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Arab spring

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Arab spring

  1. 1. Arab Spring 1
  2. 2. The Arab Spring (or the Arab Revolutions) refers to the recent revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world. 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. • Democratic deficit: dictatorship & authoritarian regimes • Human rights violations • Government corruption • Economic turmoil • A young, educated, and idle populace Causes 4
  5. 5. January 2011 Lebanon 1 2 J a n u a ry L im ite d 2011 J o rd a n 1 4 J a n u a ry O n g o in g 2011 ▪ A 4 0 % in c re a s e in w a g e s ▪ C a lle d fo r p o litic a l re fo rm s o f c o n fe s s io n a lis m ▪ P re s id e n t M ic h e l S u le im a n ’s g o v e rn m e n t s u ffe re d fro m m u ltip le re s ig n a tio n s ▪ N e w g o v e rn m e n t fo rm e d 1 3 J u n e 2011 ▪ K in g A b d u lla h II d is m is s e s P rim e M in is te r R ifa i a n d h is c a b in e t ▪ M o n th s la te r, A b d u lla h d is m is s e s P rim e M in is te r B a k h it a n d h is c a b in e t a fte r c o m p la in ts o f s lo w p ro g re s s o n p ro m is e d re fo rm s Protests and governmental changes Protests and governmental changes 5
  6. 6. January cont’d 17 M a u rit J a n u a ry a n ia 2011 Subdued s in c e M a y 2011 17 S u d a n J a n u a ry 2011 Subdued s in c e A p ril 2011 17 O m a n J a n u a ry 2011 Ended M ay 2011 • H u n d re d s o f p e o p le to o k to th e s tre e ts o f N o u a k c h o tt • F o llo w e d J a n u a ry 2 0 1 1 in d e p e n d e n c e re fe re n d u m a b o u t S o u th S u d a n • P ro te s ts in K h a rto u m a n d A l-U b a y y id • S o c ia l m e d ia u s e d to s p re a d s ite s o f p ro te s ts , e s p e c ia lly s tu d e n t p ro te s ts • P re s id e n t O m a r a l-B a s h ir a n n o u n c e s h e w ill n o t s e e k a n o th e r te rm in 2 0 1 5 • P ro te s to rs e m p h a s iz e a lle g ia n c e to th e S u lta n • P ro te s t c o rru p t o ffic ia ls • E c o n o m ic c o n c e s s io n s b y S u lta n Q a b o o s • In c re a s e d g o v e rn m e n t jo b s a n d m in im u m wage • D is m is s a l o f m in is te rs • G ra n tin g o f la w m a k in g p o w e rs to O m a n 's e le c te d le g is la tu re Minor protests Minor protests Protests and governmental changes 6
  7. 7. January cont’d Saudi Arabia Egypt Yemen 21 January 2011 Sustained small protests in Eastern Saudi Arabia 25 January 2011 • Government overthrown on 11 February 2011 • Protests ongoing 27 January 2011 • President signs transition deal on 23 November 2011 • Protests ongoing ▪ Economic concessions by King Abdullah ▪ Male-only municipal elections held 29 September 2011 after women tried to register as electors ▪ June 2011: 70 cases of women driving cars was recorded ▪ King Abdullah announces women's approval to vote and be elected in 2015 municipal elections and to be nominated to the Shura Council Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak; Mubarak charged for killing protesters ▪ Resignation of Prime Minister(s) Nazif and Shafik ▪ Assumption of power by the Armed Forces ▪ Suspension of the Constitution, dissolution of the Parliament ▪ Disbanding of State Security Investigations Service ▪ Dissolution of the NDP, the former ruling party of Egypt and transfer of its assets to the state 16 April 2011 ▪ Prosecution of Mubarak, his family and his former ministers Overthrow of Ali Abdullah Saleh; Saleh flees to the United States ▪ Resignation of MPs from the ruling party ▪ On 4 June, President Ali Abdullah Saleh is injured to Yemen ▪ On 22 January 2012, Saleh leaves power. Minor protests Government overthrown Sustained civil disorder and governmental changes 7
  8. 8. February 2011 Iraq 10 February Ended December 2011 2011 Bahrain 14 February Ongoing 2011 Libya • Government overthrown on 23 15 February August 2011 2011 • War ended 23 October 2011 ▪ Prime Minister Maliki announces that he will not run for a 3rd term; ▪ Resignation of provincial governors and local authorities ▪ Economic concessions by King Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa ▪ Release of political prisoners ▪ Negotiations with Shia representatives ▪ GCC intervention at the request of the Government of Bahrain ▪ Head of the National Security Apparatus removed from post ▪ “Black Thursday” night raid against protestors at the Pearl Roundabout ▪ Formation of a committee to implement BICI report recommendations Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by NTC forces ▪ UN-mandated military intervention ended with NATO withdrawal ▪ Opposition forces takes control of all Libyan cities ▪ Assumption of interim control by National Transitional Council ▪ International recognition of NTC as the sole governing authority for Libya ▪ Beginning of sporadic low-level fighting and clashes Major protests Sustained civil disorder and governmental changes Government overthrown 8
  9. 9. Since December, 2010 there have been revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt; a civil war in Libya; civil uprisings in Bahrain, Syria, and Yemen; major protests in Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, and Oman. 9
  10. 10. The protests have shared characteristics of civil resistance (protests by the public) in sustained campaigns… 10
