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Electrocatalysts for fuel cells

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Electrocatalysts for fuel cells

  1. 1. B R O O K H AV E N N AT I O N A L L A B O R ATO RY Accelerating Innovation Electrocatalysts forPlan FY Cells Laboratory Fuel 2010-2019 June  2,  2010   June 2012
  2. 2. Technology Description •  Core-shell nanoparticles with a palladium or palladium alloy core coated by a monolayer of platinum •  All platinum atoms on surface and participate in catalysis •  Lattice contraction improves catalytic activity of platinum •  Reduction of platinum reduces overall precious metal cost 2   BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY
  3. 3. Technology Opportunity •  One version of the platinum monolayer core-shell electrocatalysts is being sold in small quantities by a licensee. •  Manufacturing at commercial scale is accomplished. •  Compositions for other applications must be optimized. 3   BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY
  4. 4. Technology Leadership •  Nanoparticles of platinum should work better than bulk platinum in catalysis because of their higher surface area, but they don’t. 1.2 P t A u N i5/ C 0.9 @0.9V -1 jk / 0.6 P t A u N i5/ C 0.3 P t/ C P t/ C 0.0 Pt m a s s a cti vit y N o ble m e t a l m a s s a cti vit y •  Dr. Adzic’s group was the first to achieve atomically thin layers of platinum and other platinum group metals on nanoparticles. 4   BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY
  5. 5. History: BES-EERE-Industry—PlatinumMonolayer Electrocatalysts1.  Use-inspired BES research on electrochemical interfaces led to the discovery of a new class of nano-catalysts.2.  The EERE fuel cell program supported the development of the new catalysts for fuel cell applications.3.  Industrial support via CRADAs demonstrated synthesis scale up and excellent performance in fuel cell tests.Ø  BES user facilities – the NSLS and Center for Nanofunctional Materials (CFN) – provided key characterization capabilities (x-ray absorption spectroscopy and advanced microscopy).Ø  This work was featured as one of the 10 most impactful research efforts in the NAS review of the BES Catalysis Science Program. 5   BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY
  6. 6. BES-supported research 1992-presentFundamental studies of electrocatalysis:Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) – mechanism, structure/activity Insight (2000): Platinum monolayers are promising catalysts Substrate tunes catalytic activity of Pt overlayer: -Catalytic activity correlates to O binding energy -Optimum at intermediate binding: volcano plot -Stability can also be tuned Pt monolayer on Pd(111) high ORR activity Strategy: address critical cost and stability limits of fuel cell ORR catalysts Pt monolayerNanostructured core-shell electrocatalysts - active monolayer puts all Pt atoms at interface Pd core - substrate core tunes activity & stability 6   BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY
  7. 7. EERE-supported research 2003-present Pt1.  Several classes: tune properties & reduce cost Pt monolayer on Pd2. Atomic-level characterization in situ (XAS), ex Pd nanoparticles situ (STEM), DFT Pt3. Atomic-level control syntheses fine-tune Pt-core Pt on non-noble metal – Au interactions and control morphology noble metal core-shell; Ni4. Activity, Stability, and Fuel Cell tests Pt Pt on nanoparticles with PdCatalytic Activity improved 5x-20x per wt Pt interlayer of Pd Smooth Ir, Pd rodsDurability improved: multiple thousand hours in Fe, CoLANL tests Characterization: atomic imaging of one monolayer of Pt shell on Pd-core nanoparticles using STEM/EELS at Center for Functional Nanomaterials 7   BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY
  8. 8. CRADAs with industry 2005-present Scale-up, fuel cell testing: Toyota, GM, UTC Fuel Cells, Battelle1.  Demonstrate efficient, reproducible synthesis of gram quantities of PtML Synthesis: e.g., Demonstrate scale-up to 502. Fuel cell tests, performance, stability, potential gram batches of high-activity nanostructured cycling core-shell electrocatalysts (with Toyota). Performance: High activity, improved stability in MEA-level cycling. Scale-up will Understand improved stability: Evidence that Pd enable full fuel cell stack testing. core acts as ‘sacrificial electrode’ for Pt shell. Smooth Pd rods 140Electrochem. Surface Area (m /g-Pt) Pt(ML)/Pd/C 0.085 mg-Pt/cm2 1202 Δ Δ Δ 8% 100 Δ Δ Δ 23 % 80 Δ 41 % 60 Δ 47 % 40 Δ Δ Δ 68 % Pt/Ketjen 0.3mg-Pt/cm2 20 Pt/C 0.133mg-Pt/cm2 0 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 Status: Core-shell nanocatalysts are currently Potential cycle promising route to PEM fuel cell commercialization. 8   BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY
  9. 9. Applications – Target Customers – CurrentPractice Applicaon  Descripon   Target  Customers   Current  Pracce  Fuel  Cells  –  Oxygen   Catalyst  manufacturers   Pla<num  on  high  surface  Reduc<on   area  carbon  Fuel  Cells  –  Fuel  Oxida<on   Catalyst  manufacturers   Pla<num  on  high  surface   area  carbon  Hydrolyzers  –  Hydrogen   Catalyst  manufacturers   Pla<num  on  high  surface  Evolu<on   Hydrolyzer  manufacturers   area  carbon  Other  heterogeneous   Catalyst  manufacturers   Pla<num  on  supports  catalysis   Petrochemical  companies   9   BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY
  10. 10. Contact Information •  Dr. Radoslav Adzic, +1(631)344-4522, Senior Chemist, Chemistry Department Brookhaven National Laboratory Bldg. 555 – P.O. Box 5000 Upton, NY 11973 •  Dr. Kimberley Elcess, +1(631)344-4151, Principal Licensing Specialist Office of Technology Commercialization and Partnerships Brookhaven National Laboratory Bldg. 490C – P.O. Box 5000 Upton, NY 11973 10   BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY