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Guidelines to Qualitative Researches

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This is the simplified example guidelines of a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH. If you need the copy of this file kindly email me at

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Guidelines to Qualitative Researches

  1. 1. Prof. Erwin M. Globio, MSIT Research Consultant
  2. 2. Preliminary pages Title Page Approval Sheet Acknowledgement Researcher’s Curriculum Vitae Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Appendices Abstract
  3. 3. Chapter 1 THE PHENOMENON INTRODUCTION It describes the background, concepts, scope and limitations of the study. States the reasons why the study is worth pursuing (rationale) Presents the relevance/significance of the study in the field of communication
  4. 4. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This introduces the research question or need for study. It may deal with any social and or cultural phenomenon Problem statement should start with an introductory paragraph that will justify the intent of the study and should be closed with the research question
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES The central and specific purposes of the study related to the tradition of inquiry (phenomenological, case study, oral history, ethnography, grounded theory, critical research and action research) Specific objectives should be numbered
  6. 6. POSTULATES Research postulates or assumptions are anchored to the study’s objectives. The statements or principles will be verified by the current study Postulates must be numbered and with reference to the study objectives
  7. 7. Chapter 2REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE AND STUDIES Briefly introduce the Chapter. RRLS is a thorough review of prior studies related to the topic. The RRLS will determine the research gaps. It must be comprehensive and relevant. The review should include theoretical and methodological information from the previous studies.
  8. 8. The following research trails may beutilized in generating data: Human Trail —an interview with an authority on related topic. Paper Trail --- secondary materials such as books, journals, articles written and published by foreign and local authors. Unpublished theses dissertations and other independent studies may also be used. Electronic Trail ---using various internet search engines such as google, yahoo and others. Excerpts from the programs aired in the electronic media and film can also be used as secondary materials
  9. 9.  RRLS should be thematically presented Literatures and studies both from foreign and local sources must be processed and analyzed by the researcher. Chapter 2 must end with a SYNTHESIS or a summary of the collated information. The researcher must present the relevance of the previous studies to the current one
  10. 10.  The researcher should practice proper attribution of sources. Use the American Psychological Association’s (APA) documentation style. PLAGIARISM is a serious offense and once found guilty, the researcher will face appropriate disciplinary action.
  11. 11. CHAPTER 3 STUDY FRAMEWORK Theoretical Framework: Theory/ies drawn by communication scholars which may guide and explain the concepts as well as he underlying research epistemology (assumptions/postulates) In the case of grounded theory studies, the researcher’s emphasis is on the generation of theory/theories. The researcher may formulate new paradigm based on the research result
  12. 12.  Conceptual Framework Presentation of study concepts based on the research results, theoretical precepts and literature reviews. Researcher’s may customize the existing theory (customized paradigm). Researcher’s may integrate concepts from two or more theories (integrated paradigm)
  13. 13.  Explication of Terms Discuss the operational definition of concepts used in the study; shared meanings among the informants/participants and other sources. Theoretical and or Technical terms should be defined with proper attribution of sources. Arrange the term as they appear in the manuscript.
  14. 14. CHAPTER 4 DESIGN AND PROCEDURES Research Design The research design or research plan should answer the following questions: (Pernia, 2004)What do you want to find out? (problem and objectives)How can you best do that? (research approach)Why conduct a study? (rationale/significance)How is the study to be used ( research type)How does the study treat time? (limitations)What research techniques to be used? (method)
  15. 15.  Tradition of Inquiry Identify the tradition of inquiry then discuss the rationale based on the research objectives. The traditions are Phenomenological, Ethnography, Grounded Theory, Case Study, Oral History and Action Research
  16. 16. DATA GENERATION METHOD Cite and discuss the technique(s) used by the researcher in generating qualitative data from the informants/participants TechniquesInterview Focus Interview (FI), In-dept Interview(IDI),Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Observation Complete observer, observer as participant, complete observer/participantField work/immersionArchival Research
  17. 17. PARTICIPANTS/INFORMANTS/KEY INFORMANTSAND THE SELECTION TECHNIQUES The participants and key informants in the study are presented and he selection technique should be discussed. Identify the qualitative techniques (How o do qualitative Evaluation by Michael Patton/John Creswell)
  18. 18. INSTRUMENT Cite the research instrument(s) used then discuss based on the data generation method(s) used instruments Interview Guide or Interview Schedule (for FI/IDI) Focus Group Discussion Outline (FGD) Observation Guide (observation) Journal/Diary/field notes (immersion and field work)
  19. 19. DATA GENERATION REPORT The researcher’s narrative account of what happened during the conduct of fieldwork
  20. 20. CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The researcher shall present first the reduced data text in matrix form then the results in narrative or textual form. Presentation of results must be according to the research objectives. Interpretation/analysis should be based on the qualitative mode of analysis, study framework, related literature, interviews and general observations during field work
  21. 21.  Qualitative modes of analysis are primarily concern with textual analysis (verbal and written) Approaches may focus on hermeneutics, semiotics, narrative and metaphor and grounded theory Qualitative Analytical Tool framework, objectives, analytical reduction (themes/patterns) Direct quotation in the matrix should be highlighted in the transcription
  22. 22. CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of Findings The synopsis of research result. It should be in narrative form and according to objectives. It should be numbered
  23. 23.  Conclusions State the theoretical and practical implications of the research results (refer to study framework, postulates, literature and significance of the study)
  24. 24.  Recommendations It must be based on the results. Major recommendations must be written in narrative form but the minor recommendations should be numbered
  25. 25. Bibliography List of books, journals, unpublished theses, dissertations, internet sources, audio-visual materials and other references.
  26. 26. Appendices Researcher’s Profile Instrument Communications Editor’s Certificate Financial Statement Research Documents
  27. 27.