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Optical	Marionette:
Graphical	Manipulation	of	Human’s	Walking	Direction	
Akira	Ishii,	Ippei Suzuki,	Shinji	Sakamoto,	Keita...
Background	|	Redirected	Walking
n Manipulation	technique	of	human’s	walking	direction
for	VR	environment
n Uses	only visua...
Introduction	|	Motivation
n Suspected	there	are	possibilities	that	human’s	walking	
direction	could	be manipulated	using	o...
Introduction	|	To	This	End
n Examined	various	image-processing	methods
to	manipulate	walking	path
n Investigated	how	to	ma...
Implementation
n The	camera	is	attached	to	the	HMD
n Users	perceive	the	real	world	by	video
provided	by	an	HMD	and	stereo	...
Implementation	|	Hardware
n HMD:	Oculus	Rift	DK	2
n Stereo	camera:	Ovrvision
6
HMD
Camera
Implementation	|	Hardware
7
User’s	sight	via	HMD	+	camera
while	walking
Implementation	|	Flow
8
Implementation	|	Flow
9
Investigated	effective	
image	processing in	a	pilot	study
Pilot	Study
n Purpose
- To	determine	which	of	the	image	processing	methods
have	the	most	effect	on	a	human’s	walking	path
...
Pilot	Study	|	Result
11
Implementation	|	Changing	Focal	Region	(CFR)
12
Raw	video
from	camera
Video	that	users	see
via	HMD
Crops	the	raw	image
Shi...
Implementation	|	Changing	Focal	Region	(CFR)
13
Raw	video
from	camera
Video	that	users	see
via	HMD
Crops	the	raw	image
Shi...
Experiment
14
n Purpose
-To	determine	how	to	control	the	walking	direction	
using	Changing	focal	region	method
n Participa...
Experiment	|	Experimental	Design
n Image	processing	methods
- No	processing	(raw	video)
- Magnification
- Magnification	wa...
Experiment	|	Experimental	Design
n Locations
-Hallway
- Narrow
- Several	hints	for	spatial
perception	(such	as	walls)
-Out...
1. Completed	pre-SSQ	(Simulator	Sickness	
Questionnaire)
2. Walked	straight	for	24	m	each	of	image	processing
at	2	locatio...
Result	|	Simulator	Sickness	Questionnaire
n Analyzed	the	SSQ	scores	with	t-test
-No	significant	difference	between	pre-SSQ...
Result	|	No	processing
19
Position	of	participants	[m]
Distance	from	starting	point	[m]
Result |	Changing	focal	region	(fast)	
20
Position	of	participants	[m]
Distance	from	starting	point	[m]
Result
21
No	processing Changing	focal	region
No	processing
Changing	focal	region
Result	|	Hallway
n Significant	effect
-No	processing	―	Changing	focal	region	(slow/fast)
-Magnification ―	Changing	focal	r...
Result	|	Hallway
n Amount	of	the	manipulation	for	Changing	focal	region
-Slow:	65.3	mm/m	
- If	you walk 2	m,	your position...
Result	|	Outside
n Significant	effect
-No	processing	―	Changing	focal	region	(slow/fast)
-Magnification ―	Changing	focal	r...
Result	|	Outside
n Amount	of	the	manipulation	for	Changing	focal	region
-Slow:	105.2	mm/m
-Fast:	199.2	mm/m
25
No
Amount	o...
Result	|	Pure	Effect	of	CFR
n No	significant	effect
between	No	processing	and	Magnification
-This	indicates	that	the	cropp...
Result	|	Hallway	vs.	Outside
n Significant	effect	within	the	locations
-The	outside participants	were	affected	more	
by	th...
Result	|	Slow	vs.	Fast
n Changing	focal	region	(fast)	was	significantly	more	
effective	than	the	slow	condition
-Slow:	105...
Discussion	|	Spatial	Perception
n Past	research	reported	Changing	the	FOV	has	effects
on	spatial	perception	[1,	2]
n No	ho...
Discussion	|	Cognitive	Resource
n Conventional	navigations	require	users	to	recognize
information	(go	to	the	right)	and	th...
Discussion	|	Cognitive	Resource
n Significant	amount	of	cognitive	resources	is	required
for	redirected	walking	in	VR	[3]
S...
Discussion	|	Feasibility	
n Demonstrated	our	method	at	SIGGRAPH	2016	E-Tech
n Over	700	people were	successfully	manipulate...
Applications	|	AR	Contents
n In	see-through	AR	contents,	
to	control	of	human’s	walking	path	is	important	
because	users	m...
Applications	|	Walker	Navigation
n There	is	possibility	of	walker	navigation	system,
if	we	can	increase
the	amount	of	mani...
Related	Work |	Galvanic	vestibular	stimulation (GVS) [4]
n Administers	electrical	stimulation	to	the	back	of	ears
(the	ves...
Related	Work	|	Electrical	Muscle	Stimulation (EMS)	[5]
n EMS-based	walker	navigation	system
n Controls	walker’s	legs	using...
Related	Work
n These	methods	use	electrical	stimulation
n Our	method	is	vision-based manipulation	
technique	of	human’s	wa...
Optical	Marionette:
n We	found	effective	image-processing	methods	for	
walker	movement	control	with	an	HMD
n We	investigat...
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Optical Marionette: Graphical Manipulation of Human's Walking Direction - UIST 2016

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We present a novel manipulation method that subconsciously changes the walking direction of users via visual processing on a head mounted display (HMD). Unlike existing navigation systems that require users to recognize information and then follow directions as two separate, conscious processes, the proposed method guides users without them needing to pay attention to the information provided by the navigation system and also allows them to be graphically manipulated by controllers. In the proposed system, users perceive the real world by means of stereo images provided by a stereo camera and the HMD. Specifically, while walking, the navigation system provides users with real-time feedback by processing the images they have just perceived and giving them visual stimuli. This study examined two image-processing methods for manipulation of human's walking direction: moving stripe pattern and changing focal region. Experimental results indicate that the changing focal region method most effectively leads walkers as it changes their walking path by approximately 200 mm/m on average.

Paper (PDF): http://akira.io/papers/om_paper_uist16.pdf
Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RTGpr6p582o
Project page: http://digitalnature.slis.tsukuba.ac.jp/2016/06/moh/

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Optical Marionette: Graphical Manipulation of Human's Walking Direction - UIST 2016

  1. 1. Optical Marionette: Graphical Manipulation of Human’s Walking Direction Akira Ishii, Ippei Suzuki, Shinji Sakamoto, Keita Kanai Kazuki Takazawa, Hiraku Doi, Yoichi Ochiai (Digital Nature Group, University of Tsukuba, Japan)
  2. 2. Background | Redirected Walking n Manipulation technique of human’s walking direction for VR environment n Uses only visual feedback for the manipulation n Enables users to explore a virtual world that is quite larger than the real environment 2 Figure by Matsumoto et al. 2016
  3. 3. Introduction | Motivation n Suspected there are possibilities that human’s walking direction could be manipulated using only visual feedback in the real environment like a Redirected Walking in VR 3 To manipulate user’s walking direction using only visual feedback in the real environment Our goal
  4. 4. Introduction | To This End n Examined various image-processing methods to manipulate walking path n Investigated how to manipulate the walking path using the image-processing methods 4 We found effective reorienting method using an HMD in the real environment
  5. 5. Implementation n The camera is attached to the HMD n Users perceive the real world by video provided by an HMD and stereo camera n So we can coordinate users’ sight in this setup 5 HMD Stereo camera = See-through
  6. 6. Implementation | Hardware n HMD: Oculus Rift DK 2 n Stereo camera: Ovrvision 6 HMD Camera
  7. 7. Implementation | Hardware 7 User’s sight via HMD + camera while walking
  8. 8. Implementation | Flow 8
  9. 9. Implementation | Flow 9 Investigated effective image processing in a pilot study
  10. 10. Pilot Study n Purpose - To determine which of the image processing methods have the most effect on a human’s walking path n Participants - 5 participants (1 female); 18-22 ages n 6 image processing methods n Task - Walk straight 10 m for each image processing methods 10
  11. 11. Pilot Study | Result 11
  12. 12. Implementation | Changing Focal Region (CFR) 12 Raw video from camera Video that users see via HMD Crops the raw image Shifts the cropped area
