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Knowledge graphs in search engines

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From the semantic interoperability problem to Google's knowledge graph passing from the Semantic Web, Linked Data, Yahoo! search monkey, Facebook Open Graph, and schema.org.

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Knowledge graphs in search engines

  1. 1. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Knowledge Graphs in search engines like Google Emanuele Della Valle DEIB - Politecnico di Milano http://emanueledellavalle.org @manudellavalle
  2. 2. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Share, Remix, Reuse — Legally This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Your are free: to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work to Remix — to adapt the work Under the following conditions Attribution — You must attribute the work by inserting “by E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle” at the end of each reused slide To view a copy of this license, visithttp ://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ 2
  3. 3. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Me • Assistant Professor at DEIB Politecnico di Milano • Expert in semantic technologies and stream computing • Brander of stream reasoning: an approach to master the velocity and variety dimension of Big Data • https://scholar.google.com/scholar? hl=en&q="stream+reasoning" • 17 years of experience in research and innovation projects • Startupper: • http://www.fluxedo.com 3 emanuele.dellavalle@poli mi.it @manudellavalle http://emanueledellavalle.o rg http://streamreasoning.org http://fluxedo.com
  4. 4. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle • The interoperability problem • The standardization dilemma • One standard does not fit all • Embrace change with semantic technologies • Demo time for Google Knowledge Graph • How this become possible Agenda 4
  5. 5. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Definitions of Interoperability • Interoperability • the ability of information and communication technology (ICT) systems to exchange data and to enable sharing of information and knowledge • Functional interoperability • Information has to be transmitted reliably between heterogeneous applications • Semantic interoperability • Transmission must occur without loss of meaning, and thus without loss of computability • E.g., Semantic Interoperability in healthcare information systems • It is the ability to share information without loss of computable meaning, across multiple applications concerned with clinical (primary use) and related administrative, financial, and research domains (secondary uses). 5
  6. 6. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Once upon a time … 6 …, in an happy organization, users were happy of the application the IT department prepared for them, but … application […] … the organization was not alone. Another organization developed a complementary application … complementary application […] … so, one day, the two organizations decided to integrate the two applications. Organizational boundaries application […] complementary application […] Organizational boundaries application […] ? Having much to gain the happy organization decided to invest in a bi-lateral solution complementary application […] Organizational boundaries application […] adapter !
  7. 7. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle … this went on for a while, but … 7 […] ! … the more bi-lateral integrations, the sadder the organizations became. […] […] […] […] […] […] ! ! !! !! !! !?! !!! ! !! !?!?!? ?!? ?!? ! OK !! Good !!! Very Good !?! Very Good … ?!? Have I done the right thing? ??? Does it make sence? ?#@ Why am I doying it!!! Legend
  8. 8. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle … So, they standardized and … 8 […] […] […] […] […] […] […] standard … and they lived happily ever after!
  9. 9. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Well, not really :-( Actually … 9 […] […] […] […] […] […] […] ??? KEEP CALM AND WAIT FOR 1 YEARS10100
  10. 10. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Why? The Standardization dilemma! Comprehensive Handles all use cases Good High quality Timely Completed quickly Pick two! Pick two! 10
  11. 11. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle There are a variety of them 11 Standards are like plumbs
  12. 12. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Over 100 in the Healthcare domain! AIR ALT AOD AOT BI CCC CCPSS CCS CDT CHV COSTAR CPM CPT CPTSP CSP CST DDB DMDICD10 DMDUMD DSM3R DSM4 DXP FMA HCDT HCPCS HCPT HL7V2.5 HL7V3.0 HLREL ICD10 ICD10AE ICD10AM ICD10AMAE ICD10CM ICD10DUT ICD10PCS ICD9CM ICF ICF-CY ICPC ICPC2EDUT ICPC2EENG ICPC2ICD10DUT ICPC2ICD10ENG ICPC2P ICPCBAQ ICPCDAN ICPCDUT ICPCFIN ICPCFRE ICPCGER ICPCHEB ICPCHUN ICPCITA ICPCNOR ICPCPOR ICPCSPA ICPCSWE JABL KCD5 LCH LNC_AD8 LNC_MDS30 MCM MEDLINEPLUS MSHCZE MSHDUT MSHFIN MSHFRE MSHGER MSHITA MSHJPN MSHLAV MSHNOR MSHPOL MSHPOR MSHRUS MSHSCR MSHSPA MSHSWE MTH MTHCH MTHHH MTHICD9 MTHICPC2EAE MTHICPC2ICD10AE MTHMST MTHMSTFRE MTHMSTITA NAN NCISEER NIC NOC OMS PCDS PDQ PNDS PPAC PSY QMR RAM RCD RCDAE RCDSA RCDSY SNM SNMI SOP SPN SRC TKMT ULT UMD USPMG UWDA WHO WHOFRE WHOGER WHOPOR WHOSPA 12 [source: dbooth.org/2014/yosemite/yosemite-project-slides.pdf]
