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l W/ itb un introdzlzcltion by Sonia SzzVZdivar-Hull
Second Edition

Aunt Lute Boa/ e: SAN FRANCISCO

îfllflàfianfl Unlvutflià
...
‘copyrighi (c) 1957, 1999 by Gloria Anzaldfia
Copyright (c) ‘1999 by-Karin lkas

All rights resérved

secoxid Edition
1o-9-...
' .  , rave; 

Aclmowledèments

T0 you‘ who walkedwìth me uîaonmy pathand who held
out ‘ahandwhen i stumbled;  ' , 
toyou ...
to Chela Sandoval,  Rosa-Maria Villafane-Sosolak,  Osa
Hidalgo de la Riva,  Lisa Carim,  Sue Schwiek,  Viviana Varela, 
"C...
u Contents

l

» Introduction by Sonia Salvîdar-Hull, ‘ page 1

Preface to the First Edition by Gloria Anzaldùa,  page 19
...
Linguistic Terrorism
"Vistasfcorfidos,  y comidas:  My Nàtive Tonguc‘
Si le preguntas a mi mamfi,  "gqué eres? "

6. 121'111...
We‘ ‘C2111 Them Greasers,  page 156

Matriz sin tamba o "el barîo de la basura ajena, ”
page 158

III.  ‘Crossers y otros ...
. w .  _
Intròduction to the second Edition
by Sonia Saldîvar-‘Hull ’

In the 12 years‘ since the "puhlicationyof GloriagAnzaldùzrs...
i  w

e“ >5
.2, e

t g l h _ _
g,   ha a  gengfiapfiie  
g,  a    glifiîîllîs  SÉÎQÌÎÈÎQ ìîîsîqîya-{IÌÀEE  —
” allieta an taf...
. 3
Introduction to the Seeond Edition
.   .  _

 

Washington Gòmez,  a novel in which the protagonìsfs hybrìd '
identity...
4 . 
Introduction to the second Edition

v is as if she is addressing the elders who refused to speak English. 

She appea...
5
‘Introduction to the second Eclìtion

“selfishness” ineludes anything womenwantto do to improve

.  their lives. ) The Ne...
6 g —
Introduotion to the Second Edition

Armed with her feminist tools,  Anzaldùtvs narrator is pre-
pared to "enter the ...
7 . 
Lntroduction to the ‘Seeond Edition

 

conterhporary Chicana feminists.  In cùentos like I-IeIenarMaria

Viramontes’...
. .3 ì
Introduction to.  the second Editlon

 

Alarcòn notes,  the shifting identìties,  the multiple names are

’ encaps...
n .  9' , 
Introduction to the second‘ Edition v
v . 
The followîng chgpter, ’ “Tîtlli,  Iîapalli lThe Path of the Red
and...
10 . 
Introduction te the second Edition

 

“El camino de la mestizq /  The MestizaWay, “ synthesizes
the previous specul...
i 1 1
Introduction to the" second Edition

humiliation,  Pepita also endures the Chicanos’ contempt as they

spit on the g...
12
Introduetion to the Secqnd Edition - h

 

the “homelànd” "and yet negotìate multiple subject positiotîs as
well.  The ...
13 . 
Introduction to the Second Edition

 

boundaries in academia as it traveled between Literature (English
and Spanish...
14
Notes to the Introduction

 

creates art,  such as ttn altar,  she represents much mote then herself,  “they are

‘ re...
15
Notes to the Introduction

 

consciousness powerfnlly asserts itself asfeminist .  . .  . [it] reveaus] dif-
ferent mo...
i Burderlands
  la Fra/ Ilari»!  i
7 H
mxazkamnlflmm game c w sia:
Preface to" the‘ First Edition

V .  ‘The actualphysical borderland that‘ I'm dealing with in this i
' book is the Texas-U...
y

that anchored me to the earth.  My love of imàges-mesquite
flowering,  the wind,  Ebécatl,  Whispering its secret lmowl...
m sue m;  msaak%ssfiém
' o The Homeland,  Aztlàn

 
 

 atrio MéxicoÌ

El otro México que aczî hemos construîdo

el espacio es lo que- ha sido v
...
24
The Homeland,  Aztlàn /  El otro Mexico

 

Miro el mar tztacar
la cerca en Border Field Park
con sus bucbonesde agua, ...
25
The Hoùieland,  Aztlàn /  El otra México. 

This is my home
this thìn edge of p
barbwìre.  _ ‘ r

But the skin of the e...
26
The Homeland,  Aztiàn /  El otro Mexico

 

r twho align themselves with whites.  Tension grips ‘the inhabitants

of th...
27
The Hoigieland’,  Amari /  El otro México

Con sus ocbo ‘tribus salieron"
e .  de la "cueva del origen. "
"los aztecas ...
28 v
V The Homeland, _Aztlàn /  Et agro Mexico "

E1 destierro /  The Lost ‘Land

Entonces corre la sangre
no sabe el indi...
, _ 29 .  I
' The Homeland,  Aztlin /  El 02m Mexico -

In 18,46, the U. S. incited Mexico to war.  Usttroops invad-
ed an...
30
The Homeland,  Aztlin /  El otro México

 

dos-we were jerked out by the roots,  truncated,  disemboweled‘, 
disposses...
« 51
The Homeland,  Aztlàn /  El otro México

.  in the1950s,  after Anglo agribusiness corporations cheated '

the small ...
. ,  32 e
The Homeland,  Aztlàn /  El otro Mexico

 

i her unknown mother just before the mother dies. 
——from, lsmael Ro...
, .  35'
‘The Homeland,  Aztlan /  El otro Mexico

 

South of the border,  called NorthAmericws rubbish dumpi’ by

‘ Chic...
54 . 
The Homeland.  Aztlàn /  E’!  otro Méxzflco

in the grlound o:  mounted on Border Patrol ‘vana.  Cornered by
flashlig...
. v “s5 . 
r The Homeland,  Aztlin/  El otro México

 

helplessness.  A5 avrefugee‘,  she leaves the familìar and safe ho...
2 V

.  Movimientos  febeldîay "
A lasi culturas que traicionan

 
 

Esos mouimientos de iebeldia que tenemos en la sangr...
. 58 _ , 
Movimientos ‘de rebeldîa yglas culturasque traicionan‘

