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Marco Común de Competencia Digital Docente (versión en inglés)

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Common Framework for Digital Competence of Teachers.

Publicado en: Educación

Marco Común de Competencia Digital Docente (versión en inglés)

  1. 1. Page 1 Common framework for DIGITAL COMPETENCE OF TEACHERS V 2.0 Project "Common Framework for Digital Competence of Teachers" from the Digital Culture at School Plan, 2013.
  2. 2. Page 2 Table of Contents 1. Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................3 2. Project objectives and lines of action. ......................................................................................................5 3. Conclusions to comparison of existing frameworks. ................................................................................7 4. Overview of the DIGCOMP Proposal. .......................................................................................................9 Definition of Digital Competence .............................................................................................................9 Common Digital Competence framework ..............................................................................................10 Areas and competences..........................................................................................................................11 5. The Digital Competence Framework (description according to IPTS proposed areas) ..........................13 Area 1: Information.................................................................................................................................13 Area 2: Communication ..........................................................................................................................17 Area 3: Content creation.........................................................................................................................25 Area 4: Safety..........................................................................................................................................30 Area 5: Problem solving..........................................................................................................................35 6. Proposed digital competence descriptors for teachers..........................................................................42 Area 1: Information.................................................................................................................................42 Area 2: Communication ..........................................................................................................................44 Area 3: Content creation.........................................................................................................................49 Area 4: Safety..........................................................................................................................................52 Area 5: Problem solving..........................................................................................................................54 Annex I: Glossary.........................................................................................................................................58 Annex II: Summary of digital competence descriptors for teachers by levels............................................61 Initial Level..............................................................................................................................................61 Medium Level .........................................................................................................................................64 Advanced Level .......................................................................................................................................67 References ..................................................................................................................................................71
  3. 3. Page 3 1. Introduction Digital competence is one of the 8 key competences that every young person should have developed by the end of compulsory education to equip them for adult life and permanent lifelong learning, according to European Parliament indications on key competences for lifelong learning (Recommendation 2006/962/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 on key competences for lifelong learning, Official Journal L 394 of 30.12.2006). Digital competence not only provides the ability to make use of the wealth of new possibilities associated with digital technologies and the challenges posed, it is increasingly necessary to participate meaningfully in the new knowledge society and economy of the twenty-first century. The "Rethinking Education" strategy, which the European Commission presented in November 2012, highlights the importance of training in the competences needed in today's society of the twenty-first century and in future environments, the need for technology to be fully exploited and integrated effectively in training centres, as well as improving access to education through open educational resources and the unprecedented opportunities that new media offer for professional collaboration, problem-solving and quality improvement and equity in education. Digital competence is a prerequisite for students of all ages to fully benefit from the new possibilities offered by technology for more effective, motivating and inclusive learning (as described in "Education and Training Monitor 2013", pg. 19). Educational standards should therefore include the kind of knowledge and skills that can help students to develop the new competences required in today's society, which are enhanced by technology, especially those related to knowledge management. In a number of respects, those who are responsible for teaching students of the new millennium have to be able to guide them in their educational journey through the new media. Teachers need a clear political message in this regard: public recognition of what is expected to develop these competences as a priority in their areas or specialties. This public recognition will in turn require priority attention in teacher training systems and the recognition of their professional development. The need to ensure high quality teaching has become one of the priorities of the "European Strategic Framework for Education and Training". (ET 2020).
  4. 4. Page 4 Competence training is a curriculum imperative that, in the case of digital competence, has until now had an undeveloped and diverse specification in its descriptors in the absence of a common reference framework. Developing digital competence in the education system requires a correct integration of ICT in the classroom and ensuring that teachers have the necessary training in that competence. The latter is probably the most important factor for the development of a digital culture in the classroom and to ensure the educational system is in tune with the new "network society". Connectivity and equipment will arrive in all classrooms, but it will be more difficult for there to be a sufficient widespread level of digital competence in education if there is no reference framework that allows its widespread accreditation (not as something optional or reserved for those interested in computer applications and devices) and development of a coherent training plan with a proposal for measurable indicators to strengthen one of the worst served areas of teaching training in the initial stages. It is something that has already been done in other countries, although with different nuances, orientations and levels of specificity. The project "Common Framework for Digital Competence of Teachers" was created with the intention of providing a descriptive reference that can be useful in training and evaluation and accreditation processes. It is part of both the " Digital Culture at School Plan" and the "Strategic Framework for Professional Teaching Development", whose series of projects are the result of the joint reflection process that the Ministry started with the active participation of the Autonomous Communities (AC) and reports in which external experts and those responsible for various units of the MECD (Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport) are also involved. At meetings of working groups for Learning Technologies (former ICT Committee) and Teacher Training (former Technical Training Committee), with representatives from all AC, the corresponding lines of action for projects have been submitted, and which are developing in an area of collaboration, discussion and joint decision, so that the resulting proposals have a national dimension and general approval and consensus.
  5. 5. Page 5 2. Project objectives and lines of action. The Committee of the project "Common Framework for Digital Competence of Teachers" was set up in the meeting of 3 December 2012, in which the following objectives were established: To allow teachers to know, help and evaluate the digital competence of students.  Provide a common reference with descriptors of digital competence for teachers and trainers.  Help to be more demanding with regard to digital competence of teachers (University does not currently give sufficient training to future teachers in digital competence and, moreover, it is not required either for the practice of teaching in Public Administration)  Allow everyone to have a list of minimum teaching competences.  Help teachers to have the digital competence necessary to use digital resources in their teaching work.  Influence the onset of methodological change in both the use of technological means and educational methods in general. The Committee members stated that the framework should bear in mind both the initial and continuing training of teachers. In the first meeting the following lines of action were established:  Line 1: Proposal for a common reference framework.  Line 2: Plan for evaluation and accreditation of Teachers and Facilities.  Line 3: Parallel encouragement of teacher training in digital competence. In subsequent meeting, the Committee members agreed to work on the following deliverables in relation to the first line of action: 1. Report on analysis and conclusions of existing frameworks (AC and international ones) for digital competence of teachers. 1.1 Preparation and sending of surveys to AC for data collection.
  6. 6. Page 6 1.2 Preparation of summary analysis of international frameworks on DCT (digital competence of teachers). 1.3 Conclusions of analysis on international and AC descriptive frameworks of DCT. 2. Draft with proposed common reference framework for digital competence of teachers. It was agreed to work on the 5 areas of digital competence in the DIGCOMP project implemented by the IPTS: AREA 1: Information AREA 2: Communication AREA 3: Content creation AREA 4: Safety AREA 5: Problem-solving The proposed common framework should achieve the widest possible consensus. In order to do this, it is proposed that it be submitted for discussion at a Workshop on Digital Competence of Teachers with participation of the AC, experts and researchers and other institutions and stakeholders who wish to make their contributions. Thus, it could overcome another possible constraint limiting the smooth execution of the project, which is that the proposal does not have enough recognition and dissemination to be used for training and evaluation. The discussion and collection of contributions will enable the development of a proposed framework for digital competence of teachers that can be used to subsequently address the following lines of action in the project, related to evaluation, accreditation and training plans.
  7. 7. Page 7 3. Conclusions to comparison of existing frameworks. In the " Report on analysis and conclusions of existing frameworks (AC and international ones) for digital competence of teachers", prepared as part of the project work and shared in the common Committee area in CConectAA, it is concluded that the existing situation is quite diverse regarding plans to develop digital competence of teachers and that there is a clear lack of a common reference framework with standards and indicators to facilitate its evaluation and accreditation. All the AC have ICT training plans, but this training has not always led to better digital professional competence of teachers; common standards related to a digital competence framework are only taken as a reference in a few cases. The most widely used international benchmark, when any is used, is the one proposed by UNESCO (2008) regarding ICT competence standards for teachers. The "ICT training" generally provided has been mainly focused on the most instrumental aspects of technology and less on the actual use of new digital media and resources in the classroom or their role in professional development of teachers, continuous updating and the creation of virtual learning communities and professional collaboration in the use of educational resources. According to the TALIS report (2009) and the "European schools survey on ICT in education" (2013), Spain has been in the first position in ICT training in Europe in recent years regarding the most number of hours per teacher in this type of training; however, in the actual surveys teachers consider their training to be low for full integration of technological means. A paradox which suggests the need to rethink the effectiveness of ICT training that is not generally oriented towards the digital immersion of teachers and teacher adaptation to new media. The proportion is low with respect to students who have teachers that often create digital resources and participate in the school’s website or virtual learning and social media environments for professional collaboration. At the same time, we can already talk of a generation in Spain that are digital natives, where more than 90% of students from the last stages of Primary Education already own and use their own mobile devices and a computer connected to the Internet to perform some tasks, and enjoy their leisure time or communicate with their friends in social environments. Over 75% of these students have teachers who never or almost never communicate online with their families, evaluate the use of ICT by students, assess digital resources for their subject or post schoolwork aimed at students online.
