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Redis
persistence
in practice
Eugene Fidelin, 2014
Jaludo B.V.
Redis key features
❏ All datasets are stored in memory
extremly fast read/write operations.

❏ Datasets can be saved to disk
RDB and AOF - two ways to achieve persistence.

❏ Redis forks
for long tasks Redis creates child processes.
RDB snaphots and AOF logs
Persistence in Redis is a matter of configuration, balancing
the trade-off between performance, disk I/O, and data
durability.
❏ RDB is a very compact single-file point-in-time
representation of the Redis dataset.
❏ AOF is a simple text log of write operations.
RDB advantages
★ RDB is a very compact and perfect for backups and for
disaster recovery (~2 times smaller than AOF log file).
★ RDB maximizes Redis performances since the only
work the Redis parent process needs to do in order to
persist is forking a child that will do all the rest. The
parent instance will never perform disk I/O or alike.
★ RDB allows faster restarts with big datasets compared
to AOF (up to 2 times faster).
RDB disadvantages (1/2)
➔ RDB is not good to minimize the chance of data loss in
case Redis unexpectedly stops working - in this case
latest minutes of data can be lost.
➔ RDB needs to fork() a child process to persist on disk.
Fork() can be time consuming if the dataset is big and
the CPU performance not great. This may result in
Redis to stop serving clients for some millisecond.
RDB disadvantages (2/2)
➔ RDB uses fork() that implements a copy-on-write
semantic of memory pages. Additional memory
consumtion is proportional to the number of changes
the dataset will get while snapshoting is in progress.
In a very write-heavy application Redis may use up to
2x the memory normally used, so memory swapping
becomes risky.
➔ RDB snapshoting generates a higher volume of disk
writes because whole file is being rewritten each time.
AOF advantages (1/2)
★ AOF log is an append only log, there are no seeks, nor
corruption problems if there is a power outage.
★ AOF generates less blocks writes to disk because data
is only appended to file.
★ Using AOF Redis is much more durable: there are
different fsync policies: no fsync at all (fsynk done by
OS, usually each 30s on Linux), fsync every second
(default config), fsync at every query (very slow).
AOF advantages (2/2)
★ Redis is able to automatically rewrite the AOF in
background when it gets too big.
★ AOF needs fork() only to rewrite logs, you can tune
how often you want to without any trade-off on
durability.
★ AOF contains a log of all the operations one after the
other in an easy to understand and parse format.
AOF disadvantages
➔ AOF takes more time to load in memory on server restart.
➔ AOF files are usually bigger (1.5 - 3 times) than the
equivalent RDB files for the same dataset.
➔ AOF can be slower than RDB. With fsync set to every
second performance is still very high, and with fsync
disabled it exactly as fast as RDB even under high load.
➔ AOF file can be damaged, because of unexpected
shutdown, but this can be easily fixed.
RDB and AOF usage
❏ RDB persistence is enabled by default.
❏ AOF and RDB can be enabled at the same time. The AOF
file will be used to reconstruct the original dataset on
restart, since it is guaranteed to be the most complete.
❏ Redis makes sure to avoid triggering an AOF
BGREWRITEAOF and RDB BGSAVE at the same time.
❏ Persistence can be disabled at all.
RDB configuration (1/2)
save <seconds> <changes>
Will save the DB if both the given number of seconds and
the number of write operations occurred.
Multiple save settings can be specified.
save ""
Disable RDB snapshoting.
dbfilename <filename>.rdb
The filename where to dump the DB
RDB configuration (2/2)
stop-writes-on-bgsave-error <yes/no>
Redis will stop accepting writes if RDB snapshots are
enabled and the latest background save failed.
rdbcompression <yes/no>
Compress string objects using LZF in RDB dump
rdbchecksum <yes/no>
Add a CRC64 checksum at the end of the file. Makes it
more resistant to corruption but there is a performance hit
to pay (around 10%) when saving/loading RDB files.
RDB related commands
BGSAVE