 

 

T0 this day I'm not sureîwhere ‘I found the streng...
y .  _ 39 1
Movimientos de rebeldîa y-Ias culturas que traicionan

 

_The culture expects womenyto show greater aeceptanc...
40
Movimientos de rebeldîa y la:  cultura:  que trgzicionan

 

sure we didn't walk into -a room of brothers or fathers or...
41 .  , . 
Movimientos de rebeldîa y las culturas que traicionean

 

Half and Half , 

There was a muchacba who Iived nea...
42
Movimièntos de rebeldîa y las cultura;  que traicionan

v and faculty intoà panic.  The two lesbian students and we two...
4- - .  . 43 . 
Mouimientos de rebeldîa y la:  cultura:  que traiciorian

 

of protection.  Blocked,  ìmmobflizved,  we ca...
44 -
Movimientos de rebeldîa y Ias culturas que traicionan

myths of thetribe into Which I was born.  I can under-stand wh...
. 45
Mqvimientes de rebeldia y la:  culturas que trafcfionan

‘people (and in Mesoamerica her lot under the Indian pattiar...
J.
‘ i Entering Into",  the-Serpente

Suefiò conserpientes,  con serpientes del mm"; 
Con cierto mm;  ay de serpientes suerîò ...
Gloria anzaldua   borderlands-la frontera
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Gloria anzaldua borderlands-la frontera

  1. 1. l W/ itb un introdzlzcltion by Sonia SzzVZdivar-Hull Second Edition Aunt Lute Boa/ e: SAN FRANCISCO îfllflàfianfl Unlvutflià flkihmm ,
  2. 2. ‘copyrighi (c) 1957, 1999 by Gloria Anzaldfia Copyright (c) ‘1999 by-Karin lkas All rights resérved secoxid Edition 1o-9-8r745,+3«2-1 Aunt Lute Books P. O. Box 410687 San Francisco. CA 94141 “Holy Rcllcs" first appeaxcd in Condizioni Six. 1980. _ “Cervicivcìfilfirst appcarcd in Labyris, A FeministAr-tsjqumal, V01. 4, 4 ""”"""’N6T ‘1'ITWii'1'téi-"1'985T7" """" " ' V “En èl nombre de todas ‘Ius madre-s que han perdido su: han: en la guerra" m: appcaredin IKON: creauutxy and Cbahge, secpnd Scries, ‘ No. 4, 1985. ' ‘ First Editîon Cove: and Tcxt Design: Pamela Wilson Design Studio Sécond Editîon Covcx‘ Ile-Design: Kaiun Design First Edition Cover Art: Pamela Wxlson (Ebécatl, The Wìhd) "Second Editîon Typesettìng‘: Kathléen Wxlkinson Senior Editor: Joan Pinkvoss ' A Managing Editor: Slxay Bxawn Produètìpn, Second Edìtion: Emma Bianchi. Corey Cohcn‘, Gina Gemelle, ‘ Shahara Godfrey, Golda ‘Saxgento, Pimpila Thanapom Prqductlon, Iirst Edition: Cindy Clearyr, Maxtha Davis, Debm. DeBondt, Rosana Francescato, Amelia Gonzalcz, Lorminc Grassano, Ambrosia Marvin. ‘Papusa Melina, SukcyWìlder, Kathlecp Wilkîngon Printed in the U. S.A. library ofrCongress Catalogîng-în-Publîcatiòn Data Anzaldùa, Gldria. . Borderlands‘: the new mcstiza = La frontera/ Gloria Anzaldfia : introduction by Sonia Saldîvar-Hull. --‘ 2nd ed. . - p. 264 cm. Engllsh and Spanish. Includes bibliographìcal refercpces. - 151m 1-879960-57-5 (c1030. l-— ISBN 1-379960-56-7 (papa) — ' ' 1. Mcxìcan-American Border Regi0n--Poctry. 2. Mexican-Amerìcan wqmcnnPoerxy. 3. Mexlcan-American Border‘ Region--Civilizati0n. 1. Titlg. 11. Title: Fronfera. P5 PS355LN95B6. 1999 ‘ 355] ‘ . ‘ su. .54——dc21 ‘ _ M55 99722546 CIP, . . 56 243136 '959
  3. 3. ' . , rave; Aclmowledèments T0 you‘ who walkedwìth me uîaonmy pathand who held out ‘ahandwhen i stumbled; ' , toyou who brushed past me at crossroads never to touch me again; ' - , . _ . - to you Whom I never chanced to meet but who inhabit bor- derlands similat temine; ,_ . ‘ to you for Whom. the borderlands is unlmown territory; to Melanie Kaye/ Kantrowitz, for believing in" meand being ' there for me; to JoanPinkvoss, my editor and publisher, rnidwife extra- ordinaire, whose understanding, ‘caring, and‘ balanced mixture of gentle prodding and pressure not oniy helped mc bring this “baby” to term, but helped to‘ create it; these images and Words ’ are for you. T0 the production staff‘ at Spinsters/ Aunt Lute who bore the pressure of impossible deadlines well: Martha Davis whose invaluablefland excellent copy-editing has made the materiàl more readable and‘ cohesive; 'Debra DeBondt who worked long and hard to keep the book onschedule; Pam Wilson and Grace Harwood; ‘ ’ -to Franees Doughty, Juanita Ramos, Judith Waterman, Irena . .Klepfisz, -. .Randy. .Conner, .---Janet Aalphs, vMirtha" N. Quintanales, Mandy Covey and Eliana Dykewomon for their support and encoùragement, a5 well as feedback, on various pieces; to rny friends, students and‘ colleagues in the ADP program in Vermont College, Wornexfs Voices Writing Workshop, UCSC, and writers who participated in my writing workshops in NY C, New Haven, San FranciscojBerkeley, Oakland, and-Austin, Texas, in particu- lar: Pearl Olson, Paula Ross, MarcyyAlancraig, Maya Valverde, Ariban, Tirsa Quifiones, Beth Brant, Chrystos, ‘ Elva Pérea- Trevifio, Victoria Rosales, Christian Mclîwen, Roz Calvert, Nina ‘ Newington, and Linda Smuckler; to Kit Quan, for feeding me and listening tome rant andÎ
  4. 4. to Chela Sandoval, Rosa-Maria Villafane-Sosolak, Osa Hidalgo de la Riva, Lisa Carim, Sue Schwiek, Viviana Varela, "Cindy Cleary, Papusa Molina and Rusty Barcelo; ’ to Lisa Levin, Shelley Savren, Lisa Albrecht, Mary Pollock, Lea Arellano, Christîne Weiland, Louise Rocha, Leon Fishman, i Claude Talley; to rny farnily: my mother, Amalia; rriy sister, Hilda; my brothers, Urbano (Nune) and Oscar (Carita); my sisters-m-law, Janie and Sara; my niece, Missy, and my nephew, Urbie; Tîo Pete y Tîa Minga; . and esgecially to the memory gfggyjfgther, Urbano, and my mgrandmothers, Eloisa (Locha) and Ramona; v gracias a toditos ustedes. THIS B_O 01K is dedicated a todos mexiczmos, . on both sides of the border. V G. E.A.
  5. 5. u Contents l » Introduction by Sonia Salvîdar-Hull, ‘ page 1 Preface to the First Edition by Gloria Anzaldùa, page 19 ATRAVESÀNDO FRONTEÉAS / CROSSING BORDERS - 1. The Homeland, Aztlàn El otro Mexico, page 23 ‘ El destierro‘ / The Lost Land ‘ El cruzar del mojado / Illegal Crossing 2. Movx/ imientos de rebeldîa y las pulturas ‘ que traiqionan, page 37 ‘ " The Strength of MyRebellion‘ Cultura] ’l‘yranny ’ , Half and Half Fear of Going Home: Homophobia Intimate Terrorism: Life in the Borderlands The Wounding of the india-Mestiàa 5. Enteringllnto the Serpent, page 4 7 ‘ ‘Ella tiene su tono ‘ Coatlalopeub, She Who Has Dominion Over Serpents i 'F0rWagingWa1-Is My Cosmic Duty . ‘ Suefìo con serpientes ' ' The Presences ' La faculmd 4. . La berencia de Coatlicue [The Cogztltîgyeflgtate, page 63 a Enfrentamflientos con el alma El secreto terrible y la rajadùra Nepal de icastilla The Coatliczze State The Cocztlicue State Is a Prelude to Crossing That Which Abides " 5. How toTame aWild Tongue, page 75 ' Overcoming the Traditionlof Silence Oyé coma ladraqel lenguaje de la frontera Chicano Spanish
  6. 6. Linguistic Terrorism "Vistasfcorfidos, y comidas: My Nàtive Tonguc‘ Si le preguntas a mi mamfi, "gqué eres? " 6. 121'111‘, 77apa1li/ The Path of the Red and Black Ink, page 87 Invokîng Art r Ni’ cuicani: I, the Singcr The Shamahìestate Writing Is A Sensuous Act Something T0 Do With the Dark »—» —w-m-J-rw-La-coneienciapie-la-mespiza -/ ,5I'0wa. rds ; a »Nevv'u—-—-—« Consciousness, page 99 , _ - Una lucba de fronteras / A Struggle of Borders AToleranee For Ambjguity - La eneruczjada / The Crossrdads _ El camino de- la mestiza / The Mestiza Way Que no se nos oluiden los hombres ‘ Somos una gente v" ‘ ‘ By Your True Faces Wc Wìll Know You El dia de la Chicana El retorno Notes UN AGITADO VIENTO / EHÉCATL, THEWIND ‘I. Mais antes en los ranchos Whîte-Wing Season, page 124 "h; a Cervicide, page '126 horse, page 128 - Immaculate, Inviolate: Como Ella, page 130 g Nopalitos, page 134 ‘ II. La Péraida . sus plumas el niente, page 138 g Cultures, page 142 « sobre piedras con lagartzjos, page 143 El sonauabitcbe, page 146 ' Mar de repollos, page 152 A Sea of Cabbages, page 154