  8. 8. Page 8 The above TALIS report concludes that in many countries "education is still far from becoming a "knowledge industry", for which principals and teachers are required to act as a professional community, who have the authority to act, the necessary information to make the right decisions, and access to effective support systems to help them meet the challenges". A key to this, and so that they can routinely use new digital technologies in the classroom, is their training in digital competence. The major flaw in such training can already be detected in the initial training, with digital competence training of future teachers hardly being included in their curricula. As Gutiérrez Palacios and Torrego (2010) indicate, "even regular users of new technologies ignore their educational potential and possible forms of integration in compulsory education curricula. The possibility of considering ICT as a means of creative expression, and democratic participation, is far removed from the current perceptions of student teachers". In order to determine what training is needed for such digital competence skills, both in initial and ongoing training, we need the reference of a sufficiently recognized common framework, specifying measurable indicators for each area of digital competence. None of the frameworks reviewed in this report have general, consolidated recognition. The most widely mentioned is the UNESCO ICT competency standards framework (2008), for which the institution itself has recognized that it needs a thorough review. Moreover, the diversified proposal of standards put forward by the ISTE, which differentiates between standards for students, teachers and educational administrators, is welcomed. It is the digital competence of teachers that concerns us in our project. The most recent proposal, and the only one generated by the EU so far, is the one by the IPTS (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies), one of the Joint Research Centres of the European Commission, which in September 2013 published the final report with the results of the DIGCOMP project (http://is.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pages/EAP/DIGCOMP.html), launched in 2010 with the objective of developing a proposed framework for the digital competence all European citizens. The report details the various aspects of digital competence through a list of 21 competences described in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes, which have been specified after a process of data collection (including a review of existing studies, case studies and an online survey) that was subjected to consultation with stakeholders (through analysis workshops, online discussions, input from experts, presentations at seminars and conferences). This framework, which is the result of over two years of work with the participation of experts from across Europe, is the one we considered that should serve as a common reference for an adaptation applied to the teaching profession, with measurable indicators that can be accredited after the relevant training activities. And having the reference of an agreed and newly developed European framework seems a good starting point to reach the widest possible consensus in our environment.
  9. 9. Page 9 4. Overview of the DIGCOMP Proposal. The DIGCOMP study was launched by the JRC - IPTS IS Unit, under an administrative agreement with the European Commission’s Directorate General for Education and Culture, in order to contribute to better understanding and development of digital competence in Europe. The project objective was to identify comprehensive descriptors of digital competence. The project started in January 2011 and the final study was published in September 2013: DIGCOMP: A Framework for Developing and Understanding Digital Competence in Europe. In the DIGCOMP study it was proposed to create a European agreement on the components of Digital Competence, through the development of a conceptual framework that could serve as a reference for frameworks, initiatives, curricula and current certifications. Definition of Digital Competence The 2006 European recommendation outlined digital competence as a fundamental core competence, with the following definition: "Digital competence involves the confident and critical use of Information Society Technologies(IST) for work, leisure and communication. It is underpinned by basic skills in ICT: the use of computers to retrieve, assess, store, produce, present and exchange information, and to communicate and participate in collaborative networks via the Internet "(European Parliament and the Council, 2006). In this definition we find the main skills of digital competence. The definition and explanation of the components of competence provided in the recommendation offer an overview of digital competence, it being evident that, when digital tools are used, the operational capacities are a small proportion of the necessary knowledge. Following the recommendation, information management, communication in social settings and the ability to use the Internet for learning have become highly relevant fields, also for critical thinking, creativity and innovation. However, the access devices are increasingly diverse, and we do not only gain access from the computers that were mentioned in 2006.
  10. 10. Page 10 As Ferrari (2012) indicates, discourses on literacy tend to focus on the decoding and encoding argument, i.e. reading and writing, but here we prefer to refer to digital competence as the collection of knowledge, skills and attitudes needed today to be functional in a digital environment. Therefore, in addition to the changes introduced by new technologies in reading and writing literacy, we can argue that digital competence requires a new set of skills, knowledge and attitudes. The acquisition of competence in the digital age requires an attitude that allows the user to adapt to the new requirements established by technologies, but also their appropriation and adaptation to one's own ends and to interact socially around them. Appropriation implies a specific way of acting and interacting with technology, understanding it and being able to use it for better professional practice. In general, digital competence can also be defined as the creative, critical and confident use of information and communication technologies to achieve the objectives related to work, employability, learning, leisure, inclusion and participation in society. Common Digital Competence framework The DIGCOMP framework created by IPTS can be used as a reference tool in order to track the areas and levels to consider in training plans. The DIGCOMP framework is divided into five descriptive dimensions. These dimensions reflect a different aspect of the descriptors and different definition phase. Dimension 1: competence areas that have been identified. Dimension 2: competences that are pertinent to each area. Dimension 3: proficiency levels that are foreseen for each competence. Dimension 4: examples of the knowledge, skills and attitudes applicable to each competence (examples are not differentiated in proficiency levels). Dimension 5: examples on the applicability of the competence to different purposes. Here we focus on, education and learning. Each of the 21 competences that have been defined are presented in a tabular format that includes: a brief definition of the competence, descriptors for the three proficiency levels, examples of knowledge,
  11. 11. Page 11 skills and attitudes related to the competence, and examples of potential usefulness of the competence for specific purposes, learning, employment, etc. Areas and competences The areas of digital competence can be summarised as follows: 1. Information: identify, locate, retrieve, store, organise and analyse digital information, judging its relevance and purpose. 2. Communication: communicate in digital environments, share resources through online tools, link with others and collaborate through digital tools, interact with and participate in communities and networks, cross-cultural awareness. 3. Content-creation: Create and edit new content (from word processing to images and video); integrate and re-elaborate previous knowledge and content; produce creative expressions, media outputs and programming; deal with and apply intellectual property rights and licences. 4. Safety: personal protection, data protection, digital identity protection, security measures, safe and sustainable use. 5. Problem-solving: identify digital needs and resources, make informed decisions on most appropriate digital tools according to the purpose or need, solve conceptual problems through digital means, creatively use technologies, solve technical problems, update own and other's competence. Areas 1, 2 and 3 are rather linear while areas 4 and 5 are more transversal. This means that while areas 1 to 3 deal with competences that can be re-traced in terms of specific activities and uses, areas 4 and 5 apply to any type of activity carried out through digital means. This does not mean that areas 1, 2, and 3 are not inter-related. Although each area has its own specificity, there are several forced overlapping points and cross-references to other areas. At this point we need to discuss "Problem solving" (area 5), competence area which is the most transversal of all. In the framework it is a stand-alone competence area, but on the other hand elements of problem solving can be found in all of the competence areas. For instance, the competence area "Information" (area 1) includes the competence "evaluating information", which is part of the cognitive dimension in problem solving. Communication and content creation include several elements of problem solving (namely: interacting, collaborating, developing content, integrating and re-elaborating, programming…). Despite including problem solving elements in
  12. 12. Page 12 relevant competence areas, it was seen necessary to have a dedicated stand-alone area about problem solving, owing to the relevance this aspect has on the appropriation of technologies and digital practices. It can be noted that some of the competences listed in areas 1 to 4 can also be mapped into area 5. For each of the above competence areas, a series of related competences have been identified. Competences in each area vary in number from a minimum of 3 to a maximum of 6. Competences are numbered, however the progression does not refer to a different degree of attainment (proficiency levels are foreseen in Dimension 3). The first competence in each area is always the one that includes more technical aspects: in these specific competences, the knowledge, skills and attitudes have operational processes as a dominant component. However, technical and operational skills are also embedded in each competence, but always seeking to refer to the functionality and avoid mention of specific tools that may change o cease to be used in the near future.