Save the DB in background. Redis forks, the parent
continues to serve the clients, the child saves the dataset
on disk then exits.
SAVE
Perform a synchronous save of the dataset. Other clients
are blocked - never use in production!
LASTSAVE
Return the Unix time of the last successfull DB save.
AOF configuration (1/2)
appendonly <yes/no>
Enable or disable AOF persistence.
appendfilename <filename>.aof
The name of the append only file.
auto-aof-rewrite-percentage <value>
auto-aof-rewrite-min-size <size>
Automatic rewrite the AOF log file when the log size grows by
the specified percentage.
auto-aof-rewrite-percentage 0
Disable automatical AOF rewrite.
AOF configuration (2/2)
appendfsync <always/everysec/no>
Specify how often actually write data on disk instead of waiting
for more data in the output buffer.
no: don't fsync, let the OS flush the data when it wants
(usually every 30 sec.). Faster.
always: fsync after every write. Slow, Safest.
everysec: fsync one time every second. Compromise.
no-appendfsync-on-rewrite <yes/no>
Prevent fsync() from being called in the main process while a
BGSAVE or BGREWRITEAOF is in progress
AOF related commands
BGREWRITEAOF
Instruct Redis to start an AOF rewrite process. The rewrite
will create a small optimized version of the current AOF log.
If BGREWRITEAOF fails, no data gets lost as the old AOF will
be untouched
Persistence related INFO. RDB (1/5)
rdb_changes_since_last_save
Number of operations that produced some kind of changes
in the dataset since the last time either SAVE or BGSAVE
was called.
rdb_bgsave_in_progress
Flag indicating whether an RDB save is on-going.
rdb_last_save_time
Unix timestamp of last successful RDB save (same as the
LASTSAVE command).
Persistence related INFO. RDB (2/5)
rdb_last_bgsave_status
Status of the last RDB save operation (should be ‘ok’).
rdb_last_bgsave_time_sec
Duration of the last RDB save operation in seconds.
rdb_current_bgsave_time_sec
Duration of the on-going RDB save operation if any.
Persistence related INFO. AOF (3/5)
aof_enabled
Flag indicating whether an AOF logging is activated.
aof_rewrite_in_progress
Flag indicating whether an AOF rewrite operation is on-going.
aof_rewrite_scheduled, aof_pending_rewrite
Flags indicating whether an AOF rewrite operation will be
scheduled once the on-going RDB save is complete.
aof_last_rewrite_time_sec
Duration of the last AOF rewrite operation in seconds.
Persistence related INFO. AOF (4/5)
aof_current_rewrite_time_sec
Duration of the on-going AOF rewrite operation if any.
aof_last_bgrewrite_status
Status of the last AOF rewrite operation.
aof_current_size
AOF current file size (in bytes).
aof_base_size
AOF file size on latest startup or rewrite (in bytes).
Persistence related INFO. AOF (5/5)
aof_buffer_length
Size of the AOF buffer.
aof_rewrite_buffer_length
Size of the AOF rewrite buffer.
aof_pending_bio_fsync
Number of fsync pending jobs in background I/O queue.
aof_delayed_fsync
Delayed fsync counter.
Redis persistence and pools
Pools are multiple Redis servers running on the same
machine but using different ports.
★ More effective memory usage. When RDB snapshoting
is performed only DBs from one pool are copied in
memory.
★ More CPUs can be used. While each Redis instance can
use only one CPU, different pools can use different cores.
★ More fine-tuning. Each pool can be configured and
restarted independently.
Persistence config for pools (1/2)
❏ Each pool should have different configuration for
dbfilename and appendfilename.
❏ Because pools can’t be synchronized between each other,
it is possible that RDB snapshot and/or AOF rewrite could
start on several pools at the same time.
❏ In case RDB or RDB + AOF persistence is used, this can
cause high CPU, memory and disk usage.
To avoid this: disable Redis automatic and use manual
control over BGSAVE and/or BGREWRITEAOF operations.
Persistence config for pools (2/2)
Example configuration for AOF + RDB:
❏ disable automatic Redis RDB snapshots and AOF rewrite:
save "", auto-aof-rewrite-percentage 0
❏ configure cron jobs for BGSAVE and BGREWRITEAOF of
each pool at different time:
m h * * * redis-cli -p <port> BGSAVE
m h */4 * * redis-cli -p <port> BGREWRITEAOF

