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NTULO, E
• Audit is generally defined as an examination of documents
and results to find out whether they are in the desired order....
• There are three types of audit
1. Statutory audit – it is for financial accounts of
companies registered under the Compa...
• Any audit can be classified into two groups:
a) Propriety audit
 Aims at checking if the action and decision are in
coo...
b) Efficient audit.
Involves the comparison of actual with target.
Target are not questioned.
The difference between th...
PROJECT CONTROL PCA
Refers to the periodic comparison of
expected and actual expenditure
before the completion of the capi...
PCA must accomplish at least four primary objectives.
1)Financial control mechanism –
helps in evaluating Financial and n...
2) Provide information for future capital expenditure
decisions.
3) Removing certain psychology and political
impediments ...
 It helps provide a check on personal biases
 It improves the quality of estimates
 It improve the productivity as esti...
• The person or team to perform PCA needs to be
identified at the planning stage
i. The group that evaluate the project
ii...
• Depends on the type of assets.
Example strategic projects should be post audited more
frequently than operating capital ...
 The size of the project
 Stake involved in the project
 Scope of the project
 Strategic importance of the project for...
 Should not be shared, Why?
 It will affect the morale of the project team if the
results are not good.
1) Collection of appropriate information.
 Starting point – project completion report.
 Compare the projected data with ...
2) Recasting data.
Collected data should be recast/ reorganized before they
are compared.
The collected data must be fir...
4) Establish the possible causes of variance.
Once variance figures are calculated, if they are
significant the possible c...
• There are four techniques of PCA, namely:
1) Cost variance analysis.
In this method only the project cost (actual and es...
3) Cash flow and financial criteria variance analysis.
This method is developed around four schedules that can
provide the...
b) Cash flow and financial criteria variance analysis
schedule.
This is used to illustrate project cash flow and return
va...
4) Present value Depreciation Technique (PVD)
Calculation of year wise NPV and IRR.
Is defined as the decline in the prese...
 Stemar associates deals with sport items. Recently they
have set up a manufacturing facility. The abstract of the
capita...
Year Cash flow
Budgeted Actual Projected
1 30,000 25,000
2 50,000 40,000
3 70,000 50,000
4 70,000 50,000
The company’s cost of capital is 15%. Calculate:
1.NPV, IRR and uniform annual series of the project.
2.Present value of D...
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Post completion audit (pca)

Project Planning

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Post completion audit (pca)