  13. 13. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle And they keep changing :-( 13 [Credits: Rafael Richards]
  14. 14. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Why? 14 [source http://xkcd.com/927/ ]
  15. 15. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle … sometime the variety is required 15 standards are like plumbs
  16. 16. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle One standard does not fit all Different use cases need need different data, granularity and representations 16 [source: dbooth.org/2014/yosemite/yosemite-project-slides.pdf]
  17. 17. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle … thus translation is needed 17 standards are like plumbs
  18. 18. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle And counting on translation between standards is even convenient while working on increasing the comprehensiveness of a standard over time 18 Translation is unavoidable! Comprehensive 0% 100% Time Translation Standard
  19. 19. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle But be aware of the cost of ad hoc translation! 19 standards are like plumbs
  20. 20. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle …in healthcare costs $30000 Million per year in USA [source: http://www.calgaryscientific.com/blog/bid/284224/Interoperability-Could- Reduce-U-S-Healthcare-Costs-by-Thirty-Billion] 20 The luck of interoperability …
  21. 21. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle So What?!? “It is not necessarily the strongest of the species that survives nor the most intelligent, but the one that is most responsive to change.” --- Charles Darwin “The Origin of Species” 21
  22. 22. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Embrace change! 22
  23. 23. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Semantic Technologies embrace change 23 subject objectobject property Proposing a simple data model: RDF E.g., Flexible enough to represent: Tables Amoxi- cillin bacterial disease bacterial disease treats Trees Graphs
  24. 24. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Providing a powerful query language: SPARQL E.g., what does Amoxicillin treat? ?x={Bacterial disease, Urinary tract infection, Sinus infection, …} Flexible enough to query RDF data even without knowing the schema E.g., can you describe Amoxicillin ? ?p={treats} ?x={Bacterial disease, Urinary tract infection, Sinus infection, …} ?p={hasSideEffects} ?x={Diarrhoea} ?p={belongsTo} ?x={β-Lactam antibiotic, Penicillin-class Antibacterial} … Semantic Technologies embrace change 24 Amoxi- cillin ?x?x treats Amoxi- cillin ?x?x ?p
  25. 25. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Providing a formal language for conceptual modelling: OWL E.g., Heart Heart is a muscular organ that is part of the circulatory system ∀x.[ Heart(x)→ MuscolarOrgan(x)∧ ∃y.[isPartOf(x,y )∧ CirculatorySystem(y)]] OWL is a modular standard that offers different trade-offs OWL-QL OWL-RL OWL-EL Semantic Technologies embrace change 25 TermsData Terms Data Terms Data
  26. 26. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Semantic Technologies embrace change 26 Standard in OWL […] Ontology Based Data Access as a prototypical solution to interoperability problems <XML><XML> Translator Translator Translator
  27. 27. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Semantic Technologies embrace change 27 Standard in OWL […] SPARQL Queries Ontology Based Data Access as a prototypical solution to interoperability problems RDBMS <XML><XML> Translator Translator Translator
  28. 28. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Semantic Technologies embrace change 28 Standard in OWL Results { , , } Ontology Based Data Access as a prototypical solution to interoperability problems […] RDBMS <XML><XML> Translator Translator Translator
  29. 29. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle 29
  30. 30. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle 30 DEM O TIM E
  31. 31. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Search for Galileo and look to the right 31 Galileo Galilei AstronomerAstronomer type February 15, 1564 February 15, 1564 when born CallistoCallisto GanimedeGanimede discovered
  32. 32. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Let's try a more complex query 32 Galileo Galilei discovered ?x?x
  33. 33. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Try and enjoy! 33
  34. 34. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle 34
  35. 35. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle “The Semantic Web is not a separate Web, but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation.” “The Semantic Web”, Scientific American Magazine, Maggio 2001 Semantic interoperability on the functionally interoperable Web 2001 In the begging was the Semantic Web 35
  36. 36. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle 2008 It gained popularity when Linked Data became standards 36 View the full talk at http://www.ted.com/talks/view/id/484 !