  13. 13. Page 13 5. The Digital Competence Framework (description according to IPTS proposed areas) Area 1: Information General description: Identify, locate, retrieve, store, organise and analyse digital information, judging its relevance and purpose. Competences: 1.1 Browsing, searching and filtering information. 1.2 Evaluating information. 1.3 Storing and retrieving information. Dimension 1 Name of area Information Dimension 2 Competence title and description 1.1 Browsing, searching and filtering information To access and search for online information, to articulate information needs, to find relevant information, to select resources effectively, to navigate between online sources, to create personal information strategies. Dimension 3 Proficiency levels A- Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I can do some online searches through search engines. I know that different search engines can provide different results. I can browse the internet for information and I can search for information online. I can articulate my information needs and I can select the appropriate information I find. I can use a wide range of search strategies when searching for information and browsing on the Internet. I can filter and monitor the information I receive. I know whom to follow in online information sharing places (e.g. micro-blogging) Dimension 4
  14. 14. Page 14 Knowledge examples Understands how information is generated and distributed in digital media. Is aware of different search engines. Understands which search engines or databases best answer his/her own information needs. Understands how information can be found in different devices and digital media. Understands how search engines classify information. Understands how feeding mechanisms work for dynamic information sources. Understands indexing principles for digital contents. Skills examples Adjusts searches according to specific needs. Can follow information presented in hyper-linked and non-linear form. Uses filters and agents. Is able to search for keywords that limit the number of hits. Can refine information searches and using controlled vocabulary specific to the search tool. Has a strategic information management skill for goal oriented activities. Can modify information searches according to how algorithms are built. Is able to adapt information search strategies to a specific search engine, application or device. Attitude examples Has a proactive attitude towards looking for information. Values the positive aspects of technologies for information retrieval. Is motivated to seek information for different aspects in his/her life. Is curious about information storage, management and distribution systems and their functioning.
  15. 15. Page 15 Dimension 1 Name of area Information Dimension 2 Competence title and description 1.2 Evaluating information To gather, process, understand and critically evaluate information Dimension 3 Proficiency levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I know that not all online information is reliable. I can compare different information sources. I am critical about the information I find and I can cross-check and assess its validity and credibility Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Can analyse retrieved information. Evaluates digital media content. Judges the validity of content found on the internet or the media, evaluates and interprets information. Understands the reliability of different information sources. Understands differences between online and offline information sources. Understands that information sources need to be cross-checked Can transform information into knowledge. Skills examples Is able to deal with information addressed to the user. Assesses the usefulness, timeliness, accuracy and integrity of the information. Can compare, contrast, and integrate information from different sources. Is able to distinguish reliable information from unreliable sources. Attitude examples Recognises that not all information can be found on the Internet. Is critical about information found. Is aware that despite globalisation certain countries are more represented on the Internet.
  16. 16. Page 16 Is aware that search engine mechanisms and algorithms are not necessarily neutral in displaying the information. Dimension 1 Name of area Information Dimension 2 Competence title and description 1.3 Storing and retrieving information To manipulate and store information and content for easier retrieval, to organise information and data. Dimension 3 Proficiency levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I know how to save files and content (e.g. texts, pictures, music, videos, and web pages). I know how to go back to the content I have saved. I can save, store or tag files, content and information and I have my own storing strategy. I can retrieve and manage the information and content I have saved or stored. I can apply different methods and tools to organise files, content, and information. I can deploy a set of strategies for retrieving the content I or others have organised and stored Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Understands how information is stored on different devices/services. Knows different storage media. Knows different storage options and can select the most appropriate. Skills examples Structures and classifies information and content according to a classification scheme/method. Organizes information and digital content. Downloads/Uploads and classifies information and digital content. Uses various classification schemes to store and manage digital resources and information. Is able to use information management services, software and applications.
  17. 17. Page 17 Is able to retrieve and access previously stored information and content. Is able to tag content. Attitude examples Realises benefits and shortfalls of different storage devices/services (online and local storage options). Is aware about the importance of back-ups. Acknowledges the importance of having an understandable and pragmatic storage system/scheme for digital resources or information. Is aware of consequences when storing content as private or as public. Area 2: Communication General description: Communicate in digital environments, share resources through online tools, link with others and collaborate through digital tools, interact with and participate in educational communities and networks. Competences: 2.1 Interacting through technologies 2.2 Sharing information and content 2.3 Engaging in online citizenship 2.4 Collaborating through digital channels 2.5 Netiquette 2.6 Managing digital identity.
  18. 18. Page 18 Dimension 1 Name of area Communication Dimension 2 Competence title and description 2.1 Interacting through technologies To interact through a variety of digital devices and applications, to understand how digital communication is distributed, displayed and managed, to understand appropriate ways of communicating through digital media, to refer to different communication formats, to adapt communication modes and strategies to the specific audience Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I can interact with others using basic features of communication tools, (e.g. mobile phone, VoIP, chat or email). I can use several digital tools to interact with others using more advanced features of communication tools (e.g. mobile phone, VoIP, chat, email). I am engaged in the use of a wide range of tools for online communication (emails, chats, SMS, instant messaging, blogs, micro-blogs, SNS). I can adopt digital modes and ways of communication that best fit the purpose. I can tailor the format and ways of communication to my audience. I can manage the different types of communication I receive Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Is aware of different digital communication means (e.g. email, chat, VoIP, video- conference, SMS). Knows how messages and emails are stored and displayed. Knows the functionality of several communication software packages. Knows the benefits and limits of different means of communications and distinguishes the ones most appropriate to the context. Skills examples Is able to send an email, an SMS, write a blog post.
  19. 19. Page 19 Is able to find and contact peers. Is able to edit information in order to communicate it through several means (from sending an email to making a presentation in slides). Evaluates his/her audience and can tailor communication according to audience. Is able to filter the communication s/he receives (for instance, sorting out emails, deciding whom to follow on micro-blogging social sites, etc). Attitude examples Is confident and comfortable in communicating and expressing through digital media. Is aware of the code of conduct appropriate to the context. Is aware of the risks linked with online communication with unknown people. Is actively engaged in online communication. Is willing to select the most appropriate communication means according to the purpose. Dimension 1 Name of area Communication Dimension 2 Competence title and description 2.2 Sharing information and content To share with others the location and content of information found, to be willing and able to share knowledge, content and resources, to act as an intermediary, to be proactive in the spreading of news, content and resources, to know about citation and referencing practices and to integrate new information into an existing body of knowledge. Dimension 3 A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced
  20. 20. Page 20 Levels I can share files and content with others through simple technological means (e.g. sending attachments to emails, uploading pictures on the internet, etc.) I can participate in social networking sites and online communities, where I pass on or share knowledge, content and information. I can actively share information, content and resources with others through online communities, networks and collaboration platforms. Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Knows the benefits (for him/herself as well as for others) of sharing content and information with peers. Judges the value of the resource to be shared and the target audience to share it with. Knows which content/knowledge/resources can be publicly shared. Knows how/when to acknowledge the source of a particular content. Skills examples Is able to check the property rights or right to use digital content. Knows how to share content found on the internet (e.g. how to share a video within a social networking site) . Knows how to use social media to promote results of his/her work. Attitude examples Takes a proactive attitude in the sharing of resources, content and knowledge. Has his/her own informed opinion about sharing practices, benefits, risks and limits. Has an informed opinion on authoring practices for digital resources. Is aware of copyright issues and rights of use of digital resources.
  21. 21. Page 21 Dimension 1 Name of area Communication Dimension 2 Competence title and description 2.3 Engaging in online citizenship To participate in society through online engagement, to seek technological opportunities for self-development and empowerment in using technologies and digital environments, to be aware of the potential of technologies for citizen participation. Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I know that technology can be used to interact with services and I passively use some (e.g. online communities, government, hospital or medical centres, banks). I can actively use some basic features of online services (e.g. government, hospitals or medical centres, eGovernment services, etc). I am actively participating in online spaces. I know how to get actively engaged in online participation and I can use several different online services . Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Knows that technology can be used for engagement in democratic actions (e.g. lobbying, petitions, parliament). Knows how technologies and media can enable different forms of civic participation. Skills examples Is able to access a number of relevant networks and communities for different purposes. Is able to find relevant communities, networks, and social media that correspond to his/her interests and needs. Knows and can use the different functionalities of networks, media, and online services. Attitude examples Is aware of the potential of technologies and media for civic participation. Has a critical understanding of social media, networks and online communities. Is involved in social media for digital communication and dissemination, networks and online communities.