m and h should be different for every pool. BGSAVE can be
run 1-4 times per day, BGREWRITEAOF once per 2-4 days
(calculate how fast AOF file grows for 100%)
Persistence and replication
RDB snapshots are used when performing a master-slave
synchronization (even if RDB persistence is disabled):
❏ the master starts background saving, and starts to buffer
all new commands received that will modify the dataset.
❏ when the background saving is complete, the master
transfers the database file (RDB) to the slave.
❏ the slave saves file on disk, and then loads it into memory.
❏ the master then sends all buffered commands to the slave.
Persistence on master
If Redis has more read operations than writes - the master
server can be used to perform persistence:
❏ enable only AOF logging on master,
❏ disable RDB and AOF on all slaves.
★ Backups will be automatically used to restore dataset in
memory after restart.
★ AOF doesn’t use fork() that could cause Redis to stop
serving clients for some millissecond.
★ If necessary, RDB snapshots could be executed by cron,
when the machine is less busy.
Persistence on slave
If Redis has lot of write operations or disk system is slow (like
at AWS EC2) - persistence-only slave can be used:
❏ enable RDB snaphosts on persistence-only slave,
❏ disable RDB and AOF on master and other slaves.
★ Master does not need to perform any background disk
operations and is fully dedicated to serve client requests,
except for a slave connection.
★ RDB allows faster restarts with big datasets, but snapshots
should be moved to master server manualy.
Persistence tips and tricks
★ Remove all AOF and RDB files from slave before restart.
Redis will start syncing with master faster without restoring
existing backup.
★ Temporary disable AOF on master when slave is syncing.
This will prevent RDB and AOF running at the same time
and will decrease IO wait on master.
★ Try to avoid Redis (or all Redis pools) grow beyond 80% of
memory. After that, you do start seeing high IO behavior,
not necessarily tied directly to swapping
Useful links
❏

