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refers to methods used in gathering and
treating subjects for a specific study. In
order to compare the results of one group
to the results of a second group.
Standardization of the research methods is
often a lengthy process. The same
directions must be read to each student,
the same questions must be given, and the
same amount of time must be assured.
Reliability refers to stability or
consistency of measurement over time
Validity refers to a test's ability to
measure what it is supposed to measure
Norms is the normal or average
Experimental control is a basic
requirement for any psychological test or
experimental procedure. Typically this
includes the standardization instruction,
administration (including manipulation)
and measurement of variables of
Clear instructions appropriate for the
particular population need to be
provided. Verbal instruction are
necessary, consideration should be
given to the rate of speaking, tone of
voice, inflections, facial and bodily
expression or pauses. A good
example of how imprecision in
administration can lead to biased
results is evident in the testing
In essence, this type of
standardization tries to reduce the
influence of any extraneous variable
on the test or experimental
performance of the participants. If
procedures are not standard, this
will affect the reliability and internal
validity and result in biased findings.
Standardization of procedure is often
used in context of test development
(e.g. time limit, test instruction, item
order) than in experimental design.
In experimental design, these issues
are often discussed under the
headings of internal and external
Another important step in the
standardization of a test is the
establishment of norms. In the process
of standardization a test, it is
administrated to a large,
representative sample of the type of
persons for whom it is designed. This
group known as the standardization
sample serves to establish the norms.
To ensure that all participants have the
same experience, researchers should
ensure that they are all tested:
• In the same place, with the same
equipment and materials placed in the
• Under the same conditions, so the level of
lighting, noise and heat remains the same
for all participants.
• At roughly the same time of day, as
people may behave differently if tested
at nine o'clock in the morning rather
than five o'clock at night.
• Given identical standardized
instructions in exactly the same way.
Standardization of Interpretation
• Scores of psychological tests are often
not interpreted in their raw form, but
against so called norms. Psychological
tests typically have no predetermined
standards against which performance
of individuals or groups of individuals
can be evaluated.
Standardization of Interpretation
• Test scores are compared to some
norms that was obtained by applying
the same test in a sample supposed to
represent the population. Norms can
be seen as typical, normal or average
performance within the population.