  22. 22. Page 22 Dimension 1 Name of area Communication Dimension 2 Competence title and description 2.4 Collaborating through digital channels To use technologies and media for team work, collaborative processes and co- construction and co-creation of resources, knowledge and content. Dimension 3 Levels A- Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I can collaborate with others using traditional technologies (e.g. email). I can create and discuss outputs in collaboration with others using simple digital tools. I frequently and confidently use several digital collaboration tools and means to collaborate with others in the production and sharing of resources, knowledge and content . Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Knows that collaborative processes facilitate content creation Knows when content creation can benefit from collaborative processes and when they do not. Understands the dynamics of collaborative work and of giving and receiving feedback. Judges the contribution of others to his/her own work Has an understanding of different roles needed in diverse forms of online collaboration. Skills examples Is able to use the collaborative features of software packages and web-based collaborative services (e.g. track changes, comments on a document or resource, tags, contribution to wikis, etc.). Is able to give and receive feedback. Can work at a distance with others. Can use social media for different collaborative purposes. Attitude examples Is willing to share and collaborate with others. Is ready to function as part of a team. Seeks new forms of collaboration that are not necessarily based on a previous
  23. 23. Page 23 face-to-face engagement. Dimension 1 Name of area Communication Dimension 2 Competence title and description 2.5 Netiquette To have the knowledge and know-how of behavioural norms in online/virtual interactions, to be aware of cultural diversity aspects, to be able to protect self and others from possible online dangers (e.g. cyber bullying), to develop active strategies to discover inappropriate behaviour. Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I know basic behaviour norms that apply when communicating with others using digital tools. I know the principles of online etiquette and I am able to apply them in my own context. I can apply the various aspects of online etiquette to different digital communication spaces and contexts. I have developed strategies to discover inappropriate behaviour Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Knows about agreed practices in digital interactions. Understands the consequences of own behaviour. Knows about ethical issues in digital media, such as visiting improper websites and cyber bullying. Understands that different cultures have different communication and interaction practices. Skills examples Has the ability to protect him/herself and others from online threats. Is able to ban/report abuse and threats.
  24. 24. Page 24 Has developed strategies for handling cyber bullying and for discovering inappropriate behaviour. Attitude examples Considers ethical principles of use and publication of information. Has an advanced sense of suitable behaviour, finely tuned to media context, audience and legal provisions. Reveals flexibility and adaptation to different digital communications cultures. Accepts and appreciates diversity. Has a safe and sensible attitude in digital activities. Dimension 1 Name of area Communication Dimension 2 Competence title and description 2.6 Managing digital identity To create, adapt and manage one or multiple digital identities, to be able to protect one's e-reputation, to deal with the data that one produces through several accounts and applications. Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I am aware of the benefits and risks related to digital identity. I can shape my online digital identity and keep track of my digital footprint. I can manage several digital identities according to the context and purpose, I can monitor the information and data I produce through my online interaction, I know how to protect my digital reputation. Dimension 4
  25. 25. Page 25 Knowledge examples Knows the benefits of having one or more digital identities. Understands the interlinks between the online and offline world. Understands that several actors can positively or negatively contribute to construct his/her digital identity. Skills examples Has the ability to protect him/herself and others from online threats to their e- reputation. Is able to construct a profile that benefits his/her needs. Can track his/her own digital footprint. Attitude examples Is aware of the benefits and risks related to online identity exposure. Is not afraid to disclose certain types of information about self. Considers multiple ways of expressing his/her own identity and personality through digital means. Area 3: Content creation General description: Create and edit new content (from word processing to images and video); integrate and re-elaborate previous knowledge and content; produce creative expressions, media outputs and programming; deal with and apply intellectual property rights and licences. Competences: 3.1 Developing content 3.2 Integrating and re-elaborating 3.3 Copyright and Licences
  26. 26. Page 26 3.4 Programming. Dimension 1 Name of area Content creation Dimension 2 Competence title and description 3.1 Developing content To create content in different formats including multimedia, to edit and improve content that s/he has created or that others have created, to express creatively through digital media and technologies. Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I can create simple digital content (e.g. text, or tables, or images, or audio, etc.). I can produce digital content in different formats, including multimedia (e.g. text, tables, images, audio, etc.). I can produce digital content in different formats, platforms and environments. I can use a variety of digital tools for creating original multimedia outputs. Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Knows that digital content can be produced in a variety of forms. Knows which software/application is best suited to the kind of content s/he wants to create. Understands how meaning is produced through multimedia (text, audio, video, images). Skills examples Is able to use basic tool packages to create content in different forms (text, audio, video, images). Is able to create knowledge representations (e.g. mind maps, diagrams) using digital media. Is able to use a variety of media to express him/herself creatively (text, images, audio, movie). Is able to edit the content in order to enhance the final output Attitude examples Is not content with commonly used forms of content creation but explores new ways and formats.
  27. 27. Page 27 Sees the potential of technologies and media for self-expression and knowledge creation. Values the added value of new digital media for cognitive and creative processes. Is critical about knowledge production and consumption with digital media and technologies. Confident to create digital content. Engages with creative content. Dimension 1 Name of area Content creation Dimension 2 Competence title and description 3.2 Integrating and re-elaborating To modify, refine and mash-up existing resources to create new, original and relevant content and knowledge. Dimension 3 Proficiency levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I can make basic changes to the content that others have produced. I can edit, modify and refine the content I or others have produced. I can mash-up existing items of content to create new ones. Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Contributes to the public knowledge domain (e.g. wikis, public forums, reviews). Knows that resources can be built from diverse and non-sequential information sources. Knows about different databases and resources that can be remixed and re-used. Knows that reused content should be referenced. Skills examples Is able to use edit functions to modify content in simple, basic ways. Is able to create knowledge representations (e.g. mind maps, diagrams) using digital media. Is able to use appropriate licences for authoring and sharing content. Is able to remix different existing content into something new. Attitude examples Is critical in the selection of content and resources to be re-elaborated. Judges and appreciates the work of others.
  28. 28. Page 28 Awareness of existing repositories (e.g.: Open Educational Resources - OER) Dimension 1 Name of area Content creation Dimension 2 Competence title and description 3.3 Copyright and licences To understand how copyright and licences apply to information and digital content Dimension 3 Proficiency levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I know that some of the content I use can be covered by copyright. I have basic knowledge of the differences about copyright, copyleft and creative commons and I can apply some licences to the content I create. I know how different types of licences apply to the information and resources I use and create. Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Considers licence regulation principles of use and publication of information. Understands copyright and licence rules Knows there are different ways of licensing intellectual property production Understands differences between copyright, creative commons, copyleft and public domain licences. Skills examples Knows how to license own digital production Knows how to find information on copyright and licence rules. Attitude examples Takes a critical stand towards legal frames and regulations Behaves independently and assumes responsibility for own behaviour and choices.
  29. 29. Page 29 Dimension 1 Name of area Content creation Dimension 2 Competence title and description 3.4 Programming To apply settings, programme modification, programme applications, software, devices, to understand the principles of programming, to understand what is behind a programme. Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I can modify some simple functions of software and applications (apply basic settings). I can apply several modifications to software and applications (advanced settings, basic programme modifications). I can interfere with (open) programmes, modify, change or write source code, code and programme in several languages, and I understand the systems and functions that are behind programmes Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Knows how digital systems and processes work. Knows how software works. Understands technological ecosystems. Knows about the architectural principles behind technologies. Skills examples Creates complex models, simulations and visualisations of the real world using digital information. Is able to code and programme digital devices. Can change basic programme settings. Can apply advanced programme settings. Attitude examples Is aware of the processes behind computational thinking. Is aware that s/he can apply settings to most of the existing software and is willing to establish the optimal setting for each program, depending on his/her needs. Is curious about the potential of ICT for programming and creation of outputs.
  30. 30. Page 30 Area 4: Safety General description: Personal protection, data protection, digital identity protection, security measures, safe and sustainable use. Competences: 4.1 Protecting devices 4.2 Protecting data and digital identity 4.3 Protecting health 4.4 Protecting the environment. Dimension 1 Name of area Safety Dimension 2 Competence title and description 4.1 Protecting devices To protect own devices and to understand online risks and threats, to know about safety and security. Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I can use basic steps to protect my devices (for instance: using anti-viruses, passwords, etc.). I know how to protect my digital devices, I update my security strategies. I frequently update my security strategies. I can take action when the device is under threat. Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Knows that there are several risks associated with the use of technologies. Knows the latest strategies to avoid risks.
  31. 31. Page 31 Understands the risks associated with online use of tools and devices. Skills examples Is able to install an anti-virus. Is able to take steps to mitigate risk of fraud by using a password. Is able to protect different devices from threats of the digital world (malware, viruses etc.). Attitude examples Has a positive but realistic attitude towards the benefits and risks associated with online technologies. Dimension 1 Name of area Safety Dimension 2 Competence title and description 4.2 Protecting personal data To understand common terms of service, active protection of personal data, understanding other people’s privacy, to protect self from online fraud and threats and cyber bullying. Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I know that I can only share certain types of information about myself or others in online environments. I can protect my own and others’ online privacy. I have a general understanding of privacy issues and I have basic knowledge of how my data is collected and used. I often change the default privacy settings of online services to enhance my privacy protection. I have an informed and wide understanding of privacy issues and I know how my data is collected and used. Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Understands the terms of use of online services (i.e. the fact that service providers may use personal data that they collect about users) and can act prudently in this knowledge.
  32. 32. Page 32 Knows that many interactive services use information about him or her to filter in commercial messages in more or less explicit ways. Can distinguish between data protection and data security. Knows about appropriate behaviour in the digital domain. Understands how his/her own digital footprint can be seen and tracked by others. Knows how data about his/her digital identity can or cannot be used by third parties. Understands the risk theft of identity and other credentials. Knows how to protect other people’s data that apply to his/her own context (as a worker, a parent, a teacher, etc.). Skills examples Is able to manage his/her digital identity and footprints. Is able to act prudently regarding privacy issues. Is able to track down online information about self. Can delete or modify information about self or others s/he is responsible for. Attitude examples Is aware of online privacy principles of self and of others. Is aware of the impact and longevity of digital information that s/he considers for publishing. Can exploit the benefits of having multiple digital identities to fit a number of different purposes. Acts in a critical way when displaying online information about self. Dimension 1 Name of area Safety
  33. 33. Page 33 Dimension 2 Competence title and description 4.3 Protecting health To avoid health-risks related with the use of technology in terms of threats to physical and psychological well-being. Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I know how to avoid cyber bullying. I know that technology can affect my health, if misused. I know how to protect myself and others from cyber bullying and I understand the health risks associated with the use of technologies (from ergonomic aspects to addiction to technologies). I am aware of the correct use of technologies to avoid health problems. I know how to find a good balance between online and off-line worlds Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Knows the effect of prolonged use of technologies. Knows about the addictive aspects of digital media. Skills examples Is able to manage the distracting aspects of working/living digitally. Is able to take preventive steps to protect his/her own health and the health of others she/he is responsible for. Attitude examples Has a balanced attitude towards technological use. Dimension 1 Name of area Safety Dimension 2 4.4 Protecting the environment
  34. 34. Page 34 Competence title and description To be aware of the impact of ICT on the environment. Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I take basic measures to save energy. I understand the positive and negative aspects of the use of technology on the environment. I have an informed stance on the impact of technologies on everyday life, online consumption, and the environment Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Is able to select appropriate and safe digital media, that are efficient and cost- effective in comparison with other means. Has a comprehensive mental map of how the online world works. Understands the technologies s/he is using at a level that is sufficient to underpin good purchasing or contracting decisions, e.g., about devices or Internet service providers. Understands the environmental impact of computers and electronic devices and how s/he can make them last longer by recycling parts of it (such as changing hard disks). Skills examples Is able to use digital services without being completely dependent on them. Knows how to use digital equipment cost-efficiently and also time-efficiently. Attitude examples Has a positive but realistic attitude towards the benefits and risks associated with information technologies. Has understood that the digital environment we are facing can make things better or worse - it all depends on how we are using it and what rules we find for it. Is aware of environmental issues related to the use of digital technologies.
  35. 35. Page 35 Area 5: Problem solving General description: Identify digital needs and resources, make informed decisions on most appropriate digital tools according to the purpose or need, solve conceptual problems through digital media, creatively use technologies, solve technical problems, update own and other's competence. Competences: 5.1 Solving technical problems. 5.2 Identifying needs and technological responses. 5.3 Innovating and creatively using technology. 5.4 Identifying digital competence gaps. Dimension 1 Name of area Problem solving Dimension 2 Competence title and description 5.1 Solving technical problems To identify possible technical problems and solve them (from trouble-shooting to solving more complex problems). Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I can ask for targeted support and assistance when technologies do not work or when using a new device, programme or application. I can solve easy problems that arise when technologies do not work. I can solve a wide-range of problems that arise from the use of technology. Dimension 4 Knowledge Knows how a computer or digital device is built.
  36. 36. Page 36 examples Knows where to look for solving a technical problem. Knows sources of information and where to find help for technical problem-solving. Knows where to find the relevant information for the technical and theoretical solution of problems related to the use of digital resources, tools and services. Skills examples Uses a widely diverse and well-balanced mix of digital and non-digital technologies for solving different problems and will dynamically update options and selections over time. Is able to solve a technical problem or to decide what to do when technology does not function. Attitude examples Takes an active approach to solving problems. Is willing to seek advice when a problem arises. Can think of alternatives when problems cannot be solved and works have to be done. Dimension 1 Name of area Problem solving Dimension 2 Competence title and description 5.2 Identifying needs and technological responses To assess own needs in terms of resources, tools and competence development, to match needs with possible solutions, adapting tools to personal needs, to critically evaluate possible solutions and digital tools . Dimension 3 A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced
  37. 37. Page 37 Levels I can use some technologies to solve problems, but for limited tasks. I can make decisions when choosing a digital tool for a routine practice. I understand what technology can do for me and what it cannot. I can solve non-routine tasks by exploring technological possibilities. I can select the appropriate tool according to the purpose and I can evaluate the effectiveness of the tool. I can make informed decisions when choosing a tool, device, application, software or service for the task I am not familiar with. I am aware of new technological developments. I understand how new tools work and operate. I can critically evaluate which tool serves my purposes the best. Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Understands the potential and limitations of digital devices and resources. Knows the wide range of tasks that can be performed using technologies. Is aware of the most relevant or popular digital technologies used by others (e.g. peers, reputed experts). Has reasonable knowledge of available technologies, their strengths and weaknesses and whether and how they might support the achievement of personal goals. Skills examples Is able to make informed decisions (with human or technological assistance where appropriate) about which technologies should be used to pursue personally relevant goals. Can choose the most appropriate technologies according to the problem to be solved. Attitude examples Awareness of the value of traditional tools in conjunction with digital networked media. Is interested in new information and communication technologies. Critically evaluates possible solutions using digital tools.
  38. 38. Page 38 Dimension 1 Name of area Problem solving Dimension 2 Competence title and description 5.3 Innovating and creatively using technology To innovate with technology, to actively participate in collaborative digital and multimedia production, to express oneself creatively through digital media and technologies, to create knowledge and solve conceptual problems with the support of digital tools. Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I know that technologies and digital tools can be used for creative purposes and I can make some creative use of technologies. I can use technologies for creative outputs and I can use technologies to solve problems (i.e. visualizing a problem). I collaborate with others in the creation of innovative and creative outputs, but I don’t take the initiative. I can solve conceptual problems taking advantage of technologies and digital tools, I can contribute to the knowledge creation through technological means, I can take part in innovative actions through the use of technologies. I proactively collaborate with others to produce creative and innovative outputs Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Uses a widely diverse and well-balanced mix of digital and non-digital technologies for different problems and will dynamically change options over time. Can solve a theoretical problem, of individual or collective interest, through or with the support of digital tools. Knows how to find the relevant knowledge for the solution of theoretical problems Skills examples Knows how to explore the web, the market, or his/her online network when searching for solutions.
  39. 39. Page 39 Is capable of exploiting technological potentials in order to identify and solve problems. Knows how to solve problems individually and collectively (peer-problem solving) Is able to build meaningful knowledge through interaction with digitally available resources. Is able to use a variety of media to express oneself creatively (text, images, audio, and video). Attitude examples Is willing to explore alternative solutions that are offered by technologies. Is pro-active in looking for solutions. Is pro-active in collaborative problem solving. Is open to revise his/her values and attitudes according to the situation. Sees the potential of technologies and media for self-expression and knowledge creation. Values the added value of new media for cognitive and creative processes. Is critical about knowledge production and consumption with media and technologies Dimension 1 Name of area Problem solving Dimension 2 Competence title and description 5.4 Identification of digital competence gaps To understand where own competence needs to be improved or updated, to support others in the development of their digital competence, to keep up-to-date with new developments.
  40. 40. Page 40 Dimension 3 Levels A - Foundation B- Intermediate C- Advanced I have some basic knowledge, but I am aware of my limits when using technologies. I know how to learn to do something new with technologies. I frequently update my digital competence needs Dimension 4 Knowledge examples Understands the wider context of digital tools in a 'digital age' characterised by globalisation and networks. Understands where ICT comes from, who develops it and for what purposes. Has first-hand knowledge and expertise of the major digital technologies used in his/her field. Skills examples Possesses the skills to update knowledge about the availability of digital tools. Is able to stay informed using a combination of active searches and personalised, automated delivery of information. Knows how to self-regulate his/her learning about digital technologies. Can self-manage personal goals and can diagnose deficiencies of digital competence required for reaching these goals. Can support others in managing and diagnosing. Is able to learn and integrate the new technologies that emerge. Is able to learn how to work with any new digital technology by trying it out, and using its internal guidance. Is able to adapt smoothly to new technology and to integrate technology into his/her environment. Can transfer knowledge. Includes more and more digital instruments in everyday life to increase the quality of life. Attitude examples Has a general level of confidence, meaning that s/he is willing to experiment with new technologies, but also to reject inappropriate technologies.
