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Tongue Anatomy

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Tongue from anatomy point of view

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Tongue Anatomy

  1. 1. Tongue FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY COURSE BME 7014 DEVELOPED BY AHMED EL-WALI 1 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  2. 2. Outlines Motivation. Functions. Structure. Papillae. Muscles. Vessels. Innervations. Diseases. Tongue and Sleep Apnea.  Conclusion.  Questions.  References. 2 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  3. 3. Motivation Curiosity to know more about tongue structure and functions How could we enhance our tongue muscles? Tongue and its role in sleep apnea disease Figuring some of tongue diseases 3 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  4. 4. Functions Participating with the nose in tasting process Participating in producing speech “Changing the cavity frequency” Participating in swallowing process Participating in the chewing process “Eating” Preventing foreign substances from entering the air way “play as the 3rd line of defense after lips and teeth” 4 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  5. 5. Tongue is a muscular structure that forms part of the floor of the oral cavity and part of the anterior wall of the oropharynx. 5 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  6. 6. Tongue The Root of the tongue is attached to the mandible and the hyoid bone. 6 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  7. 7. Tongue Superior surface “the anterior two-thirds of the tongue” is oriented in the horizontal direction. Pharyngeal surface “the posterior one-third of the tongue” is oriented more in the vertical plan. 7 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  8. 8. Tongue The oral and pharyngeal surfaces are separated by a V-shaped “sulcus terminal” At the Apex of the V-shaped sulcus a small depression (called foramen cecum of the tongue) 8 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  9. 9. Tongue In some people, the thyroglossal duct connects the foramen cecum with the Thyroid gland in the neck. The Thyroid gland makes and stores hormones that help regulate the heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and the rate at which food is converted into energy. 9 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  10. 10. Papillae The superior surface of the oral part of the tongue is covered by Hundreds of papillae. It has the tasting buds. 10 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  11. 11. Filiform papillae Is small cone-shaped with one or multi ends. Act as an abrasive coating, which gives the tongue a cleaning and rasping action. 11 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  12. 12. Fungiform papillae Rounded shaped and larger than filiform and more concentrated on the tongue margins. are involved in the sensations of taste and have taste buds embedded in their surfaces. They respond to both sweet and sour tastes. 12 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  13. 13. Vallate Papillae The Largest one, Blunt-ended cylindrical papillae ‘less sharp end’ are involved in the sensations of taste and have taste buds embedded in their surfaces ”more sensitive to bitter tastes” There is a set of seven to twelve of these papillae. 13 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  14. 14. Foliate Papillae Linear folds on the sides of the tongue near the sulcus terminal. are involved in the sensations of taste and have taste buds embedded in their surfaces. are clustered into two groups on each side of the tongue. Note: There are no papillae on the pharyngeal surface. 14 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  15. 15. Tongue Muscles The tongue is divided into a left and right half by a median sagittal septum. All tongue muscles are paired. It has two types: Intrinsic muscles. Extrinsic muscles. 15 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  16. 16. Intrinsic muscles Originate and insert within the substance of the tongue. Types: Superior longitudinal Inferior longitudinal Transverse muscles Vertical muscles Function: Altering the tongue shape: Lengthening and shortening the tongue. Curling and uncurling its apex and edges. Flattening and rounding its surface. Working in pairs or one side at a time. 16 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  17. 17. Superior longitudinal Origin: The back of the tongue and from the median septum. Insertion: On the margin of the tongue Function: Shortens tongue, curls apex and sides of tongue. 17 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  18. 18. Inferior longitudinal Origin: Root of the tongue ‘some from the hyoid’ Insertion: Apex of the tongue Function: Shortens tongue, uncurls apex and turns it downward. 18 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  19. 19. Transverse muscles Origin: Median septum of the tongue Insertion: Lateral margins of tongue. Function: Narrows and elongates tongue. 19 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  20. 20. Vertical muscles Origin: Dorsum of tongue Insertion: Ventral of the tongue Function: Flattens and widens the tongue 20 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  21. 21. Extrinsic Muscles Originate from the structures outside the tongue and insert into the tongue. Types: Genioglossus. Hyoglossus. Styloglossus. Palatoglossus. Functions: Protruding the tongue. Retracting the tongue. Depressing the tongue. Elevating the tongue. 21 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  22. 22. Genioglossus Origin: Superior mental spines Insertion: Body of the hyoid Function: Protrudes the anterior part of the tongue, depresses center of tongue 22 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  23. 23. Hyoglossus Origin: Greater horn of the hyoid bone. Insertion: Lateral surface of the tongue. Function: Depresses tongue. 23 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  24. 24. Styloglossus Origin: Styloid process Insertion: Lateral surface of the tongue Function: Elevates and retracts tongue. Pulling the back of the tongue superiorly. 24 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  25. 25. Palatoglossus Origin: Inferior surface of palatine aponeurosis ‘muscle of the soft palate’ Insertion: Lateral margin of tongue Function: Elevates back of tongue and depresses the soft palate. 25 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  26. 26. Vessels Arteries: Lingual artery. Originated from the carotid artery in the neck. Veins: Deep Lingual veins. Dorsal Lingual veins. Drains into the internal lingual vein in the neck. 26 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  27. 27. Innervations For the motors: All the muscles are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve [XII]. Excecpt the palatoglossus muscle which is innervated by the vagus nerve [X]. For the sensors: ”taste and sensation” Mandibular nerve. Lingual nerve. Facial nerve. Glossopharyngeal nerve. 27 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  28. 28. Tongue Diseases Oral cancer 28 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014 Geographic tongue (benign migratory glossitis) Median rhomboid glossitis Ankyloglossia
  29. 29. Tongue and sleep Apnea Tongue falls down and blocks the air way causes stopping breathing during sleeping. You may have to strengthen your tongue muscle by doing some exercises. There is a video on YouTube called “Stop Sleep Apnea Now!“ by doing some exercises for the tongue muscles. 29 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  30. 30. Conclusion Tongue is a very vital organ in your body Tongue does many important functions Keep your tongue safe! 30 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  31. 31. Questions Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  32. 32. References http://www.healthhype.com/ http://www.thefitindian.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/ http://skullanatomy.info/ http://www.innerbody.com/ http://4.bp.blogspot.com/ http://image.slidesharecdn.com/ http://www.acpmedicine.com/ http://www.macmillan.org.uk/ http://www.cdc.gov/ http://www.bigfootencounters.com/ https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/ http://www.healthhype.com/ http://media.dentalcare.com/ http://intranet.tdmu.edu.ua/ http://www.sleepdisordersguide.com/ 32 Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014
  33. 33. Thanks Ahmed El-Wali Functional Anatomy Course BME 7014

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