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Reported Speech

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Reported Speech

  1. 1. Reported speech<br />Statements, questions, commands and requests <br />
  2. 2. Ken: “I had a terrible row with Pauline a few days ago and she has kicked meout.”<br />MiketoldIsobelthatKen had had a terrible row with Pauline a few days before and she had kicked himout.<br />What differences can you see in <br /> these two sentences?<br />Statements<br />
  3. 3. We use reported speech when we are telling someone what another person said or thought, but do not use their exact words.<br />When we report a statement, we use reported verbs such as say, tell, explain, inform, state, decide etc. often followed by that. <br />Statements<br />
  4. 4. Tense change<br />Direct Speech<br />Present Simple<br />Julia said: “I want to be a teacher.” <br /> <br />Present Continuous (am/is/are + ing)<br />“I am going to the doctor,” Julia said.<br /> <br />Simple Past (ed / 2nd column)<br />Julia: “I worked as a cook in a hotel”<br />Present Perfect (has/have + p.p.)<br />Jack: “John has given up his job.”<br /> <br />Reported Speech<br />Simple Past<br />Julia said (that) she wanted to be a teacher.<br />Past Continuous (was/were + ing)<br />Julia said (that) she was going to the doctor.<br /> <br />Past Perfect (had + p.p.)<br />Julia said (that) she had worked as a cook in a hotel.<br /> <br />Past Perfect (had + p.p.)<br />Jack said (that) John had given up his job. <br />
  5. 5. Past Perfect Continuous (had + been + ing)<br />Jack said (that) he had been writing his CV.<br />Conditional (would + inf.)<br />Jack said (that) he would be a gardener someday.<br />could; might; had to<br />The boss said (that) Sarah could do that job.<br />Peter said (that) Susan might go to university.<br />Peter said (that) he had to find a job ( present necessity/obligation)<br />Julia said (that) he mustn’t smoke there. (regulations/prohibition/probability)<br />Present Perfect Continuous (has/have + been + ing)<br />“I have been writing my CV,” Jack said. <br /> <br />Future (will + inf.)<br />Jack said: “I will be a gardener someday.”<br />Modals: can; may; must<br />The boss said: “You can do this job, Sarah.”<br />Peter said: “Susan may go to university,” <br />Peter said: “I must find a job.” <br />Julia said: “You mustn’t smoke in here”.<br />
  6. 6. Note 1: Verbs in the Past Continuous, Past Perfect and Conditional undergo no tense change.<br />Note 2: The verb used toand the modals would, should, couldand might do not change in the Reported Speech. <br />
  7. 7. Direct Speech<br />now<br />today / tonight<br />Tomorrow<br />Yesterday<br />this (morning)<br />last (week)<br />next (week / month / year)<br />Reported Speech<br />then / at that moment<br />that day / night<br />the next day / the following day<br />the day before / the previous day<br />that (morning)<br />the (week) before / the previous (week)<br />the following (week / month / year)<br />Time Changes<br />
  8. 8. Direct Speech<br />here<br />this<br />Reported Speech<br />there<br />that<br />Place Changes<br />
  9. 9. Pronouns and Determinerschanges<br />Direct Speech<br />Personal Pronouns<br />I / you (subject) <br />we / you (subject)<br />me / you (object)<br />us / you (object)<br />Possessive Pronouns / Determiners<br />my / your<br />mine / yours<br />our / your<br />ours / yours<br />Demonstrative Pronouns / Determiners<br />this <br />these<br />Reported Speech<br /> Personal Pronouns<br />she / he <br />they<br />him / her<br />them<br /> Possessive Pronouns / <br /> Determiners<br />his / her <br />his / hers<br />their<br />theirs<br /> Demonstrative Pronouns / <br /> Determiners<br />that <br />those<br />
  10. 10. Mike: “Whatare you going to do?”<br />Mike asked Ken whathe was going to do.<br />Mike: “Areyou all right, Ken?”<br />Mike asked Ken if/whether he was all right.<br /> What differences can you see <br /> in these sentences?<br />Questions<br />
  11. 11. In reported –wh questions, we use the wh- word + the subject + the verb.<br />In reported yes/no questions, we use if/whether + the subject + the verb.<br />We do not use the interrogative form of the verb: do/does/did<br />As it is an indirect question, no question marks are used.<br />We use reported verbs: ask, wonder, want to know, etc.<br />Questions <br />
  12. 12. Ken: “Don’t spread it around, Mike.”<br />Ken asked Mike not to spread it around.<br />Mike advised Ken:”Make it up with Pauline!”<br />Mike advised Ken to make it up with Pauline.<br />Commands and requests<br />
  13. 13. When we report requests, orders, advice or warnings we use verbs such as advice, ask, beg, tell, order, etc, followed by an infinitive.<br />In negative requests/commands use NOT before TO.<br />Commands and requests<br />
  14. 14. When do we need to change a verb tense?<br />
  15. 15. <ul><li>If the speaker states the fact that is still true at the time of reporting, then we can keep the present tense. Changing the verb tense is possible but isn’t necessary. </li></ul>“Birthday cakes arecommon in many countries,” said the baker.<br />The baker said that birthday cakes are common in many countries.<br />Facts or General Truth<br />
  16. 16. <ul><li> If the speaker tells about future events that has yet to happen, at the time of reporting you can keep the future tense. Changing the verb tense is possible but isn’t necessary.</li></ul>“Next year I’llbe sixteen, and I’ll have a big party,” said John.<br />John said that next year he’ll be 16 and he’ll have a big party.<br />
  17. 17. If words are reported soon after spoken, the verb tense are not usually change.<br />“I love birthday cakes with flowers!” said the girl.<br />A: What she just said?<br />B: She said she loves birthday cakes with flowers.<br />Immediate reporting<br />
  18. 18. If the reporting verb is in the simple present, present perfect or future tense, verb tenses do not change.<br />“ I don’t want you to buy me anything for my birthday.”<br /> He says he doesn’t want us to buy him anything for his birthday.<br /> Don’t ask John what he wants for his birthday. He’ll say he doesn’t want you to buy him anything for his birthday.<br />Reporting verb in the Present or Future<br />