  41. 41. Page 41 Reflects on own digital skills and development (the ability to be aware of oneself as a digitally literate person and to reflect on one’s own digital literacy development). Holds a positive attitude to learn about emerging digital technologies. Is able to broaden/update digital competences according to personal/professional needs. Is aware of the general trends within new media even if s/he does not use them.
  42. 42. Page 42 6. Proposed digital competence descriptors for teachers The DCT descriptors for each competence are outlined below on 3 levels. Area 1: Information General description: Identify, locate, retrieve, store, organise and analyse digital information, judging its relevance and purpose for teaching needs. Competences: 1.1 Browsing, searching and filtering information To access and search for online information, to articulate information needs, to find relevant information for teaching needs, to select educational resources effectively, to manage several sources of information, to create personal information strategies. . Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Locates information in different formats using keywords on search engines and makes them suitable for inclusion in the design of educational activities. M (Medium) 2. Configures the web browsers, finds dynamic information sources of interest to the teaching profession and manages the monitoring of these information flows for his/her professional updating. A (Advanced) 3. Designs a customized search strategy and access to information in different
  43. 43. Page 43 formats that allows the continuous updating of resources, best practices and educational trends. 1.2 Evaluating information To gather, process, understand and critically evaluate information. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Can critically evaluate a site or resource before using it in the classroom, by analyzing the author, origin, licences and other data. 2. Evaluates the usefulness of the resources located on the Internet to support learning in the area, subject or corresponding module. M (Medium) 3. Knows the restrictions of educational resources posted with copyright protection and that there are other types of licences that allow reuse or distribution, whose information s/he can identify. 4. Evaluates the quality of educational resources available on the Internet in terms of accuracy and alignment with the curriculum. A (Advanced) 5. Intervenes critically in teaching practice communities by combining, classifying and disseminating information and educational resources.
  44. 44. Page 44 1.3 Storing and retrieving information To manage and store educational information, data and content for subsequent retrieval and use. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Is capable of storing information of educational value in different formats (videos, images, text and web pages) and classifying it in a way that allows it to be retrieved. 2. Makes backup copies of the information or documentation s/he deems important and knows how to use external storage spaces for this purpose. M (Medium) 3. Uses social digital media to mark and organize resources for teaching purposes. A (Advanced) 3. Organizes a social strategy, connected to experts, colleagues and students through digital media, with appropriate methods to organize, store and retrieve information for educational use. Area 2: Communication General description: Communicate in digital environments, share resources through online tools, link with others and collaborate through digital tools, interact with and participate in educational communities and networks.
  45. 45. Page 45 2.1 Interacting through digital media To interact through a variety of digital devices and applications, to understand how digital communication is distributed, displayed and managed, to understand appropriate ways of communicating through digital media, to refer to different communication formats, to adapt communication modes and strategies to the specific audience. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Knows different types of software to communicate, devices suitable for this purpose and uses them appropriately depending on the purpose and the audience they are addressed to. M (Medium) 2. Knows and uses digital work environments to communicate with their students, other teachers and the educational community in general. 3. Organizes, manages and evaluates interaction activities in digital media and participates with information accompanied by images, links and videos. A (Advanced) 4. Participates actively in online communication and manages virtual groups or communities of educational interest. 5. Is able to organize and moderate virtual sessions on matters of interest to the educational community. To share with others the location and content of information found, to be willing and able to share knowledge, content and educational resources, to act as an intermediary, to be proactive in the spreading of news, content and resources, to know about citation practices and references, and to integrate new information into an existing body of knowledge. 2.2 Sharing information and content
  46. 46. Page 46 Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Shares contents and educational resources in different formats in virtual work environments, respecting the practices of citing and referencing. M (Medium) 2. Selects and communicates news, content and educational resources found in different social networks and virtual communities. A (Advanced) 3. Contributes to sharing of information and content in the educational community, integrating new information into the existing body of knowledge. 2.3 Engaging in online citizenship To participate in society through online engagement, to seek technological opportunities for self- development and empowerment in using technologies and digital environments, to be aware of the potential of technologies for citizen participation. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Knows spaces and services for network sharing in which s/he intervenes sporadically. M (Medium) 2. Locates and selects network sharing services based on their educational value and encourages student participation. 3. Actively participates in online communities and social networks for updating and professional development. A (Advanced) 4. Encourages the educational community to be aware of the potential of technology for citizen participation by carrying out networking projects and activities.
  47. 47. Page 47 2.4 Collaborating through digital media To use digital media for team work, collaborative processes and co-construction and co-creation of resources, knowledge and content. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Uses digital media to collaborate with others in performing their educational tasks. 2. Knows communication strategies to share experiences and resources. M (Medium) 3. Uses various digital media to develop resources and knowledge in collaboration with other teachers or their students. 4. Promotes, creates, organizes and actively participates in collaborative network projects. A (Advanced) 5. Organizes a common strategy for using social networks and digital media for collaboration in the educational community. 2.5 Netiquette To know and to observe behavioural norms in online/virtual interactions, to be aware of cultural diversity aspects, to be able to protect self and others from possible online dangers (e.g. cyber bullying), to develop active strategies to discover inappropriate behaviour. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Knows the basic rules of behaviour and laws on communication in digital media
  48. 48. Page 48 and practice with students. M (Medium) 2. Teaches students to be aware of cultural diversity aspects and appropriate behaviour in various digital contexts depending on the audience they are addressed to. A (Advanced) 3. Develops strategies to detect unsuitable behaviours and develops action protocols. 2.6 Managing digital identity To create, adapt and manage digital identity, to be able to protect one's e-reputation, to deal with the data that one produces through several accounts and applications. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Knows that the data provided in the use of digital media make up his/her digital identity and values the importance of managing it properly. M (Medium) 2. Helps students learn to manage their digital identity. 3. Updates his/her professional teaching profile by reflecting the educational tasks performed and resources shared on the network. A (Advanced) 4. Manages personal and institutional profiles effectively with the right tools to work collaboratively on different social networks with the educational community.
  49. 49. Page 49 Area 3: Content creation General description: Create and edit new content (from word processing to images and video); integrate and re-elaborate previous knowledge and content; produce creative expressions, multimedia contents and programming; deal with and apply intellectual property rights and licences. 3.1 Developing content To create content in different formats including multimedia, to edit and improve content that s/he has created or that others have created, to express creatively through digital media. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Creates simple digital and educational materials (text, images, tables) and shares in networks. M (Medium) 2. Creates and manages web spaces where multimedia educational content is published and adapted to the learning needs of students. A (Advanced) 3. Uses a wide variety of means by which s/he creates and edits digital educational content in a creative and innovative way. 4. Facilitates the development of projects with other teachers involving digital content creation, training, innovation in methodologies and work in virtual learning and teaching environments.
  50. 50. Page 50 3.2 Integrating and re-elaborating To modify, refine and mash-up existing resources to create new, original and relevant content and knowledge to facilitate teaching and learning. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Knows how to use a digital editor to modify own educational content and that belonging to others that s/he has previously compiled using various devices. M (Medium) 2. Integrates, combines and re-elaborates digital content and turns it into new and creative digital content, licensing it properly. 3. Collaborates and contributes to the creative reuse of digital content in virtual teaching and learning communities. A (Advanced) 4. Uses a wide range of resources to combine and re-use digital educational content and uses collaboration environments to promote their collective use. 3.3 Copyright and licences To understand how copyright and licences apply to information and content. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Knows and respects the rules on copyright and the different types of licenses when using educational materials. M (Medium) 2. Knows the rules applicable to the use of online educational materials and knows how to license his/her own digital production.
  51. 51. Page 51 A (Advanced) 3. Applies the legal framework relating to copyright in the installation and maintenance of digital media. 4. Disseminates and promotes open licensing among the educational community. 3.4 Programming To make modifications to programmes, applications, software, devices, to understand the principles of programming, to understand what is behind a programme. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Modifies the basic configuration of digital media for the needs of his/her teaching job. M (Medium) 2. Modifies the advanced features of digital media in relation to the needs of his/her teaching job. A (Advanced) 3. Effectively modifies the source code of digital media and programmes in virtual teaching and learning environments. 4. Creates virtual communication channels and programmes them properly for development of educational projects.