  7. 7. We‘ ‘C2111 Them Greasers, page 156 Matriz sin tamba o "el barîo de la basura ajena, ” page 158 III. ‘Crossers y otros atravesados - Poets have strange eatìng habits, page 162 Y0 no fui, fue Teté page 164 ‘ The cannibale Cancîòn, page 165 En mi corazòn se incuba, page 166 Corner of 50th St; and FifthAm; page 167 ‘ Comparîera, cuanxdo amabamqs, page 168 ' Interface, page] 70 IV. Cibuatlyotl, Woman Alone - Holy Relics, page 176 , - ‘ En el nqmbre de todas las madres, page 182 Letting Go, page 186 ' ’ I Had T0 Go Down, page 189 " Cagado abismo, quiero saber; - page 192 . i that dark shining thing, page 193 Cibuatlv-yotl, Woman Alone, page195 V. Animas , . ‘ ‘La eurandera, page 198 mujer cacio, page 202 pCuyamaca, page 204 >1 My Black Angelos, page 206 Creature of Darkness, page 208 Antigua, mi diosa, page 210 E; Ret0rn0_-_. _.--___. +_. __. ._. ._. _.. .. _. _.. . . . _. . . . . . . . . . Arriba mz’ gente, page 214 4 , T0 live in the Bgrderlands means you, page 216 Cancién de la diosapîela noche, page 218" No se Araje, chicanita, page 222 Don't Give In, Cbicanita, page 224 Interview, page 227 Selected pibuography, page 247‘
  8. 8. . w . _
  9. 9. Intròduction to the second Edition by Sonia Saldîvar-‘Hull ’ In the 12 years‘ since the "puhlicationyof GloriagAnzaldùzrs "foundational Borderlands [La Frontera: The New Mestiza, ' women's studies and Chiama/ Latina studies have flourished in intelleetual production not in-academic acceptance. Even‘ in . the face of growing backlaslymost dramatically embodied in anti-affirmative action laws in Caljforniamhe Hopwood Decjsion ' . , in Texas, and similat legislation under cohsideration, in many otheretates, Borderlands is now in its second edition. This his- torical1y significant text continuesto bestudied and includedon class syllabi in. courses. on ‘feminist theory, » contemporary American women writers, autobiography, Chicana/ o and "Latina/ o" literature, ‘ cultural studies, and. even major Atnerican authors. , ‘ _ , . After my initial reading of Gloria Anzaldfia’: Borderlands in the summer, of‘ 19_87, I, like many other ‘Chjcana acàdemics, ‘ found myself compelled to engage its New Mestiza hermeneùtics. Anzaldfia spoke to me as afellow Tejana, as a mujefboldly naxn- ' ing herself femìnist ‘as well as Chicàna. Juxtaposed agaìnst other ‘ foundational texts on the Bordei‘, such as. Wth HislPistol in His Hand byAmérico Paredes and Occupied America by Rodolfo Acufia, Borderlands ‘offered a view of out America ‘through the glens of a. woman-identifiedî- wotnan. ‘ The feminisxn that Borderlands‘advocatesbuilds. ‘on ‘the gendered articulations of . WWDFIIJÌÌSCÀ Ma‘? ?? C9FÉE. .’-: '—F1.QARfl-Ǹΰ Qsam9.z. t2s; hos. .e-. ear1yz tema. ‘ iifièt", épeculatîons appear in the anthology Cbicana Feminist TbaugbtT/ aefiaeic Historical Writingsî Chlcahas were theotiz- ing in the 1960s and 70s, and with GloriaAnzaIdùa and Cherrie Moraga's interventions in This Bridge Called My Bacia: Writings by ‘Radical’ ‘Women of Colorfa transflònterista (that is, a itransnational feminist, a transfrqnterztfeminista) consciousness bùilt new. coalitions with othcr U. S. Latinas and U. S. women of colori’ Borderlands, a socio-politically specìfic elabomtion of late twentieth-centttry feminièta Chicana epistemology, àignals movement towaifds coalitions with other mujeres across the U; S.- Mexico geopolitical border. ‘
  10. 10. i w e“ >5 .2, e t g l h _ _ g, ha a gengfiapfiie g, a glifiîîllîs SÉÎQÌÎÈÎQ ìîîsîqîya-{IÌÀEE — ” allieta an tafîgiitfiiîi fihtazsiattéatîse isiafiîtteìagîì e, i3, ai i e ggjgîtlafifiggî} m: fîdîòîîîfiîgîèîîîîèîgîiîùîfîîîìitigfi il atee atte etfiie iiîìîfiîìîîs » àfxagifig, ;. tèpîaca e tgegntìgtttesi Èhîeana afinîfiles; ailîft H , the tîirgeîzfiaîe sflìgaiialîzp anti teîfeîàaîigaîtîeîiiaîîe E . ‘ îtagfi îîrvoltezi f‘ , 5 a e ‘i g, m’ s“ i j z Î i, dies e wgim -_. t " _ ’ « Jiîseîéîfltoîaîîèflwfitîmîîìfliîî Ìîs i I“; îètfihîtleîîiîgei îhîîfiàgìîégv: ani e lecite 5 e « i efliflîîîîfiiîrîìîaîìîi NQLÎCÌÉSÉ fiefiaîggathtt, tra: fiyîifiîfi; lèflwîtîîeî maree ‘ “ativeaeiiiiemegttcîaeaîiîtssgî” g, ‘ ' "i . . ‘: AÈÈ rìfh. insana i . » g, M {gatte nnàglltngleî aeaìc, alt“: tenente the , g? .. «aîgtiefif QÌÉLÉÈX 1,8145”; a; Éùfisîtifia matita a V g , îvlîetgigm , Éîîîîîllfiîîìîizîîlîîé gîefiàgfiqgyg infièîàfiî *‘ îtiinîvzîétìghîfiafliîsgîégînfligfiéfieîefie îéflîiîd ente“ iîìîîeîîeftifìg ' a teîie fifa ‘e “ i“? ‘e l“ " fiéitîéiîmîtièfitia e‘ ‘E ZIÉ. VI_"QEPÎW: 4 , g‘ , îîlîìflitiîèîmî eîîîaîîisîeîeiaflîtîttihfieîîiî e * Îîmîgîéîgîtîîlhflàîîfifiîòfifiîî V, ‘ Littlte i531 Î pia . g «fîiîfiefia ‘zîlîeîeîgîhîège * s‘ ì ‘@3245’! 25mila etc abilitati? aeîftîsîaétîtîîîtaî; “ i 5 hfflîfiîmî dei? a ma sten; N; ata; 1333135‘ imatxygimiegtniiggiea t agzaeeiamggtmgi pagate‘ aagge “g? à!
  11. 11. . 3 Introduction to the Seeond Edition . . _ Washington Gòmez, a novel in which the protagonìsfs hybrìd ' identity is at war with itself? Whìle both of these historical fic- tions recover memory erased from the òfficial story, Anzaldùavs binaria offers a new Way to write History. Like Paredes, Anzaldfia boldly Îaligns Chìcana territorial-history with the early twentieth century Mexico-Tejano resistance fighters, the Seditionists, -who polemìcized against the Anglo iuvaders in their 4 political manifesto, the Pian de San Diego. 1° But hjstory ‘in thìs New Mestiza narrative is not a univoeal discursive exercise-ìn - this new genre, ‘ a movivng personal, narrative about her Grandrnother’s dispossession occupies the same discursive space as adry recitation 01?