  1. 1. NTULO, E
  2. 2. • Audit is generally defined as an examination of documents and results to find out whether they are in the desired order. • Capital expenditure plans and control do not end with project construction but rather there is a last phase known as PCA. • PCA is an attempt at assessing the actual profile of a given project in terms of results vis-à-vis the intended profile besides focusing on whatever matters the senior management desires. • Usually a PCA is pursued as the major vehicle for project analysis.
  3. 3. • There are three types of audit 1. Statutory audit – it is for financial accounts of companies registered under the Companies Act,2002. 2. Cost audit – mandatory for some industries 3. Internal audit – voluntary for the verification of actions against prescribed rules and procedures. • PCA is part of internal audit but goes beyond comparison of actual against laid down rules.
  4. 4. • Any audit can be classified into two groups: a) Propriety audit  Aims at checking if the action and decision are in coordination with objectives.  The auditor is allowed to question the policies, rules and regulations instead of just comparing with the target.  The purpose is to find the cause of deviation so as to overcome the same problem in the future.
  5. 5. b) Efficient audit. Involves the comparison of actual with target. Target are not questioned. The difference between the propriety and efficient audit is that efficient audit can be performed by middle level personnel while propriety audit needs to be performed by the senior and well informed personnel with an open mind and analytical ability.
  6. 6. PROJECT CONTROL PCA Refers to the periodic comparison of expected and actual expenditure before the completion of the capital project. Usually conducted after the project construction is complete. Aims at checking whether the project in question remains within acceptable limits Mainly aims at improving the effectiveness next time a new project is undertaken Is more of a routine activity alongside the progress of the project, and hence it normally involves the lower level of management. It is not a routine activity and is specific to the project. It is efficient audit It is Propriety audit
  7. 7. PCA must accomplish at least four primary objectives. 1)Financial control mechanism – helps in evaluating Financial and non financial impact of the project to the company (positive or negative) How the actual results of the project compare to data and assumptions included in the program request. Future actions that are necessary or expected regarding the project.
  8. 8. 2) Provide information for future capital expenditure decisions. 3) Removing certain psychology and political impediments usually associated with asset control and abandonment. 4) Psychological impact on the individuals proposing capital investment.
  9. 9.  It helps provide a check on personal biases  It improves the quality of estimates  It improve the productivity as estimates becomes goals.  It helps to identify limiting factors.  Recognition to those involved in capital expenditure planning
  10. 10. • The person or team to perform PCA needs to be identified at the planning stage i. The group that evaluate the project ii. The project team iii.A team representing the planning group, execution group and neutral members iv.An external agency can be entrusted with the task.
  11. 11. • Depends on the type of assets. Example strategic projects should be post audited more frequently than operating capital projects. The riskiness of an asses should also determine the frequency of post audit.
  12. 12.  The size of the project  Stake involved in the project  Scope of the project  Strategic importance of the project for the organization
  13. 13.  Should not be shared, Why?  It will affect the morale of the project team if the results are not good.
  14. 14. 1) Collection of appropriate information.  Starting point – project completion report.  Compare the projected data with the accounting data collected through the regular MIS.  The auditor needs to collect information about the incremental cash flows rather than the total cost figures.
  15. 15. 2) Recasting data. Collected data should be recast/ reorganized before they are compared. The collected data must be first adjusted with external factors like inflation before it is compared. 3) Comparison of projected financial parameters with actual The comparison is a starting point from which the real audit begins by comparing the comparable data.
  16. 16. 4) Establish the possible causes of variance. Once variance figures are calculated, if they are significant the possible causes for the same are explored. 5) Final recommendations. Once the causes are ascertained the PCA can give recommendations based on which the manager may take decisions for cash flow forecasting to reinvest or abandon the ongoing project.
  17. 17. • There are four techniques of PCA, namely: 1) Cost variance analysis. In this method only the project cost (actual and estimate) is studied. 2)Profit variance analysis Profit analysis is carried out by the auditor, and the estimated gain adjusted with the inflationary effect is compared with actuals.
  18. 18. 3) Cash flow and financial criteria variance analysis. This method is developed around four schedules that can provide the management with the information it needs to find engineering, operational and administrative costing faults of past projects. a)Profit variance analysis schedule
  19. 19. b) Cash flow and financial criteria variance analysis schedule. This is used to illustrate project cash flow and return variances between the projected and actual results. c) Project cash flow schedule (projected and actual) These are used to show the projected and actual cash flows of the project. Each cash flow entry is made according to the time it was projected to be incurred or was actually incurred d) Supplementary schedule: these schedules explain for the significant variances
  20. 20. 4) Present value Depreciation Technique (PVD) Calculation of year wise NPV and IRR. Is defined as the decline in the present value of the expected future cash flow during the year using IRR as the discount rate.
  21. 21.  Stemar associates deals with sport items. Recently they have set up a manufacturing facility. The abstract of the capital budget and the actual cash flow in the first two years are given below. PCA has estimated the subsequent two years cash low. The estimate life of the project is four years. Initial cash outlay is Tshs. 134,000
  22. 22. Year Cash flow Budgeted Actual Projected 1 30,000 25,000 2 50,000 40,000 3 70,000 50,000 4 70,000 50,000
  23. 23. The company’s cost of capital is 15%. Calculate: 1.NPV, IRR and uniform annual series of the project. 2.Present value of Depreciation 3.Year wise NPV and year wise IRR for planned figures. 4.Year wise NPV and year wise IRR for the first two years actual and next years project cash flows 5.Show NPV and IRR variance over the period

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