  37. 37. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle 2008 it was funded by USA, UK and … 37
  38. 38. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle 2008 … and EU
  39. 39. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle 2008 Search engine created incentives [source https://developer.yahoo.com/searchmonkey/siteowner.html ]
  40. 40. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle 2008 Search engine created incentives [source https://developers.google.com/structured-data/rich-snippets/ ]
  41. 41. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle •Since Fall 2009 •450.000 products •Using RDFa (= RDF embedded in HTML) •Pages with RDFa higher in Google ranking •BestBuy claims 30% more traffic! •Yahoo reports 15% higher click- through rat 2009 Best Buy picked them up
  42. 42. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle © 2012 Politecnico di Milano, Emanuele Della Valle 2009 Best Buy picked them up <div rel="v:hasReview"> <span property="v:rating" datatype="xsd:string"> 4.8</span> of <span property="v:best">5</span> <div rel="v:hasReview"> <span property="v:rating" datatype="xsd:string"> 4.8</span> of <span property="v:best">5</span> RDFa
  43. 43. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Google for Nikon+12.3-Megapixel+Digital+SLR+Camera https://www.google.com/search?q=Nikon+12.3-Megapixel+Digital+SLR+Camera 2009 Best Buy picked them up en Sponsored Links
  44. 44. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle • Who: Richard MacManus • When: April 15th, 2010 • Context: Modigliani’s painting are scattered all other the world • The challenge: If all museums would have published their collections as linked data, will it be possible to know the locations of all the original paintings of Modigliani? • http://readwrite.com/2010/04/15/the_modigliani_test_semantic_web_tipping_ 2010 The Modigliani test for Linked Data
  45. 45. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle The Results of Modigliani test for Linked Data • Who: Atanas Kiryakov (Ontotext AD) • When: April 25th, 2010 • How: http://factforge.net/ a “reason-able” view to the web of data • Results: http://bit.ly/ModiglianiTest http://readwrite.com/2010/04/25/the_modigliani_test_for_linked_data 2010 The Modigliani test for Linked Data Part of my LarKC project http://www.larkc.org/
  46. 46. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Use RDFa with some FB specific vocabulary og:title - The title of your object, e.g., "The Rock". og:type - The type of your object, e.g., "movie". og:image - An image URL og:url - The permanent ID of your object og:description - A one to two sentence description of your object. og:site_name - If your object is part of a larger web site, the name which should be displayed for the overall site. e.g., "IMDb". 2010 It went main stream with Facebook Open Graph http://ogp.me/
  47. 47. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Open Graph Usage Statistics 15 millions sites are using Open Graph! 39% of the top 10,000 sites 2010 It went main stream with Facebook Open Graph [Source: http://trends.builtwith.com/docinfo/Open-Graph-Protocol] % 40 30 20 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
  48. 48. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle •The core vocabulary currently consists of •597 Types •867 Properties •114 Enumeration values [Sourcehttp://blog.schema.org/2015/11/schemaorg-whats-new.html] 2011 It reached its full potential with schema.org
  49. 49. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Thanks to schema.org also recipe are in the Knowledge Graphs 49
  50. 50. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle 50
  51. 51. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Google Knowledge Graph (powered by Semantic Technologies) passes the Modigliani Test 51
  52. 52. E. Della Valle – http://emanueledellavalle.org - @manudellavalle Knowledge Graphs in search engines like Google Emanuele Della Valle DEIB - Politecnico di Milano http://emanueledellavalle.org @manudellavalle

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