  11. 11. …involving strikes, demonstrations, marches and rallies. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Protesters were generally young people, who also used the social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, to organize, communicate, and raise awareness in the face of their governments’ attempts at censorship. 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been “Ash-sha`b yurid isqat an-nizam” … 15
  16. 16. ("The people want to bring down the regime"). 16
  17. 17. The largest, most organized demonstrations have often occurred on a “Day of Rage", usually Friday after the Muslim’s noon prayers. 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. Yemen 19
  20. 20. Syria 2011 20
  21. 21. Many demonstrations have met violent responses from government authorities, as well as from pro-government militias. 21
  22. 22. The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia which challenged police corruption. 22
  23. 23. December 17, 2010 it Begins 26 year old Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi set himself on fire in protest after authorities prevented him from selling vegetable in the street 23
  24. 24. Rebecca Solnit, Op-Ed: “I wish you could see the way that your small life and large death became a catalyst for the fall of so many dictators in what is known as the Arab Spring. We are now in some sort of an American Fall. Civil society here has suddenly hit the ground running, and we are all headed toward a future no one imagined when you, a young Tunisian vegetable seller capable of giving so much, who instead had so much taken from you, burned yourself to death to protest your impoverished and humiliated state.” 24
  25. 25. • Arab, not Sectarian (in general) • Lower classes, Students, Laborers, Military • Populist • Social Media • Civil Resistance (strikes, protests, and demonstrations) • U.S. supported authoritarian regimes Characteristics • ‫الشعب يريد‬ ‫اسقاط النظام‬ 25
  26. 26. With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest struck Algeria, Jordan, and Yemen, then spread to other countries. 26
  27. 27. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned in February, 2011, after two weeks days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. 27
  28. 28. In Egypt this led to:  • Assumption of power by the Armed Forces;   • Dissolution of the Parliament;  • Prosecution of Mubarak former ministers. 28
  29. 29. During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms, such as the Iraqi Prime Minister. 29
  30. 30. Protests in Jordan have also caused King Abdullah to form a new government with newly appointed officials 30
  31. 31. Libyan leader Muammar al-Gadafi refused to step down, causing a civil war between his loyalists and rebels… 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. Tunisia: Ousting of President Ben Ali Elections for a Constituent Assembly 33
  34. 34. YEMEN: The President is injured in an attack on his compound; he and his family, including his wife, leave for Saudi Arabia. 34
  35. 35. SYRIA: Release of some political prisoners; Dismissal of Provincial Governors; Resignations from Parliament; Ongoing protests 35
  36. 36. OMAN: Dismissal of ministers; Granting of lawmaking powers to elected legislature 36
  37. 37. Morocco: Ongoing protests; Political concessions by King Mohammed VI; Voting on Constitutional reforms 37
  38. 38. The outside world has also become involved in the events of the Arab Spring 38
  39. 39. In spring of 2011, a United Nations Security Council Resolution was adopted, authorizing a no-fly zone over Libya, and approved "all necessary measures" to protect civilians. 39
  40. 40. Two days later, France, the United States and the United Kingdom intervened in Libya with a bombing campaign against pro-Gaddafi forces. (A coalition of 27 states from Europe and the Middle East soon joined the intervention, too.) 40
  41. 41. Numerous factors led to the protests, but most focused on the overthrow of authoritarian (total power; the opposite of democracy/ representative government) leaders. 41
  42. 42. Some governments were dictatorships (rule by one man), while others were absolute monarchies (power held by a king/queen with total authority). 42
  43. 43. In all countries, there were accusations of human rights violations, government corruption, unemployment, extreme poverty… 43
  44. 44. and a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population. 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. 46
  47. 47. The catalysts for the revolts in Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have also been the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats (authoritarian leaders) in power for decades. 47
  48. 48. In recent decades rising living standards and literacy rates, as well as the increased availability of higher education, have created internet-savvy youth of these countries. 48
  49. 49. These young people studied in democratic nations, where they learned the value and fairness of representative government. 49
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. Time will tell if the events of the Arab Spring will continue to influence and inspire other prodemocracy movements around the world. 51
  52. 52. Arab Spring 52