‘ historical fact, while lyrics from a corrida about "the lost land” butt up against a poetic ‘renditìon of an eth- nocentric anglo historiarfs vision of U. S. dominion over Mexico. Indeed, the Borderlands gente continually refuses stasis. l Shifting from Mekico-tejana Hìstory, to personal testimonial, the text moves restlessly onward to a history of a larger political fam— ily. As she concludes the opening essay, the New Mestiza narra- » tor emphasìzes class_ alliances with MexicarlborderV-crossers who labor in unregulated border factories, the, maquiladoras, and ‘brings to light the dehumanization of those Mexican workers -Not only does Anzaldfia disrupt anglo-centric‘ nationalist histo- A ‘ ries, she ‘interrupts theMChìVeano nationalistagendajaxssheengages . . ' Îhistory texts. ‘ who cross over "to the U. S. where the BordervPatrol hunts them as vermìn. The mestizo workers are then “caught between beìng treated a5 criminals and beìngable to eat" (34). ’ t . TheNew Mestìza chronicles much more than ‘the history of a “third country" she calls the Bdrder. The “closed country, " as she alsonarnes it, is peopled with gendered undocumented crossers. femìnìst analysis andissues. Underpinned by feminìst ideology, the womerrs stories relentlessly: expand previous androeentric‘ ‘Anzaldùwcontinues this pr0cess_ in ‘thenext section, "Movtmientos _de rebeldîa ‘y las. cùlturas que traicionan‘? (“Rebellious Movements and Traitorous Cultures”), as she moves . ‘to confront the tradition of male domînance Within her commù- 7 ' nity. It opens with a long epjgraph ‘in un-translated Spanish, a passage which serves as a Chicana proclamation in face of the war-a proclamatîon of independence for the mestizas bound within a male-dominated eulture. When Anzaldùa- addresses the men and male-identified women in her community in Spanìsh, it t v Milan: Unlvàralîé? 5th, .
  12. 12. 4 . Introduction to the second Edition v is as if she is addressing the elders who refused to speak English. She appeals tò thoseauthorities asshe declares: Those rebellious movements that we have in our Mexican blood surge like rivers overflowing in my veins. And like my people, who sometimes release themselves from theslavery of obedience, of silent acceptance, rebellionexists in me on v the surface. Under rny humble gaze an insolent face exists _ ready to explode. ‘ My rebellion was quite costly———cramped with ‘insomma and doubts, feeling useless, stupid, ‘ and impo- tent. I’m filled with rage when sorneone-be it my mother, the 'Churchrthe-Anglotculture-flellsmme-{loutliisr do-vthat —-»-- without considering my desires. I argued. I talked back. I was quite the loudmouth. I was indifferent to many of my culture‘s values. I did not let the men push xne around. I was not good or obedient. But I have grown. I no longer «spencl my life dumping cultural customs and values that h have betrayed me. I have also gathered time proven customs and the customs that respect women. (37, my translation) ' The passage ends in English, as if the language acquired as an adult is the language of feminist assertion: “But despite my gr0w- ing tolerance, for this Chicana la guerra de independencia (the mar for independence) is a constant” (37). This bilingual strategy implies that while the patriarchs of her youth may well be fluent English speakers, ‘she willconfront them directly in the language of her Chicana-mexicana-tejana traditions. Dogmatic rules and assumptions prescribedvAnzaldùars life as a child and young Wotrian in South Texas, but now she under- ‘ stands that “rules” are man-made and can be unmade with feministtî» __ logie. She offers specific exatnples of how she was restricted E even from‘ a lìfe of the mind and recounts her rebellious resistance to ìncorporation by the family and community customs. Her tes- timonio relates the limitations placed on many subaltern women ' under the rule offathers and male-identified mothers. The femi- nist rebel in her is the Shadow-Beast‘, “a part of me that refuses to take orders firom outside authorities” (58). The Shadow Beast emerges as the part of women that frightens men and causes them to try to control and devalue female culture. Girls in the border- land are commonly taught to fear sexuality ahdileam that men value Wotneifs bodies only. Their individuality is devalued and selfishness is decried. (In the borderlands of Anzaldfiws yoùth,
  13. 13. 5 ‘Introduction to the second Eclìtion “selfishness” ineludes anything womenwantto do to improve . their lives. ) The New Mestiza cpnsciousnéss——whjle ‘it refuses sta- tic notions ‘of the self-profoundly validates Chicana selfhood. ' ' “Culturgl Tyranny” ‘in Anzaltìfigfs South Texas is metonymy ‘for patriarchy-the manner in which traditional culture Works against women. Takjng up the figure of Malintzîn, Anzaldfia con- tests her placein Mexican- mythology as the fallen Eve who “be- trayed” her people by becomìng Cortés’ mistress and the mother of mestizaje. Byreclaimìng and reconeeptualizing Malintzm, she claims for women the mythical homeland of ‘ Chicano eultural _ ‘nationalists, Aztlàn. This newhistorian subtly prods Chìcàno " « y males to understand feminìst rebelvlion as twin to the raeialized îclass rebellion‘ advocated by the culturall-nationalìsts. Anzaldfia - redefmes cultural identity through gender and sexualìty. And the now-transformedfnationalîsm and‘ gendered Aztlàn are res eripted. ‘as feminist theory and New Mestiza‘ consciousnessflî- Parfof the ework of that mestiza consciousness is to break down dualities that serve tò ìmprìson women. ‘ Her articulation of Chicana lesbian theory does just that, as she declares herself both male and femàle; Again, she usesycuento and testimonio to pre-. sent theory as she recounts the young neighbor of heryouthwho was outsider-and labeled" “one of the others, " half Woman, half man. Refusing the condemnation of the‘ labels, ‘ however, she strategiéally takes a femìnist-nationalist turnrto indigenous “tradi- tion" that vìews alterity as power. The ultimate rebellion for Chicanas is through sexuality, and in Anìzaldfiafs version of queer theory, this is speeificallytrue for lesbians of_ color. . , Similarly, Aùzaldfiafs‘ claim of the Indian part of her‘ mesti- l, zaje‘ avoids simplistic appropriation. ;The__indìgena_in-theNew. ,.. . . Mestiza is a- new political stance as a fully racialized‘ femînist Chicana. She _appeals to a" lfistory of resistance by subaltern- Indiàn women of theAmerieas and in that shared history narrates strong polìtieal ‘affilìation: “‘M'y Chicana identity is groundedjn ‘the Indianwomarrs history of_ resistance" (45). ‘This politica]- alliànee further strengthens/ her internal Critique oftchicano cul-' tural. practiceys_ that deny the indigenous partjof the mejstìzaje; Claimifig all pàrts of her identìty, evcn those that ‘clash, she escapes essentialist categories (and envisions one provisional home where she can “stand and claim-myspàce; makìng a new culture-lima cultura mestiza-with my own lumber, niy own bricksxîand mortar and my own feminist architecture" 014). ‘