  52. 52. Page 52 Area 4: Safety General description: Personal information and data protection, digital identity protection, security measures, safe and sustainable use. 4.1 Protecting devices To protect own devices and to understand online risks and threats, to know about safety and security. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Performs basic maintenance and protection of the devices used: system, software and password updates. M (Medium) 2. Performs frequent upgrades and protection of the devices used, is aware of the risks of digital environments and guides the students to adopt safer behaviours. A (Advanced) 3. Organizes a methodical and consistent strategy for protecting various devices. 4. Continuously updates knowledge about risks in digital media and knows network spaces to consult known security issues and solve them. 4.2 Protecting personal data and digital identity To understand common terms of use for digital programmes and services, active protection of personal data, understanding other people’s privacy, to protect self from online fraud and threats and cyber bullying.
  53. 53. Page 53 Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Understands the privacy policy of digital environments used and knows how to protect sensitive personal data. M (Medium) 2. Knows how to collect and use their private data and recognizes his/her digital fingerprint. 3. Maintains an active role in the management and protection of his/her own digital identity and that of their students. A (Advanced) 4. Knows the existing legislation on data protection, frequently checks the privacy settings of digital environments used and can use his/her digital fingerprint if affected by third parties. 4.3 Protecting health To avoid health-risks related with the use of technology in terms of threats to physical and psychological well-being. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Knows, detects and is able to avoid general risks to physical health and psychological well-being caused by the misuse of digital media. M (Medium) 2. Knows and applies protocols for prevention of conflict situations of a social and psychological nature in the use of digital media.
  54. 54. Page 54 A (Advanced) 3. Creates strategies to prevent misuse of digital environments and devices. 4.4 Protecting the environment To be aware of the impact of ICT on the environment. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Knows how to reduce energy consumption in the use of digital devices and has information about the environmental problems associated with their manufacture, use and disposal. M (Medium) 2. Has informed opinions about the positive and negative aspects of the use of technology on the environment and knows how to optimize the use of the devices. A (Advanced) 3. Organizes strategies for efficient use of digital devices and makes proper purchasing and disposal decisions according to the educational activities carried out with them. Area 5: Problem solving General description: Identify digital needs and resources, make informed decisions on most appropriate digital tools according to the purpose or need, solve conceptual problems through digital media, creatively use technologies, solve technical problems, update own and other's competence.
  55. 55. Page 55 5.1 Solving technical problems To identify possible technical problems and solve them (solving from basic problems to solving more complex problems). Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Knows the characteristics of devices, tools, environments and digital services used regularly in his/her teaching job and are able to identify a technical problem, clearly explaining what the malfunction is. M (Medium) 2. Resolves non-complex technical problems related to digital devices and environments commonly used in their professional duties with the help of technical manuals or information available. A (Advanced) 3. Has a sufficiently advanced knowledge of the characteristics of digital devices, tools and environments used to independently solve technical problems as they arise. 4. Helps others in the education community and works with them in solving technical problems in the routine use of digital devices, tools and environments. Uses collaborative learning spaces and participates in communities to find solutions to technical problems. 5.2 Identifying needs and technological responses To assess own needs in terms of resources, tools and competence development, to match needs with possible solutions, adapting tools to personal needs, to critically evaluate possible solutions and digital tools.
  56. 56. Page 56 Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Knows how to browse and select digital tools and resources to meet learning needs and solve common teacher-related work tasks. 2. Is able to locate and use virtual learning environments and follow online courses for teacher training. M (Medium) 3. Can critically assess the different possibilities that environments, tools and digital services offer to resolve the teachers' work-related tasks and select the one best suited to the needs of the moment. A (Advanced) 4. Creates own digital repositories that are maintained updated and regularly used to meet the needs identified in his/her work and professional development of teachers. 5. Participates in virtual learning communities where needs related to teaching work are identified and technological solutions are proposed and passed on to members of the educational community. 5.3 Innovating and creatively using technology To innovate with technology, to actively participate in collaborative digital and multimedia production, to express oneself creatively through digital media and technologies, to create knowledge and solve conceptual problems with the support of digital tools. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Uses technologies in his/her usual professional work to find alternative and innovative solutions that facilitate learning tasks.
  57. 57. Page 57 M (Medium) 2. Uses technologies to analyze needs in his/her daily work, manage innovative solutions and participate in creative projects, dynamically adapting and complementing digital media offered by his/her organization for their teaching duties. A (Advanced) 3. Knows a wide range of creative and innovative ways to use technologies for application in teaching and creatively updates them according to the evolution of digital media and learning needs. 4. Actively involved in professional communities of practice that share creative and innovative initiatives for educational use of digital media, also disseminating best practices and initiatives in the educational community. 5.4 Identification of digital competence gaps To understand where own competence needs to be improved or updated, to support others in the development of their digital competence, to keep up-to-date with new developments. Level Descriptor I (Initial) 1. Identifies the deficiencies of students in the use of digital media for learning, as well as their own in their professional development as teachers. M (Medium) 2. Searches, explores and experiments with emerging digital technologies that help him/her stay up-to-date and cover possible gaps in the digital competence needed for his/her teaching and professional development. A (Advanced) 3. Organizes his/her own learning and updating system, makes changes and methodological adaptations for continuous improvement of the educational use of digital media, which is shared with the educational community, supporting others in the development of their digital competence.
  58. 58. Page 58 Annex I: Glossary There are some basic terms that are used in this report that are based on currently endorsed definitions. The DIGCOMP project aims to support framework and guidelines development, as such the European Qualifications Framework – EQF – has been used as a reference for several aspects, including the definition of some basic terms (European Parliament and the Council, 2008). Knowledge ‘Knowledge’ means the outcome of the assimilation of information through learning. Knowledge is the body of facts, principles, theories and practices that is related to a field of work or study. In the context of the European Qualifications Framework, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual. Skills ‘Skills’ means the ability to apply knowledge and use know-how to complete tasks and solve problems. In the context of the European Qualifications Framework, skills are described as cognitive (involving the use of logical, intuitive and creative thinking) or practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments). Attitudes ‘Attitudes’ are conceived as the motivators of performance, the basis for continued competent performance. They include values, aspirations and priorities. Competence There are two slightly different definitions of ‘competence’ in the recent European policy recommendations. In the Key Competences Recommendation, ‘competence’ is defined as a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to the context (European Parliament and the Council, 2006). In the European Qualifications Framework recommendation, ‘competence’ is seen as the most advanced element of the framework descriptors and is defined as the proven ability to use knowledge, skills and personal, social and/or methodological abilities, in work or study situations and in professional and personal development. Furthermore, in the context of the European Qualifications Framework, competence is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy (European Parliament and the Council, 2008).
  59. 59. Page 59 Dimensions The concept of "dimension", as used in this work, has been borrowed from the eCompetence framework for ICT professionals. In both works, the word 'dimension' refers to the structure of the framework, i.e. the way in which the content of the framework is displayed. In this report, 5 dimensions have been identified: dimension 1 refers to the areas of digital competence, dimension 2 to the competences that belong to each area, dimension 3 to the levels that are foreseen for each competence, dimension 4 to the examples per each competence of the relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes that are needed, and finally, dimension 5 to the purpose (or context) where each specific competence can be applied. Purpose In this work, purpose refers to the context of applicability of each competence. Digital technologies are more and more used in domains (at work, school, home) and with different finalities (entertainment, social life, work, learning). Therefore, the purposes depicted here show how the specific competence can be applied to that specific context. In other words, they translate the general competence description into a more real-life example. The purposes that have been identified are: Leisure; Social; Buying and Selling; Learning; Employment; Citizenship; Well-being. Only Learning and Employment are included as descriptions in this report.  Leisure: use of technologies for entertainment or personal issues (examples include: looking for flights for holidays, gaming, reading ebooks, watching web-streamed videos, listening to music through digital tools);  Social: interact with friends and peers with digital tools (examples include: sending emails or SMS, participating to social networking sites, linking with others through online communities);  Buying and Selling: using online resources to buy and sell goods, ecommerce, online consumerism (examples include: buying a flight or train ticket online, buying applications and software, buying and selling virtual goods such as items to be used in virtual words in video- game environments, taking part in consumer-to-consumer services);  Learning: using technologies for life-long learning (examples include: using reference software when writing a university assignment, using the web to browse for information, using specialised subscriptions to access scientific articles, using online communities as a network for the exchange of knowledge);  Employment: using technologies to perform different types of work (examples include: using software to register orders of clients in a bar and to calculate the bill, using spreadsheet to calculate budget, understanding wireless settings of mechanic machines);
  60. 60. Page 60  Citizenship: using technologies to use services and to take active part in civic life (examples include: online banking, eGovernment, eCommerce)  Well-being: using technologies for health-related purposes (examples include: taking appointments with the doctor, checking online information for health related issues, using a track system log data about sport activities).