  13. 13. Implementation | Changing Focal Region (CFR) 13 Raw video from camera Video that users see via HMD Crops the raw image Shifts the cropped area User is asked to go to the B, however, actually he is going to the A
  14. 14. Experiment 14 n Purpose -To determine how to control the walking direction using Changing focal region method n Participants -16 participants -Had not prior knowledge of our experiment n Task -Walk straight 24 m for each image processing
  15. 15. Experiment | Experimental Design n Image processing methods - No processing (raw video) - Magnification - Magnification was added to the image-processing methods for comparison because it is used in Changing focal region method. This enabled us to identify the effects of image magnification and to reveal the pure effects of changing the focal region (shifting images). - Changing focal region (slow / fast) - Scroll speed of the cropped area in the slow condition was 0.5 px/frame - In the fast condition, the scroll speed of the cropped area was twice the scroll speed in the slow condition 15 Magnification + Shifting Changing focal region
  16. 16. Experiment | Experimental Design n Locations -Hallway - Narrow - Several hints for spatial perception (such as walls) -Outside - Large space - No hint for spatial perception 16
  17. 17. 1. Completed pre-SSQ (Simulator Sickness Questionnaire) 2. Walked straight for 24 m each of image processing at 2 locations -At 4 m, guided to the left -At 14 m, guided to the right 3. Completed post-SSQ Experiment | Procedure 17
  18. 18. Result | Simulator Sickness Questionnaire n Analyzed the SSQ scores with t-test -No significant difference between pre-SSQ and post-SSQ -Pre-SSQ: 4.7 (SD = 4.7) -Post-SSQ: 6.7 (SD = 8.3) 18 I did not feel any motion sickness J
  19. 19. Result | No processing 19 Position of participants [m] Distance from starting point [m]
  20. 20. Result | Changing focal region (fast) 20 Position of participants [m] Distance from starting point [m]
  21. 21. Result 21 No processing Changing focal region No processing Changing focal region
  22. 22. Result | Hallway n Significant effect -No processing ― Changing focal region (slow/fast) -Magnification ― Changing focal region (slow/fast) n No significant effect -No processing ― Magnification 22 Position of participants [m] No processing Magnification CFR (slow) CFR (fast)
  23. 23. Result | Hallway n Amount of the manipulation for Changing focal region -Slow: 65.3 mm/m - If you walk 2 m, your position moves by 10 cm horizontally -Fast: 75.3 mm/m 23 No Amount of manipulation [mm] * guide to left ** guide to right
  24. 24. Result | Outside n Significant effect -No processing ― Changing focal region (slow/fast) -Magnification ― Changing focal region (slow/fast) n No significant effect -No processing ― Magnification 24 Position of participants [m] No processing Magnification CFR (slow) CFR (fast)
  25. 25. Result | Outside n Amount of the manipulation for Changing focal region -Slow: 105.2 mm/m -Fast: 199.2 mm/m 25 No Amount of manipulation [mm] * guide to left ** guide to right
  26. 26. Result | Pure Effect of CFR n No significant effect between No processing and Magnification -This indicates that the cropped image by itself did not affect the participants’ walking paths -It is clear that the participants’ walking paths were affected by movement of the cropped area of Changing focal region 26
  27. 27. Result | Hallway vs. Outside n Significant effect within the locations -The outside participants were affected more by the manipulation method - In the hallway, the participants could not move more than 1.1 m because the with of the hallway is 2.2 m - Thus, the mean value of the position change in the hallway was smaller than that in the outside 27
  28. 28. Result | Slow vs. Fast n Changing focal region (fast) was significantly more effective than the slow condition -Slow: 105.2 mm/m -Fast: 199.2 mm/m (at outside) 28
  29. 29. Discussion | Spatial Perception n Past research reported Changing the FOV has effects on spatial perception [1, 2] n No horizontal spatial perception effect on our result -because no significant difference between No processing and Magnification n By contrast, we could not determine whether there was any depth perception effect 29 In this study [1] Campos, J., Freitas, P., Turner, E., Wong, M., and Sun, H. The effect of optical magnification/minimization on distance estimation by stationary and walking observers. Journal of Vision 7, 9 (June 2007), 1028. [2] Kuhl, S. A., Thompson, W. B., and Creem-Regehr, S. H. HMD calibration and its effects on distance judgments. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception 6, 3 (September 2009), 19:1–19:20.
  30. 30. Discussion | Cognitive Resource n Conventional navigations require users to recognize information (go to the right) and then follow directions n Our method directly affects users’ bodies so that it can control them without requiring user recognition process 30 Does our method have lighter burden than conventional navigations?
  31. 31. Discussion | Cognitive Resource n Significant amount of cognitive resources is required for redirected walking in VR [3] Similarly, our method might require some cognitive resources 31 We plan to investigate how much cognitive resources are really required by users to follow the manipulation [3] Bruder, G., Lubas, P., and Steinicke, F. Cognitive resource demands of redirected walking. IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 21, 4 (April 2015), 539–544.
  32. 32. Discussion | Feasibility n Demonstrated our method at SIGGRAPH 2016 E-Tech n Over 700 people were successfully manipulated 32 Direction: Go straight to B
  33. 33. Applications | AR Contents n In see-through AR contents, to control of human’s walking path is important because users might conflict each other 33
  34. 34. Applications | Walker Navigation n There is possibility of walker navigation system, if we can increase the amount of manipulation of users’ walking direction 34
  35. 35. Related Work | Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) [4] n Administers electrical stimulation to the back of ears (the vestibules) n Controls the walker’s sense of balance 35 [4] Maeda, T., Ando, H., Iizuka, H., Yonemura, T., Kondo, D., and Niwa, M. Parasitic humanoid: The wearable robotics as a behavioral assist interface like oneness between horse and rider. In Proc. AH ’11, 18:1–18:8.
  36. 36. Related Work | Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) [5] n EMS-based walker navigation system n Controls walker’s legs using EMS 36 [5] Max Pfeiffer, Tim Du ̈nte, Stefan Schneegass, Florian Alt, Michael Rohs. Cruise Control for Pedestrians: Controlling Walking Direction using Electrical Muscle Stimulation. CHI 2015, pp.2505-2514, 2015.
  37. 37. Related Work n These methods use electrical stimulation n Our method is vision-based manipulation technique of human’s walking direction using only visual feedback 37 [4] Max Pfeiffer, Tim Du ̈nte, Stefan Schneegass, Florian Alt, Michael Rohs. Cruise Control for Pedestrians: Controlling Walking Direction using Electrical Muscle Stimulation. CHI 2015, pp.2505-2514, 2015.
  38. 38. Optical Marionette: n We found effective image-processing methods for walker movement control with an HMD n We investigated of the effects of the image-processing methods via a user study n Changing focal region method was most effective, and changed walking path by about 200 mm/m 38 Akira Ishii, Ippei Suzuki, Shinji Sakamoto, Keita Kanai Kazuki Takazawa, Hiraku Doi, Yoichi Ochiai (University of Tsukuba) ishii@akira.io Graphical Manipulation of Human’s Walking Direction

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