  14. 14. 6 g — Introduotion to the Second Edition Armed with her feminist tools, Anzaldùtvs narrator is pre- pared to "enter the serpent, " as she does in the followìng sectîon, to explore the legacy of indigenous forbears. In keeping with this new feminism, the New Mestlza dramatically reclaims the female cultural figures that were marked traitors tothe commu- nity. The first betrayal-—-—d_enying the Ihdian invthe Chicano- malges the second one easier to accept without question: the _ scripting of Malinali Tenepat (Malzfntzîn) (44) and la Llorona ‘(the woman who weeps for her lost or murdered chìldren) into the whore of the virgen/ whore dyadfiî By rewriting the ‘stories—of—Malinali; —la—Llor0na—and——the-————-——»-—-i Virgen de Guadalupe, Anzaldfia is strategically reclaiming a I ground for female hìstorical presence. Her task here is to uncov- er the names and‘ powers of the female deities whose identities _haye_been submerged in Mexican memory of these three Mexican mothers. The New Mestizanarrates the pre-Cortesian hjstoryof these deitîes, and shows how -they wereldevalued by both the ' AZFÈGEMGXÈG? patriarshsu and. by. the. (ìhristiauwconquerot-‘s. In presentlng the origins of the Guadalupe myth, Anzaldfia offers ‘ new names for our studìes——-nan1es that we must labor to pro- nounce: Coatlicue, Cibuacoatl, Tonantsi, Coyolacaubqui. Significantly, Anzaldfia employs the language of the Spanish colonizers when she narratesthe invention of Guadalupe by the Catholic Church. The well-known Juan Diego version of the Guadalupe story is told in poetic stanzas, a presentation that underlines the bistoriafs fictive eharacter. The feminist revision, written in prose, authorizes itself a5 legitimate history. Anzaldfias narrative then returns to Aztlin and Aztec history before the con-t‘, questwith a critique that consciously ruptures the male Chicano ‘w ‘ romanticization of a vague utopian indigenous past. The reader enters a conversation between the New Mestifza scribe and those unreeonstructed Chicano nationalists who, even today, refuse to accept the possibility that the Aztecs were but, one nation of‘ many andthat they enslaved surrounding tribes. ’ La Lloronal is another part‘ of the virgen/ whore dyad the New Mestiza reclaims, namìng her the heir of Cibuacoatl, the ‘deity who" presided over women in childbirth. I do not belìeve it a simple" mistake that this powerful female figure is then transr formed into a women who murders ehildren rather than one who guides them into life. The centrality of la Llorona in Chicana ora! and written traditions emerges in lìterattxrefwritten by other
  15. 15. 7 . Lntroduction to the ‘Seeond Edition conterhporary Chicana feminists. In cùentos like I-IeIenarMaria Viramontes’ “The Cariboo Caféf and “Tears on My Pillow, " as well‘ Ì as in Sandra Cìsnerosî “Woman Holledng Creelg" a‘ Chicanafemi- I nist transformationof the "powerless wailing woman resonates with Anzalduas revisionary project. ” g Reclajming and reìnventinug Coàtlieue, Maiintzîn, and-la Lloronq/ Cihuacoatl in New Mestiza narrativesielaboratee the constantly shjfting identity formationofAnzaldùaUs Chìcana/ mes- ‘ tiza femiuist. In the next ‘section, "Lafiberencia de Coatlicué / The‘ Coatlzjcue StatefAnzaldua turns to consider the implications ' g of such a reclamation for the developing consciousness of her New Mestiza. In a powerful, dramatic incantatory poem, the search for the èrased hìstories offemale ancestors and the yearn— ring for yisibilìty follow, the alìen ‘and alienated subject-in-procesè as she constructs provisional identities: She has this fear _ that she has ‘no names that she has many narnes‘ that she doesn’t know her names She has this fear that she's an image ‘that comes and goes. p clearing and darkening the fear that she’s the dreamwork inside somebodyelses skull‘. (65) p fi Rather than a reductive, ’ essential self, the New Mestiza con- stantly rnigrates betwjeen ‘lenowing herself: “She has many- namesfinot knowing who or. what she is: ‘fthe feat that she has no name; " and the fear of not owning who she is: a “fear that she's an image ‘that comes and goes . .1 . the dreamwork inside somebody else’s skulli" She is a1l_of the‘ above, a woman without an officia} history and the womanwho eonstnicts her own his- torical legami‘ The Coatlieue State I precedes awspirituaLand . political crossing through which one arrives. at a higher spiritual and political consciousness. The transformation ìnvolves facing her fear of change as ‘she “tremble[s] before the animal‘, the aiien, the sub-or suprahunìan, the me that . . , possesses a demon ‘determinationand ruthlessness beyond the human" (72). Once she accomplishes the personal inner journey, the New Mestilza relies on the “ruthlessnessfî she has acquiredtwhen-she emerges from the Coatlicue State and takes on the ‘struggle for social _ change. When ‘shenames all her names; once again she enacts the culniination of« unearthing her. multiple subjectivities: the “divine within, .C'qatlz'cz_te-Cibztacoatl-Tltzzolteotl-Tonahtzina Coatlalopeub-Guadalupew-theylare one" (72). As scholar Norma
  16. 16. . .3 ì Introduction to. the second Editlon Alarcòn notes, the shifting identìties, the multiple names are ’ encapsulated in the New Mestiza's other name: Chicana. ‘5 The recovery project that leads to the political, feminist social awareness Anzaldùa calls New "Mestiza Consciousness emerges in her discussion of the language of the Borderers. Not until midway through the prose sections of Boralerlands, in “How to Tame aWlld Tonguef‘ does Anzaldùa begin to explainher use of multiple Chicana languages. The use of English/ Spamsh from the title page to the chapter headingsand subheadings marks this new criticati discourse. Throughout thetext, -in. most- of-theochap-n- - ' ter titles and subtitles, Spanish appears ascasually as English. Readers who traverse these Borderlands are bound to face her strategy _to reclaim the ground of multiple Mestiza languages. The p multìlingual text does not easily admit those who refuse fulI engagement with the linguistic demands of Border language. New Mestiza Chicanas speak multiple Chicana tongues in order to enunciate their multiple names. Anzaldùa mixes l v Nahuatl, English and vernacular Spanish as a larger cultural cri- tique of how the dominaqt group enforces domination through language. In “Wild Tongue"Anzaldfia focuses on how Chicanas are doubly