Peter Vaessen en Marc Achterkamp, KEMA

SPREKERS:
Peter Vaessen
Marc Achterkamp
Peter Vaessen
• KEMA Laboratories
• Innovation manager
• Lab development
• TU Delft
• Electrical Sustainable Energy Department
• Head of High Voltage Technologies
Increased loading of existing grid-assets, HOW?
1. Use end-of-pipe solutions to gain 15%
2. Tailor made solution for specific bottlenecks
3. Reassessment of capabilities for continuous load
4. Perform additional tests for cyclic and dynamic load
Losses per meter:
~ 17mW J2A
copper conductor (20°C)
with J in A/mm2 and A in mm2
Thermal, can it (continuously) deal with the heat?
Load 1
Load 2
Load 3
unstable
stable
What about Ambient?
Thermal, can it (dynamically) deal with the heat?
• Typical maximum current densities 1-2 A/mm2 for large conductors, up to 4-5A/mm2 in
transformers and small diameter cables
• Time-constants of thermal phenomena are in the range of seconds to hours, needs to be
determined → overall and hot-spot (when appropriate)
• The higher the current, the more the details become crucial, e.g., a bend in a conductor but
also its shape and orientation
• Some typical figures:
- melting energy copper 0.6kJ/g
- increase of resistance 0.4%/K
- elongation 20µm/m/K
Problem area current
→ overheating
Problem area voltage
→ spark
Temperature rise/cycle tests according to IEC standards
1. Cables 60502-2
2. High voltage switchgear 62271-1
3. Distribution transformers 60076-2
4. Instrument transformers 61869-2
Not enough for dynamic loading, additional thermal time constants and hot-
spot (when appropriate) must be determined
+
accurate measurement and protection needed
Marc Achterkamp
• KEMA Laboratories
• Metering, Protection & Substation Automation Laboratory
• Type Testing and Certification
• Notified Body MID 2014/32/EU
Impact (temporary) overloading on Metering and Protection
• Metering
• Measuring CT saturate >120% rated current Measuring error
• Compliance “Meetcode”?
Impact (temporary) overloading on Metering and Protection
• Protection
• Protection relay
• CT inputs protection relay 4 x In continuously
• Protection CT’s
• CT secondary winding rated continuous thermal current
Impact (temporary) overloading on Metering and Protection
• Protection
• Settings
• Wide range
• Electromechanical versus Digital protection relays
• Communication to switch between setting groups
• Selectivity
BEDANKT
VOOR UW
AANDACHT
1 de 11

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Peter Vaessen en Marc Achterkamp, KEMA

  • 2. Peter Vaessen • KEMA Laboratories • Innovation manager • Lab development • TU Delft • Electrical Sustainable Energy Department • Head of High Voltage Technologies
  • 3. Increased loading of existing grid-assets, HOW? 1. Use end-of-pipe solutions to gain 15% 2. Tailor made solution for specific bottlenecks 3. Reassessment of capabilities for continuous load 4. Perform additional tests for cyclic and dynamic load Losses per meter: ~ 17mW J2A copper conductor (20°C) with J in A/mm2 and A in mm2
  • 4. Thermal, can it (continuously) deal with the heat? Load 1 Load 2 Load 3 unstable stable What about Ambient?
  • 5. Thermal, can it (dynamically) deal with the heat? • Typical maximum current densities 1-2 A/mm2 for large conductors, up to 4-5A/mm2 in transformers and small diameter cables • Time-constants of thermal phenomena are in the range of seconds to hours, needs to be determined → overall and hot-spot (when appropriate) • The higher the current, the more the details become crucial, e.g., a bend in a conductor but also its shape and orientation • Some typical figures: - melting energy copper 0.6kJ/g - increase of resistance 0.4%/K - elongation 20µm/m/K Problem area current → overheating Problem area voltage → spark
  • 6. Temperature rise/cycle tests according to IEC standards 1. Cables 60502-2 2. High voltage switchgear 62271-1 3. Distribution transformers 60076-2 4. Instrument transformers 61869-2 Not enough for dynamic loading, additional thermal time constants and hot- spot (when appropriate) must be determined + accurate measurement and protection needed
  • 7. Marc Achterkamp • KEMA Laboratories • Metering, Protection & Substation Automation Laboratory • Type Testing and Certification • Notified Body MID 2014/32/EU
  • 8. Impact (temporary) overloading on Metering and Protection • Metering • Measuring CT saturate >120% rated current Measuring error • Compliance “Meetcode”?
  • 9. Impact (temporary) overloading on Metering and Protection • Protection • Protection relay • CT inputs protection relay 4 x In continuously • Protection CT’s • CT secondary winding rated continuous thermal current
  • 10. Impact (temporary) overloading on Metering and Protection • Protection • Settings • Wide range • Electromechanical versus Digital protection relays • Communication to switch between setting groups • Selectivity