  61. 61. Page 61 Annex II: Summary of digital competence descriptors for teachers by levels. Initial Level Information 1.1 Browsing, searching and filtering information 1. Locates information in different formats using keywords on search engines and makes them suitable for inclusion in the design of educational activities. 1.2 Evaluating information 2. Can critically evaluate a site or resource before using it in the classroom, by analyzing the author, origin, licences and other data. 3. Evaluates the usefulness of the resources located on the Internet to support learning in the area, subject or corresponding module. 1.3 Storing and retrieving information 4. Is capable of storing information of educational value in different formats (videos, images, text and web pages) and classifying it in a way that allows it to be retrieved. 5. Makes backup copies of the information or documentation s/he deems important and knows how to use external storage spaces for this purpose. Communication 2.1. Interacting through digital media 6. Knows different types of software to communicate, devices suitable for this purpose and uses them appropriately depending on the purpose and the audience they are addressed to. 2.2 Sharing information and content 7. Shares contents and educational resources in different formats in virtual work environments, respecting the practices of citing and referencing. 2.3 Engaging in online citizenship 8. Knows spaces and services for network sharing in which s/he intervenes sporadically.
  62. 62. Page 62 2.4 Collaborating through digital media 9. Uses digital media to collaborate with others in performing their educational tasks. 10. Knows communication strategies to share experiences and resources. 2.5 Netiquette 11. Knows the basic rules of behaviour and laws on communication in digital media and practice with students. 2.6. Managing digital identity 12. Knows that the data provided in the use of digital media make up his/her digital identity and values the importance of managing it properly. ContentCreation 3.1 Developing content 13. Creates simple digital and educational materials (text, images, tables) and shares in networks. 3.2 Integrating and re- elaborating 14. Knows how to use a digital editor to modify own educational content and that belonging to others that s/he has previously compiled using various devices. 3.3 Copyright and licences 15. Knows and respects the rules on copyright and the different types of licences when using educational materials. 3.4 Programming 16. Modifies the basic configuration of digital media for the needs of his/her teaching job. Safety 4.1 Protecting devices 17. Performs basic maintenance and protection of the devices used: system, software and password updates. 4.2 Protecting personal data and digital entity 18. Understands the privacy policy of digital environments used and knows how to protect sensitive personal data. 4.3 Protecting health 19. Knows, detects and is able to avoid general risks to physical health and psychological well-being caused by the misuse of digital media.
  63. 63. Page 63 4.4 Protecting the environment 20. Knows how to reduce energy consumption in the use of digital devices and has information about the environmental problems associated with their manufacture, use and disposal. Solvingtechnicalproblems 5.1 Solving technical problems 21. Knows the characteristics of devices, tools, environments and digital services used regularly in his/her teaching job and is able to identify a technical problem, clearly explaining what the malfunction is. 5.2 Identifying needs and technological responses 22. Knows how to browse and select digital tools and resources to meet learning needs and solve common teacher-related work tasks. 23. Is able to locate and use virtual learning environments and follow online courses for teacher training. 5.3 Innovating and creatively using technology 24. Uses technologies in his/her usual professional work to find alternative and innovative solutions that facilitate learning tasks. 5.4 Identification of digital competence gaps 25. Identifies the deficiencies of students in the use of digital media for learning, as well as their own in their professional development as teachers.
  64. 64. Page 64 Medium Level Information 1.1 Browsing, searching and filtering information 1. Configures the web browsers, finds dynamic information sources of interest to the teaching profession and manages the monitoring of these information flows for their professional updating. 1.2 Evaluating information 2. Knows the restrictions of educational resources posted with copyright protection and that there are other types of licences that allow reuse or distribution, whose information s/he can identify. 4. Evaluates the quality of educational resources available on the Internet in terms of accuracy and alignment with the curriculum 1.3 Storing and retrieving information 4. Uses social digital media to mark and organize resources for teaching purposes Communication 2.1. Interacting through digital media 5. Knows and uses digital work environments to communicate with their students, other teachers and the educational community in general. 6. Organizes, coordinates and evaluates interaction activities in digital media and participates with information accompanied by images, links and videos. 2.2 Sharing information and content 7. Selects and communicates news, educational content and resources found in different social networks and virtual communities. 2.3 Engaging in online citizenship 8. Locates and selects network sharing services based on their educational value and encourages student participation. 9. Actively participates in online communities and social networks for updating and professional
  65. 65. Page 65 development. 2.4 Collaborating through digital media 10. Uses various digital media to develop resources and knowledge in collaboration with other teachers or their students. 11. Promotes, creates, organizes and actively participates in collaborative network projects. 2.5 Netiquette 12. Teaches students to be aware of cultural diversity aspects and appropriate behaviour in various digital contexts depending on the audience they are addressed to. 2.6. Managing digital identity 13. Helps students learn to manage their digital identity. 14. Updates his/her professional teaching profile by reflecting the educational tasks performed and resources shared on the network. ContentCreation 3.1 Developing content 15. Creates and manages web spaces where multimedia educational content is published and adapted to the learning needs of students. 3.2 Integrating and re-elaborating 16. Integrates, combines and re-elaborates digital content and turns it into new and creative digital content, licensing it properly. 17. Collaborates and contributes to the creative reuse of digital content in virtual teaching and learning communities. 3.3 Copyright and licences 18. Knows the rules applicable to the use of online educational materials and knows how to license his/her own digital production 3.4 Programming 19. Modifies the advanced features of digital media in relation to the needs of his/her teaching job.
  66. 66. Page 66 Safety 4.1 Protecting devices 20. Performs frequent upgrades and protection of the devices used, is aware of the risks of digital environments and guides the students to adopt safer behaviours. 4.2 Protecting personal data and digital identity 21. Knows how to collect and use their private data and recognizes his/her digital fingerprint. 22. Maintains an active role in the management and protection of his/her own digital identity and that of their students. 4.3 Protecting health 23. Knows and applies protocols for prevention of conflict situations of a social and psychological nature in the use of digital media. 4.4 Protecting the environment 24. Has informed opinions about the positive and negative aspects of the use of technology on the environment and knows how to optimize the use of the devices. Solvingtechnicalproblems 5.1 Solving technical problems 25. Resolves non-complex technical problems related to digital devices and environments commonly used in their professional duties with the help of technical manuals or information available. 5.2 Identifying needs and technological responses 26. Can critically assess the different possibilities that environments, tools and digital services offer to resolve the teachers' work-related tasks and select the one best suited to the needs of the moment. 5.3 Innovating and creatively using technology 27. Uses technologies to analyze needs in his/her daily work, manage innovative solutions and participate in creative projects, dynamically adapting and complementing digital media offered by his/her organization for their teaching duties. 5.4 Identification of digital competence 28. Searches, explores and experiments with emerging digital technologies that help him/her stay
  67. 67. Page 67 gaps up-to-date and cover possible gaps in the digital competence needed for his/her teaching and professional development. Advanced Level Information 1.1 Browsing, searching and filtering information 1. Designs a customized search strategy and access to information in different formats that allows the continuous updating of resources, best practices and educational trends. 1.2 Evaluating information 2. Intervenes critically in teaching practice communities by combining, classifying and disseminating information and educational resources. 1.3 Storing and retrieving information 3. Organizes a social strategy, connected to experts, colleagues and students through digital media, with appropriate methods to organize, store and retrieve information for educational use. Communication 2.1. Interacting through digital media 4. Participates actively in online communication and manages virtual groups or communities of educational interest. 5. Is able to organize and moderate virtual sessions on matters of interest to the educational community. 2.2 Sharing information and content 6. Selects and communicates news, educational content and resources found in different social networks and virtual communities.
  68. 68. Page 68 2.3 Engaging in online citizenship 7. Encourages the educational community to be aware of the potential of technology for citizen participation by carrying out networking projects and activities. 2.4 Collaborating through digital media 8. Organizes a common strategy for using social networks and digital media for collaboration in the educational community. 2.5 Netiquette 9. Develops strategies to detect unsuitable behaviours and develops action protocols. 2.6. Managing digital identity 10. Manages personal and institutional profiles effectively with the right tools to work collaboratively on different social networks with the educational community. ContentCreation 3.1 Developing content 11. Uses a wide variety of means by which s/he creates and edits digital educational content in a creative and innovative way. 12. Facilitates the development of projects with other teachers involving digital content creation, training, innovation in methodologies and work in virtual learning and teaching environments. 3.2 Integrating and re-elaborating 13. Uses a wide range of resources to combine and re-use digital educational content and uses collaboration environments to promote their collective use. 3.3 Copyright and licences 14. Applies the legal framework relating to copyright in the installation and maintenance of digital media. 15. Disseminates and promotes open licensing among the educational community. 3.4 Programming 16. Effectively modifies the source code of digital media and programmes in virtual teaching and

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