punished for theiriilegitimate languages, Linguistic reclamation aside, her feminist poìnt is that within the Chicana/ o culture, language serves as a prison housefor women, for whom not only assertiveness but the very act of speaking count as trans- gressions. She notes how males within the culture escape criti- cism for such transgressions. ‘ . ’ ‘She traces the origins of Chicano Spanish, a Border tonguegfi, from sixteenth century usage: “Chicano Spanish is not incorrect; it “a. - is a living language” (77). Multiple Chicana languages allow for the multiple positionalities of Coatlicue and the subject she names New Mestiza. ‘ She claìms 'eight languages, endìng with Cazzi, pacbuco Spanish, the “secret language" of the barrio, ‘ the vernaco- lar. Chicana language is a mestlzaje as well: it breaks down all dualisms. Deploying the language of warfare in! the “Linguistic Terrorism" section, she stresses that there is no one Chicano lan- guage just as there is noone Cilicanoexperience. The discussion culminates with a femjnist note: “I will no longer be made" to ‘feel ashaùied of existing. I will have my voice: Indìan, Spanish, White. I will have my serpenfs tongue-my woman’s voice, my sexual voice, my poet’s voice. I will overcome the tradition of silence" (81).
  17. 17. n . 9' , Introduction to the second‘ Edition v v . The followîng chgpter, ’ “Tîtlli, Iîapalli lThe Path of the Red and ‘Black lnkflenacts the multîlingual methodology of mestiza ‘languagé. As Walter Mignolo tells us, Anzaldùa quotesga dialogue ‘ (in Borderldnds 95) in Spanjsh from the Colloquios y doctrina" cbristiàna. The dialogue, Which was initially recorded in Nahuatl ‘and then translated into Spanish‘ by Bernardino de Sahagfin in 1565, “narratesf according tov Mignolo, “the moment in WhiCh ‘ the Spanish noblemen refer to the Tlamatinime (the wise men, g those who can read the black and the red ìnk written in the codices)" He ‘continues: Anzaldùaus languaging entangles Spanish, English and Nahuatl (the first two with à strong ‘literary’ tradition kept alive after the conquest; the‘ third, Which was and still ispan l oral Way‘ of languaging, was disrqpted during and marginal- ized after the conquest), and her languaging invokes two lcinds ofwriting: the alphabetictwriting of the metropolitan center and the pictographic Writing of pre-Columbia ‘ Mexican (as well as Mesoamerican) civilizations. “ ' Anzaldùavthùs stages her Writing within the làrger context of the continent and its layerecl histories. When Anzaldùa deploys mul- tiple languages as part of her New Mestiza methodology, she enunciates. her writing as an act of self-creation within that con- text, a strategy she claims as a Nahuatl concept. _ m the‘ flnàl prose section, “La conciencia de la- mestizd, " Anzàldfia brings together the work of the previous essays‘ and offers a working tlefinition of ‘a New‘ Mestiza‘ Consciousness. ‘ . Above all it is a feminist consciousness, one that goes beyond fil- v‘ iation——the ties of “blood. ” She moves beyond psychologìcal examinations, leaping fromvfinsecurity and indecisiveness, " (100) traveling with "menta! nepantilism, " accepting her-interstitigl material existence, to a life committed to social action. She‘ risks exposing the “work the soul performs" (101) a5’ shcàattains a “dif- - ferential consciousness, " to use Chela SandovaPs «notion ofthis other consciousness. ” Throughout the text, she Iabors to con- struct a new, activist subject who canre-inscribe Chicana History « into the record, relegitìmize Chicano multiple linguistic capaci-V . ties, and trace the ethnic/ racial origins of Mestizn mexicano- tejanas. Paradoxically, it is only in that eontext that she can claim that “as atmestizzz I have no country . . . as a lesbian I‘ have no tace, " and that as a feminist she is "cultureless" (102).
  18. 18. 10 . Introduction te the second Edition “El camino de la mestizq / The MestizaWay, “ synthesizes the previous speculations and offers the requisite actions for the new subject, the New Mestiza, as she embarks 'on_ her life of actionz “Her first step is to take mventory. " She fputs history through a sieve”; ' shevcominunicates "therupture . . . with oppressive traditions" and “documents the struggle. ” Only after undertaking that process can she "reinterpret history and, using new-symbols, . . ’ 2 wshape new myths" (104). The text 0t the "entire book is encapsulated here. ’ She calls for a “new man" and reiterates: “the struggle ‘of the mèsiiza is’ abovelall a feminist one" (106). i ‘The second half of Bordèrlands- reenacts dramatically -the process of coming into (nìéstizà) éonsciousness and the practice of the mestizqway The section, ‘ "Mzîs ‘antes ‘en los. ranchos" [Long ago in the_ ranches], învokes ‘the oral tradition and prepares the reader to enter the poetic dramatizations. In “Whîte-Wing Season, ” the South Texas hardscrabble lives: of Mexico tejanàs‘ serve as backdrop for the cùentzfto (vignette) of a farm woman who accepts money from “whitemen” (124), allowing them to shoot white wing doves onvher 'land. Slaughtered white Wing doves, Which are sport for the hunters returning to the Midwest, are juxtaposed against the Mexican womarrs needto accept the kill to feed her family. In "horsef WhichAnzaldùa dedicates to the pueblo of her childhood in Hargill, 'Texas, the Chicano communi» ty rejectsthe gringo money offered as compensation when‘ the sons of the white community wantonly torture a horse. What mayappear as passive acceptance by the mexicano is actuallytfia wisdom exhibited by these men who know that justice is beyondw - their reach in the borderlands ofTexas: “the mexicanos mumble if you're Mexican/ yoù are born old" (129). ì “La Pérdida" [The Iloss], continues the practice of New w Mestiza consciousness by chronicling workers’ bistorias. ‘ “Su: _ piuma; el utente” [Give Wind to Her Feathers] (138) records the ’ everyday labor of subaltern women. ‘A disturbing rape narrative like “Wc Call Them Greasers, " (“Sus plumas el vienta? tells vthestory of Pepita, a woman who is raped by her boss in the field, against whom she has no recourse. The narrative is a rcver- . ie, a memory of a childhood spent in the farm fields‘ witnessing Chicanas like Pepita submitting- to the’ white field boss’s sexualviolence in order to keep their jobs. Further adding to her v
