• Kothari Education Commission, 1964-66, which was the sixth commission in the history of
commission in India.
• Education appeared to be one of areas which indicated many problems that needed our
efforts for immediate solutions. The government was fully aware of the situation. To
improve the educational set up the government constituted two commissions after
independence i.e. Radhakrishnan Commission which deals with university education
and Secondary Education Commission. The recommendations of these two
commissions could not be succeeded in its full implementations. Consequently, the defects
in the area of education persisted.
• In order to remove theses defects, the government had to appoint a new education
commission to advise the government on national pattern of education along with general
principles and policies for the development of education at all stages.
3. AIMS OF EDUCATION
1. Increase in Productivity.
2. Promoting social and National Integration
3. Education and Modernization
4. Developing social, moral and spiritual values.
4. Increasing Productivity
• Education must be related to productivity to increase national income. In order to link
education and productivity the Indian Education Commission 1964-1966 made the
• Science is the basic component of education and culture ; so it should be made an integral
part of school education.
• To inculcate the value of manual work the commission recommended the introduction of
work experience in school education.
• To meet the increasing needs of technical personnel in Industry, agriculture and trade the
IEC recommended to introduce vocational subjects in school curriculum. It also opined that
the vocationalisation will bring education into closer relationship with productivity.
5. Promoting social and National Integration
• National and social integration is the precondition for the progress and
development of a country. According to the commission, Social and
National Integration is an important objective of a national system of
6. Promoting social and National Integration
The commission made the following recommendations for strengthening social and
national integration through education.
• To make education a powerful instrument of national development, common
school system of public education should be adopted.
• Bridge the gulf between the educated and the uneducated, intellectuals and masses,
social and national service should be made an integral part of school education.
• A language is a firm adhesive for social and national integration, suitable provisions
should be made for teaching mother tongue, Hindi and other Modern Indian
languages in schools.
7. Education and Modernization
• One of the main functions of education is to keep pace with this advancement of
• Another feature of modern society is the rapid social change. In the situation of
change, the school must always be alert if it is to keep abreast of significant
• An education system which does not renovate itself continuously, becomes out-
dated and puts hindrance to progress. To keep pace with modernisation the IEC is
of the opinion that “greater emphasis must be placed on vocational subjects,
science education and research.”
8. Developing social, moral and spiritual
• The Central and State governments should adopt measures to introduce education in moral,
social and spiritual values in all institutions under their direct control on the lines
recommended by the University Education Commission on religious and moral instruction.
• In order to develop social, moral and religious values, some periods should be provided in
the time table. Instruction of this type should be given by general teachers.
• The University departments should be specially concerned with the ways in which these
values can be taught wisely and effectively and should undertake preparation of the special
literature for use by students and teacher.
9. EVALUATION OF AIMS OF
• Transform the education according to present and future needs
• Through vocational education and 10+2+3 system increase the productivity
• Promoting study of religions
• Introducing common school system
• Mother Tongue and national language system
• Understanding the social change and creating the new social rules.
• In 1968, when the National Policy of Education was formulated for improving the
educational scenario in our country, there it was envisaged that it would be followed by a
‘five yearly review to progress and working out of new policies and programmes.’
• The National Policy of Education of 1986 is the result of the reviews which was discussed
and adopted during the budget session of1985 when Rajiv Gandhi was the prime minister
of India. Again, a committee was set up under the chairmanship of Acharaya Rammurti in
May 1990 to review National Policy of Education (NPE) and to make recommendations for
its modifications. This policy aimed to promote national progress, a sense of common
citizenship and culture, and to strengthen national integration. It laid stress on the need for a
radical reconstruction of the education system, to improve its quality at all stages, and
therefore gave much greater attention to science and technology, the cultivation of moral
values and a closer relation between education and the life of the people.
12. AIMS OF EDUCATION
• Harmonious development of the child
• Proper use of human resources
• Removal of disparities
• Development of moral and ethical values.
• Development of Physical, social and cultural values.
• Promotion of Adult education
• Life long Education
13. The educational policy as highlighted in the N.P.E. also emphasized on enhancing
and promoting the vocationalisation of education, adult education, education for the
mentally and physically challenged persons, non-formal education, open universities
and distance learning, rural university, early childhood care and education. Delinking
degrees from job was also one of the basic objectives of National Policy of
Education of 1986.
• Emphasis was laid on adult education especially within the age group of 15
and 35 years.
• The Programme of Action (POA) 1992 aimed to fulfill the objective of
universal enrolment and retention of children and successful completion of
education up to 14 years.
• Vocational education was given importance by the POA to increase
individual competency and national productivity.
15. • It emphasized that teacher training facilities should be provided to eligible
candidates in the teaching profession. It also suggested that the service
conditions and salaries of teachers should be improved.
• The policy and Programme stressed on the importance on non-formal and
distance education modes to achieve the goal of universal education.
• NPE and POA gave due importance to improvement of education in
educationally backward areas.