25. 25. SKETCHING Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 25 Figure 7-11 Designers doing sketching (photos courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  26. 26. SKETCHING Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 26 Figure 7-12 Early ideation sketches of K-YAN (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Department of Industrial Design).
  27. 27. SKETCHING Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 27 Figure 7-13 Mid-fidelity exploration sketches of K-YAN (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  28. 28. SKETCHING Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 28 Figure 7-14 Sketches to explore flip-open mechanism of K-YAN (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  29. 29. SKETCHING Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 29 Figure 7-15 Sketches to explore emotional impact of form for K-YAN (sketches courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  30. 30. SKETCHING Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 30 Figure 7-16 Examples of rough physical mockups (models courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  31. 31. SKETCHING • Physical Mockups as Embodied Sketches – Just as sketches are two-dimensional visual vehicles for invention, a physical mockup for ideation about a physical device or product is a three-dimensional sketch. Physical mockups as sketches, like all sketches, are made quickly, highly disposable, and made from at-hand materials to create tangible props for exploring design visions and alternatives. – A physical mockup is an embodied sketch because it is an even more physical manifestation of a design idea and it is a tangible artifact for touching, holding, and acting out usage Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 31 Figure 7-17 Example of a more finished looking physical mockup (model courtesy of Akshay Sharma, Virginia Tech Department of Industrial Design).
  32. 32. THE CLOUD DUNGEON : D.I.Y. PAPER CRAFT RPG GAME KICKSTARTER Case 01 Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 32
  33. 33. The Cloud Dungeon Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 33
  34. 34. MORE ABOUT PHENOMENOLOGY • The Nature of Phenomenology – the philosophical examination of the foundations of experience and action. – But it is not about logical deduction or conscious reflection on observations of phenomena; it is about individual interpretation and intuitive understanding of human experience. • The Phenomenological View in Human–Technology Interaction – an affective state arising within the user. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 34
  35. 35. MORE ABOUT PHENOMENOLOGY • The Phenomenological Concept of Presence – presence of technology as part of our lives: – “We argue that the coming ubiquity of computational artifacts drives a shift from efficient use to meaningful presence of information technology.” – This is all about moving from the desktop to ubiquitous, embedded, embodied, and situated interaction. – the “new usability” as a shift from use to “presence.” • The Importance of Phenomenological Context over Time – Usage develops over time and takes on its own life, often apart from what designers could envision. Users learn, adapt, and change during usage, creating a dynamic force that gives shape to subsequent usage (Weiser, 1991). Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 35
  36. 36. Exercise 4-1: Flow Model Sketch for Your System • Goal – Get practice in making an initial flow model sketch for the work practice of an organization. • Activities – For your target system sketch out a flow model diagram, in the same style as our flow model sketch for MUTTS, shown in Figure 4-3, showing work roles, information flow, information repositories, transactions, etc. – Draw on your raw work activity data and construct a representation of the flow of data, information, and work artifacts. – Even if there is no existing automated system, you should capture the flow of the manual work process. – Start with representing your work roles as nodes, add in any other nodes for databases and so on. – Label communication and flow lines. – If you do not have enough contextual data from your limited data-gathering exercise, make some up to make this work. • Deliverables – A one-page diagram illustrating a high-level flow model for the existing work process of your target system. • Schedule – Given the simplicity of the domain, we expect this exercise to take about an hour. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 36
  37. 37. Exercise 6-3: A Social Model for Your System • Goal – Get a little practice in making a social model diagram. • Activities – Identify active entities, such as work roles, and represent as nodes in the diagram. – Include groups and subgroups of roles and external roles that interact with work roles. – Include system-related roles, such as a central database. – Include workplace ambiance and its pressures and influences. – Identify concerns and perspectives and represent as attributes of nodes. – Identify social relationships, such as influences between entities, and represent these as arcs between nodes in the diagram. – Identify barriers, or potential barriers, in relationships between entities and represent them as red bolts of lightning . • Deliverables – One social model diagram for your • Schedule – This could take a couple of hours. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 37
  38. 38. Exercise 6-5: Creating a Flow Model for Your System • Goal: Get a little practice in creating a flow model for an enterprise. • Activities: – Follow up on your flow model initial sketch that you did in Exercise 4-1. – Again represent each work role or system entity as a node in the diagram. – Use arcs between nodes to show all communication and coordination necessary to do the work of the enterprise. – Use arcs to represent all information flow and flow of physical artifacts. – Include all forms of communication, including direct conversations, email, phones, • letters, memos, meetings, and so on. – Include both flow internally within the enterprise and flow externally with the rest of the world. • Deliverables – One flow model diagram for your system, with as much detail as feasible. • Schedule – This could take a couple of hours. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 38
  39. 39. Exercise 7-1: Creating a User Persona for Your System • Goal – Get some experience at writing a persona. • Activities – Select an important work role within your system. At least one user class for this work role must be very broad, with the user population coming from a large and diverse group, such as the general public. – Using your user-related contextual data, create a persona, give it a name, and get a photo to go with it. – Write the text for the persona description. • Deliverables – One- or two-page persona write-up • Schedule – You should be able to do what you need to learn from this in about an hour. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 39
  40. 40. Exercise 7-2: Practice in Ideation and Sketching • Goal – To get practice in ideation and sketching for design. • Activities – Doing this in a small group is strongly preferable, but you can do it with one other person. – Get out blank paper, appropriate size marking pens, and any other supplies you might need for sketching. – Start with some free-flow ideation about ways to design a new and improved concept of your system. Do not limit yourself to conventional designs. – Go with the flow and see what happens. – Start with design sketches in the ecological perspective. – Make some sketches from an interaction perspective showing different ways you can operate the system. – Make sketches that project the emotional perspective of a user experience with your product. This might be more difficult, but it is worth taking some time to try. – Ideate. Sketch, sketch, and sketch. Brainstorm and discuss. • Deliverables – A brief written description of the ideation process and its results, along with all your supporting sketches. • Schedule – Give yourself enough time to really get engaged in this activity. Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 40
  41. 41. Set up your Pinterest Page Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 41
  42. 42. Set up your Pinterest Page & Team Board Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 42
  43. 43. Link it to your blog Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 43
  44. 44. Homework Lecture #6 COG_Human Computer Interaction 44 Complete Chapter 6 Exercises Complete Chapter 7-1 Exercises 1 2 Your Personal Blog Post #5 -Draw a flow model diagram for your system - Draw a Social Model diagram for your system Your Team Blog Post #2 - Create a user persona - Upload source images to the Pinterest “Sketch” Folder. Submission Due : 11: 59 pm Sun. 11th October. Complete Chapter 7-2 Exercises 3 Your Team Blog Post #3 - Try your Initial sketches - Upload source images to the Pinterest “Sketch” Folder