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One of the most powerful benefits of energy access in rural communities in the developing world is the potential impact on education. Whether a simple solar lantern permits an extra hour of homework and study after dark, or whether a more sophisticated community energy and ICT project permits remote education and training to take place. And one of the most important, but often under-represented, groups of community stakeholders are young people.
This LCEDN/Smart Villages webinar aims to create a wide-ranging discussion on these issues, with experts presenting their experiences and work on diverse aspects of the energy/youth/education equation.
Our presenters this month include Dr Jiska de Groot and the team at the Energy Research Centre at the University of Cape Town, Craig Gibbs from JET Education Services in South Africa, Prof Jo Tacchi and Dr Amalia Sabiescu from Loughborough University, and Rachita Misra and Huda Jaffer from the SELCO Foundation.
In addition to presentations on their experiences, the webinar included an opportunity for Q&A with all webinar participants.
WEBINAR | EDUCATION & YOUTH | Children and Energy - Jiska de Groot
Children and Energy
26 MARCH 2018
Jiska de Groot, Shanon Lusinga, Debbie Sparks and Mascha Moorlach
Energy Research Centre University of Cape Town
THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION
IS DRAWN FROM THE THESIS
“ An exploratory study into energy
consumption activities, energy-saving
activities, and the factors that influence
energy saving among grade 7 children in
Khayelitsha, Cape Town”
BY MS SHANON LUSINGA AS PART OF HER
MPHIL IN ENERGY STUDIES (2017)
CASE STUDY SITE
BACKGROUND: THE ROLE OF ENERGY IN
Energy drives most daily activities and
Energy access plays a role in the development
Mitigation has focused on reducing carbon
based fuel use and increasing renewables &
energy efficient technologies
Behavioural change also encouraged
BACKGROUND: ABSENCE OF CHILDREN IN
CURRENT ENERGY RESEARCH
Energy use and saving studies have focused on
Children are an important group of energy users
Recent research has focused on developed
Little is known about children’s energy behaviour
in developing countries
WHAT DOES THIS STUDY SET OUT TO DO?
To explore energy behaviour in children using a
case study and mixed-methods methods in a low-
income community in SA
Methods Children Parents Educator
Survey √ (n=90) √ (n= 57)
Interview √ (n=1)
Dairies √ (n=43)
South Africa’s Energy Landscape
Fourth most unequal society in the world - Gini
Electrification rate increased from 36% in 1996 to 85.5% in
Energy poverty remains prevalent: a quarter of SA
households indicated energy available to them inadequate
Multiple fuel use: biomass, coal, paraffin and kerosene
+/- 43% of SA households use multiple fuel sources for
lighting, cooking, space-heating and heating bath water.
CASE STUDY SITE:
Established 1983, hosts approx. 400 000
55% made up of shacks in informal areas or
the backyards of formal dwellings
Most formal houses in Khayelitsha are small:
2 to 4 rooms.
Largely black South Africans and African
28.1% of the population is aged 0–14 years.
ENERGY USE IN KHAYELITSHA
Electricity Gas Paraffin Wood Candles Coal Dung Solar None Other
Cooking 75.2% 12% 12.1% 0.1% - 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.1%
Lighting 80.8% 0.4% 14.6% - 3.8% - - 0.2% 0.2% -
Heating 20.6% 3.4% 55.6% 0.3% - 0.3% 0.1% 0.3% 19.4% -
Electricity used mainly for cooking and lighting and paraffin for heating
Other essential services poor
Energy use inside the home environment
Energy use outside the home
School (computers, switching on/off lights)
Church (switching on/off lights)
43 diaries submitted
88% of children cooked/preparing a meal
Consistent with studies in developed countries.
BUT children in this study prepared meals for
families independently, using electric stoves.
All 42 children used energy for
Almost all children used
Switching on lights the most
common behaviour among the
In the home environment and
35.7% of the 42 children wrote in their
diaries about the use of heaters.
Most used electric, gas or paraffin stand-
Children use geysers or kettles to get hot
33.3% reported using a geyser.
52.4% mention boiling water with a kettle
to wash themselves, their dishes and
50% reported ironing clothes and some
Studies in the literature did not report
ironing as part of children’s energy use.
Switching on TVs, video games and
radios were recorded as part of energy,
consistent with studies abroad.
Computers did not feature in energy
behaviours of reporting period,
despite computer lesson at school.
Possibly computers already started up
when children used them?
Children do not necessarily
personalise their energy activities
outside the home environment (other
studies support this).
Socio-cultural differences in energy use between
the different geographical areas (e.g. ironing)
which could be further explored.
Gaining insight on differences between children
who take responsibility for energy used outside
the home environment and those who do not.
We are looking to build further on this research
theme and would welcome collaboration with
JISKA DE GROOT
University of Cape Town
Energy Research Centre
Private Bag X3