Official technical description of Redis persistence:
http://redis.io/topics/persistence

❏

Wider overview of Redis persistence:
http://oldblog.antirez.com/post/redis-persistence-demystified.html

❏

How to configure multiple Redis servers on one machine:
http://chrislaskey.com/blog/342/running-multiple-redis-instances-on-the-sameserver/

❏

Implementing persistence in Redis (article and book):
http://www.packtpub.com/article/implementing-persistence-in-redis-intermediate

❏

Tool to parse RDB files and analyse memory usage:
https://github.com/sripathikrishnan/redis-rdb-tools
Contacts
Eugene Fidelin
❏
❏
❏
❏

Email: eugene.fidelin@gmail.com
Twitter: @EugeneFidelin
Facebook: facebook.com/eugene.fidelin
Github: github.com/eugef

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Redis persistence in practice

  • 2. Redis key features ❏ All datasets are stored in memory extremly fast read/write operations. ❏ Datasets can be saved to disk RDB and AOF - two ways to achieve persistence. ❏ Redis forks for long tasks Redis creates child processes.
  • 3. RDB snaphots and AOF logs Persistence in Redis is a matter of configuration, balancing the trade-off between performance, disk I/O, and data durability. ❏ RDB is a very compact single-file point-in-time representation of the Redis dataset. ❏ AOF is a simple text log of write operations.
  • 4. RDB advantages ★ RDB is a very compact and perfect for backups and for disaster recovery (~2 times smaller than AOF log file). ★ RDB maximizes Redis performances since the only work the Redis parent process needs to do in order to persist is forking a child that will do all the rest. The parent instance will never perform disk I/O or alike. ★ RDB allows faster restarts with big datasets compared to AOF (up to 2 times faster).
  • 5. RDB disadvantages (1/2) ➔ RDB is not good to minimize the chance of data loss in case Redis unexpectedly stops working - in this case latest minutes of data can be lost. ➔ RDB needs to fork() a child process to persist on disk. Fork() can be time consuming if the dataset is big and the CPU performance not great. This may result in Redis to stop serving clients for some millisecond.
  • 6. RDB disadvantages (2/2) ➔ RDB uses fork() that implements a copy-on-write semantic of memory pages. Additional memory consumtion is proportional to the number of changes the dataset will get while snapshoting is in progress. In a very write-heavy application Redis may use up to 2x the memory normally used, so memory swapping becomes risky. ➔ RDB snapshoting generates a higher volume of disk writes because whole file is being rewritten each time.
  • 7. AOF advantages (1/2) ★ AOF log is an append only log, there are no seeks, nor corruption problems if there is a power outage. ★ AOF generates less blocks writes to disk because data is only appended to file. ★ Using AOF Redis is much more durable: there are different fsync policies: no fsync at all (fsynk done by OS, usually each 30s on Linux), fsync every second (default config), fsync at every query (very slow).
  • 8. AOF advantages (2/2) ★ Redis is able to automatically rewrite the AOF in background when it gets too big. ★ AOF needs fork() only to rewrite logs, you can tune how often you want to without any trade-off on durability. ★ AOF contains a log of all the operations one after the other in an easy to understand and parse format.
  • 9. AOF disadvantages ➔ AOF takes more time to load in memory on server restart. ➔ AOF files are usually bigger (1.5 - 3 times) than the equivalent RDB files for the same dataset. ➔ AOF can be slower than RDB. With fsync set to every second performance is still very high, and with fsync disabled it exactly as fast as RDB even under high load. ➔ AOF file can be damaged, because of unexpected shutdown, but this can be easily fixed.
  • 10. RDB and AOF usage ❏ RDB persistence is enabled by default. ❏ AOF and RDB can be enabled at the same time. The AOF file will be used to reconstruct the original dataset on restart, since it is guaranteed to be the most complete. ❏ Redis makes sure to avoid triggering an AOF BGREWRITEAOF and RDB BGSAVE at the same time. ❏ Persistence can be disabled at all.
  • 11. RDB configuration (1/2) save <seconds> <changes> Will save the DB if both the given number of seconds and the number of write operations occurred. Multiple save settings can be specified. save "" Disable RDB snapshoting. dbfilename <filename>.rdb The filename where to dump the DB
  • 12. RDB configuration (2/2) stop-writes-on-bgsave-error <yes/no> Redis will stop accepting writes if RDB snapshots are enabled and the latest background save failed. rdbcompression <yes/no> Compress string objects using LZF in RDB dump rdbchecksum <yes/no> Add a CRC64 checksum at the end of the file. Makes it more resistant to corruption but there is a performance hit to pay (around 10%) when saving/loading RDB files.
  • 13. RDB related commands BGSAVE Save the DB in background. Redis forks, the parent continues to serve the clients, the child saves the dataset on disk then exits. SAVE Perform a synchronous save of the dataset. Other clients are blocked - never use in production! LASTSAVE Return the Unix time of the last successfull DB save.
  • 14. AOF configuration (1/2) appendonly <yes/no> Enable or disable AOF persistence. appendfilename <filename>.aof The name of the append only file. auto-aof-rewrite-percentage <value> auto-aof-rewrite-min-size <size> Automatic rewrite the AOF log file when the log size grows by the specified percentage. auto-aof-rewrite-percentage 0 Disable automatical AOF rewrite.
  • 15. AOF configuration (2/2) appendfsync <always/everysec/no> Specify how often actually write data on disk instead of waiting for more data in the output buffer. no: don't fsync, let the OS flush the data when it wants (usually every 30 sec.). Faster. always: fsync after every write. Slow, Safest. everysec: fsync one time every second. Compromise. no-appendfsync-on-rewrite <yes/no> Prevent fsync() from being called in the main process while a BGSAVE or BGREWRITEAOF is in progress
