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Slayter Untangling Adoption Disparities For Children With Disabilities

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Slayter Untangling Adoption Disparities For Children With Disabilities

  1. 1. Untangling child welfare disparities: Adoption outcomes for Black children with disabilities Elspeth Slayter, Ph.D. School of Social Work Salem State College July 16, 2009 2 nd National Conference on Child and Family Programs and Policy Slayer
  2. 2. Adoption in 2003… Slayer Slayter
  3. 3. Disparate adoption outcomes <ul><li>Race and ethnicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiethnic Placement Act, 1994, 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys and young men </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Special needs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsidies </li></ul></ul>Slayer
  4. 4. Slayer Slayter
  5. 5. Guiding conceptual framework: Intersectionality <ul><li>Kimberlee Crenshaw </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplicity of oppression </li></ul><ul><li>Axes of difference </li></ul><ul><li>Complex interactions impact reality </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnectivity in producing/perpetuating systems of oppression </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for interconnectivity </li></ul><ul><li>in adoption from foster care </li></ul><ul><li>Age x gender x race x disability ? </li></ul>Slayer
  6. 6. Group comparisons Slayer
  7. 7. Research questions Slayer
  8. 8. Slayer
  9. 9. Sample and comparison groups Slayer
  10. 10. Definitions of disability Slayer
  11. 11. Aim 1: Age and gender <ul><li>Age: </li></ul><ul><li>Black youth with disabilities - older than non-Black counterparts (7 ½ vs. 7, t=3.86***) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses not supported </li></ul><ul><li>Black youth with disabilities – more likely to be male than non-Black counterparts (55% vs. 53%, OR=1.1*) </li></ul>Slayer
  12. 12. Aim 1: Types of disability <ul><li>Multiple disability : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black vs. non-Black youth with disabilities almost 2 times more likely (1.4% vs. 0.8%, OR=1.65**) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘ Mental retardation’ : </li></ul><ul><li>Less likely among Black vs. non-Black youth with disabilities (9.4% vs. 12.1%, OR=0.75***) </li></ul><ul><li>More likely among Black boys with disabilities (9.7% vs. 9.0%, OR=1.03***) </li></ul>Slayer
  13. 13. Aim 1: Diagnosis of ‘emotionally disturbed’ <ul><li>Black vs. non-Black youth with disabilities 27% less likely (38% vs. 44%, OR=0.73***) </li></ul><ul><li>Black youth with vs. without disabilities 36.4 times more likely (38% vs. 2%, OR=36.4***) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black boys with disabililties 17% less likely than Black girls with disabilities (37% vs. 40%, OR=0.83**) </li></ul></ul>Slayer
  14. 14. Slayer Aim 2: Time between termination of parental rights and adoption Group comparison Mean (Standard deviation) t All Black youth All Non-Black youth 1.98 (0.02) 1.41 (0.01) t=21.2*** All Black boys All Black girls 2.37 (0.26) 1.60 (0.02) t=4.0*** Youth with disabilities Youth without disabilities 1.81 (0.02) 1.60 (0.01) t=7.70*** Black youth with disabilities Non-Black youth with disabilities 1.87 (0.29) 1.63(0.01) t=12.7*** Black youth with disabilities Black youth without disabilities 1.91 (0.03) 2.06 (0.02) t=4.1*** Black boys with disabilities Black girls with disabilities 1.91 (0.04) 1.90 (0.05) NS
  15. 15. Aim 3: Adoptive family structure <ul><li>Black vs. non-Black youth with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>3.4 times more likely adopted by single, vs. two-parent families (33% vs. 15%, OR=3.40***) </li></ul><ul><li>Black youth with vs. without disabilities 35% less likely to be adopted by single parents (33% vs. 47%, OR=0.65***) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black boys vs. girls 23% less likely (30% vs. 36%, OR=0.77***) </li></ul></ul>Slayer
  16. 16. Aim 3: Black adoptive families <ul><li>Mixed support for hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Black vs. non-Black youth with disabilities 54 times more likely (53% vs. 2%, OR=54.4***) </li></ul><ul><li>Black youth with disabilities vs. without 46% less likely (53% vs. 72%, OR=0.54***) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black boys vs. girls with disabilities 18% less likely (50% vs. 55%, OR=0.82**) </li></ul></ul>Slayer
  17. 17. Aim 3: Pre-adoptive relationship <ul><li>Kin : Mixed support for hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black youth with vs. without disabilities 43% less likely (12% vs. 20%, OR=0.57***) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foster parent : 13%-22% less likely </li></ul><ul><li>Non-relative, non-foster parent : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black vs. non-Black youth with disabilities 3 times more likely (33% vs. 15%, OR=2.77***) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black youth with vs. without disabilities 1.3 times more likely (17% vs. 12%, OR=1.32***) </li></ul></ul>Slayer
  18. 18. Aim 3: Post-adoption funding <ul><li>Black vs. non-Black youth with disabilities more likely to receive any Federal or state subsidy (93% vs. 91%, OR=1.30***) </li></ul><ul><li>Receive equal $ state subsidies compared to non-Black youth with disabilities in most states ($1,452 vs. $1,001, t=4.09***) </li></ul>Slayer
  19. 19. Aim 3: Post-adoption funding <ul><li>Black youth with vs. without disabilities 2 times more likely to receive subsidy (93% vs.87%, OR=1.97***) </li></ul><ul><li>Receive larger $ subsidies than Black youth without disabilities ($1,452 vs. $1,001, t=4.09***) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No gender differences among Black youth with disabilities </li></ul></ul>Slayer
  20. 20. Discussion <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Equal proportions of adoptees by gender – role of subsidy? </li></ul><ul><li>Need to understand who is left behind </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting time </li></ul><ul><li>Disparities among youth with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Within group gender effect </li></ul><ul><li>Role of subsidy in shorter waiting time among Black youth? </li></ul>Slayer
  21. 21. Discussion <ul><li>Adoptive families </li></ul><ul><li>MEPA after-effects? </li></ul><ul><li>Black single parents more likely to adopt? </li></ul><ul><li>Kin findings mirror guardianship trends - any disability stigma? </li></ul><ul><li>Post-adoption supports </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidy </li></ul><ul><li>Few apparent disparities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State-specific issues? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promise of subsidies for all children? </li></ul>Slayer
  22. 22. Future research <ul><li>Which Black foster children with disabilities remain in foster care awaiting adoption? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More disabled? Older at removal? Sibling groups? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of subsidies in decision-making? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing research suggests subsidy as commodity in divorce proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible racial disparities in subsidy disbursement in some states? </li></ul></ul>Slayer
  23. 23. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Sheron Adair , MSW & Evenns Semerzier , MSW, Graduate Research Assistants </li></ul><ul><li>National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect (NDACAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System (Children’s Bureau) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NDACAN, Cornell University and their agents or employees bear no responsibility for these analyses or interpretations </li></ul></ul>Slayer
  24. 24. Slayer Removal from family (imminent risk of abuse, neglect) Return to family within 22 months with concurrent planning Work toward reunification (in most cases) Initiation of termination of parental rights proceedings after 15/22 months Parental rights terminated Adopted LT foster care or waiting for adoption Federal Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1996 (ASFA) *Safety *Permanency *Well-being Federal, state-specific subsidies, programs, resources