  • 16. AOF related commands BGREWRITEAOF Instruct Redis to start an AOF rewrite process. The rewrite will create a small optimized version of the current AOF log. If BGREWRITEAOF fails, no data gets lost as the old AOF will be untouched
  • 17. Persistence related INFO. RDB (1/5) rdb_changes_since_last_save Number of operations that produced some kind of changes in the dataset since the last time either SAVE or BGSAVE was called. rdb_bgsave_in_progress Flag indicating whether an RDB save is on-going. rdb_last_save_time Unix timestamp of last successful RDB save (same as the LASTSAVE command).
  • 18. Persistence related INFO. RDB (2/5) rdb_last_bgsave_status Status of the last RDB save operation (should be ‘ok’). rdb_last_bgsave_time_sec Duration of the last RDB save operation in seconds. rdb_current_bgsave_time_sec Duration of the on-going RDB save operation if any.
  • 19. Persistence related INFO. AOF (3/5) aof_enabled Flag indicating whether an AOF logging is activated. aof_rewrite_in_progress Flag indicating whether an AOF rewrite operation is on-going. aof_rewrite_scheduled, aof_pending_rewrite Flags indicating whether an AOF rewrite operation will be scheduled once the on-going RDB save is complete. aof_last_rewrite_time_sec Duration of the last AOF rewrite operation in seconds.
  • 20. Persistence related INFO. AOF (4/5) aof_current_rewrite_time_sec Duration of the on-going AOF rewrite operation if any. aof_last_bgrewrite_status Status of the last AOF rewrite operation. aof_current_size AOF current file size (in bytes). aof_base_size AOF file size on latest startup or rewrite (in bytes).
  • 21. Persistence related INFO. AOF (5/5) aof_buffer_length Size of the AOF buffer. aof_rewrite_buffer_length Size of the AOF rewrite buffer. aof_pending_bio_fsync Number of fsync pending jobs in background I/O queue. aof_delayed_fsync Delayed fsync counter.
  • 22. Redis persistence and pools Pools are multiple Redis servers running on the same machine but using different ports. ★ More effective memory usage. When RDB snapshoting is performed only DBs from one pool are copied in memory. ★ More CPUs can be used. While each Redis instance can use only one CPU, different pools can use different cores. ★ More fine-tuning. Each pool can be configured and restarted independently.
  • 23. Persistence config for pools (1/2) ❏ Each pool should have different configuration for dbfilename and appendfilename. ❏ Because pools can’t be synchronized between each other, it is possible that RDB snapshot and/or AOF rewrite could start on several pools at the same time. ❏ In case RDB or RDB + AOF persistence is used, this can cause high CPU, memory and disk usage. To avoid this: disable Redis automatic and use manual control over BGSAVE and/or BGREWRITEAOF operations.
  • 24. Persistence config for pools (2/2) Example configuration for AOF + RDB: ❏ disable automatic Redis RDB snapshots and AOF rewrite: save "", auto-aof-rewrite-percentage 0 ❏ configure cron jobs for BGSAVE and BGREWRITEAOF of each pool at different time: m h * * * redis-cli -p <port> BGSAVE m h */4 * * redis-cli -p <port> BGREWRITEAOF m and h should be different for every pool. BGSAVE can be run 1-4 times per day, BGREWRITEAOF once per 2-4 days (calculate how fast AOF file grows for 100%)
  • 25. Persistence and replication RDB snapshots are used when performing a master-slave synchronization (even if RDB persistence is disabled): ❏ the master starts background saving, and starts to buffer all new commands received that will modify the dataset. ❏ when the background saving is complete, the master transfers the database file (RDB) to the slave. ❏ the slave saves file on disk, and then loads it into memory. ❏ the master then sends all buffered commands to the slave.
  • 26. Persistence on master If Redis has more read operations than writes - the master server can be used to perform persistence: ❏ enable only AOF logging on master, ❏ disable RDB and AOF on all slaves. ★ Backups will be automatically used to restore dataset in memory after restart. ★ AOF doesn’t use fork() that could cause Redis to stop serving clients for some millissecond. ★ If necessary, RDB snapshots could be executed by cron, when the machine is less busy.
  • 27. Persistence on slave If Redis has lot of write operations or disk system is slow (like at AWS EC2) - persistence-only slave can be used: ❏ enable RDB snaphosts on persistence-only slave, ❏ disable RDB and AOF on master and other slaves. ★ Master does not need to perform any background disk operations and is fully dedicated to serve client requests, except for a slave connection. ★ RDB allows faster restarts with big datasets, but snapshots should be moved to master server manualy.
  • 28. Persistence tips and tricks ★ Remove all AOF and RDB files from slave before restart. Redis will start syncing with master faster without restoring existing backup. ★ Temporary disable AOF on master when slave is syncing. This will prevent RDB and AOF running at the same time and will decrease IO wait on master. ★ Try to avoid Redis (or all Redis pools) grow beyond 80% of memory. After that, you do start seeing high IO behavior, not necessarily tied directly to swapping
  • 29. Useful links ❏ Official technical description of Redis persistence: http://redis.io/topics/persistence ❏ Wider overview of Redis persistence: http://oldblog.antirez.com/post/redis-persistence-demystified.html ❏ How to configure multiple Redis servers on one machine: http://chrislaskey.com/blog/342/running-multiple-redis-instances-on-the-sameserver/ ❏ Implementing persistence in Redis (article and book): http://www.packtpub.com/article/implementing-persistence-in-redis-intermediate ❏ Tool to parse RDB files and analyse memory usage: https://github.com/sripathikrishnan/redis-rdb-tools
  • 30. Contacts Eugene Fidelin ❏ ❏ ❏ ❏ Email: eugene.fidelin@gmail.com Twitter: @EugeneFidelin Facebook: facebook.com/eugene.fidelin Github: github.com/eugef