  19. 19. i 1 1 Introduction to the" second Edition humiliation, Pepita also endures the Chicanos’ contempt as they spit on the ground when she, emerges from her ordeal. ‘ Now ‘ bear-ing the mark of Malinche, the traitor to her race, Pepita pro- jects herself onto thefigure of the chuparrosa, the humming- bird. No longer the creature she remembers from the safe haven of her grandrnothei-‘s garden, the hummingbird now appears to her, in the context of the fields, as an object of violence: “the ‘ obsidianwind/ cut ‘tassels of blood/ from the humminrgbirds throat" (139). The scribe longs to escape her class-mandated fate as manual laborer. She reads books; she searches for anotherpos- sibility. The pluma, the hummingbird’s ‘feathet: becomes‘ the ‘ aquill that helps liberate the New Mestizaxfrom Ias labores [the fields]. She imagines the possibility of escape; “If the wind would give her feathers for fingers/ she would strîng words and images together}! But even nature conspires against her dreams: “el vientò sur le tirò su saliva/ pax’ ‘Tras en la carafî [the south- ern wind ‘blew her spit back in her face] (140). I - The section, “Crossers y otros atravesados" [and other mis- fits] focuses on the poetic sensibility, on lesbian sexuality, and on - homophobic violence. “Yo no fui, fue Teté”(164), employs cholo- , speak, the bari-io vernacular, ‘as a gay man recounts a beating by his homophobic “brothers. ” He recognizes fearand hatred in those crazed faces that stab him and curse him with sexual epithets. His pain intensifies because “mi misma‘ raza” [his own people] make . him an orphan, reiteratingAnzaldùas assertion that like Chicana . lesbians, this gayrnan is without a race (102). In contrast, “Comparîera, cuando amabamos” [When Wc Loved] lyrically - celebrates those rnuted afternoons when twowomen loved and made love: “When unscathed flesh sought flesh and teeth, lips/ In the labyrinths of your mouths” (168, my translation). ‘ “Cibuatbaotl, Woman Alone" celebrates the goddess, antecedent’ of la Llorona, Serpent Skirt, the sexual goddess of childbirth. The New Mestiza rnythmaker links Saint Theresa in “Holy Relics, " to other wailing women’ in "En e! vtombre de todas Ias madres que han perdido sus hijos en la guerra" [In the name of all the ‘mothers who have lost their children in war]. Mestiza ferninists itake on the guise. of the goddess in "Cibuatlyotl, Woman Alone" (195) as they are banished from tra- ditionalh Chicano cofnmunities; The betrayal here is not by a female or_by the multilingual-Malintzin-the traitor is the corn- munity. The poem reenacts the New Mestizas struggle to retain
  20. 20. 12 Introduetion to the Secqnd Edition - h the “homelànd” "and yet negotìate multiple subject positiotîs as well. The ‘Anima! ’ section begins with "La curzzndera"(198), a dramatic allegory in Which the traditional folk heàler enters intò the serpent and emerges with the knowledge, the healing yer- bitas (herbs), Which contribute physically, psychologically and intellectually to strongcommunities. ‘ The fmaj section, like the last section of the prose, is El Retomo [The Return]. “T0 lìve in the BqrderlahdsMeans You” (216) càllsmestîzas to action as they become aware òf multiple pòsitionalities, contfadictions, and ambiguities. ‘The mestiza with her hard-earned consciousness cannot remain within the self, however. The awareness of borderland existence spurs her to “fight hard" to resist stasis, “the gold elixìr beckonîng from the bottle, " as well as to continue her resistance strategies in the other war where the “gun barrel" and “the rope crushing the hol- low of your throatî still exist. Survival may signìfy that “you must live sin fronteras (without borders)" and “be a crossroads” but to do so requires aetivism and not simply being born a racialized, h gendered ‘mestizkz in the borderlands. ' . While estùdios de la frontera (border studies) certaixfly’ were not invented by Gloria Anzaldùaîn Borderlands, this book sighaled djnew visibility for academic programs on the studypf the U. S.-Mexico border area. Discursive production on the bor- der flourished with new anthologies and other acadenfic publi— eations bringing tò lîght a remapped academic topography with the border as the organìzing trope. In 1991, Héctor Calderòn and José Saldîvar published the groùndbreaking anthology, Criìicism in the Borderlandsnîtudies in Chicano Literature, Culture arti; A Ideology. Emily Hicks published Border‘ Writtng: The Multi- dimensional Text in 1991. And Ruth Bejar crossed generìc and discipljnary borders in her study, Translated Woman: Crossing the Border with Esperanzaîs story in 1993. Alfred Arteagzrs anthology, An Other Tongue: Natîon and Ethmfeitg/ in the Linguistic Borderlands was published in. 1994 and Carl GutiérrezJones analyzed lega! dìscourse in Chicano, cultuml production in Rethinkîng the Borderlands in 1995. Guillermo Gòmez Pefia published his genre-mixing The New World Border in 1.996,a'nd Josésaldîva: remapped Americana cultural studies in Border Matters, 1997.’ ' - This tranjrontera, transdisciplinary text also ctossedtrigid
  21. 21. 13 . Introduction to the Second Edition boundaries in academia as it traveled between Literature (English and Spanish), History, American Studies, Anthropology and Politica! Science departments, and further illuminated multiple theories of feminism in women’s studies and Chicana studies. It was-anderemains-g-a deflning statement on" the ìnextricability of sexuality, gender, tace and class for Chicanas and ‘changed the Way we talk about difference in sexuality, race/ ethnicity, gender, and class in the U. S. Read within its historical context, Bordeflands resìsts containtnent as a transcendant excursion into “othernessf With. this second edition, Borderlands / La Frontem continues to offera radical (re)construction of space in ‘ the Americas where polìtical struggles and alliances are forged only after risking conflicts, appropriations, and contradìctions in the face of powerhanddomination. ‘9 Februarjy 1999 Notes 1. America Paredes, With His Pista‘! rin His HamtA Border Ballad and Its Hero. Ausltin; University of Texas Press. Reprint, 1971. Rodolfo Acufia, Occupied AmerictrA Hlstory of Chicanos. e second Edition, 1981, Third Editìon, 1988. NeWYork: Harper Collins Publishers. 2. See for example, Marte Cotera, “Among the Feminists: Racist 1 Clnssist Issues—1976" 213-20; and ArmaNieto Gomez, "La Femenista" 86-92 in Chicano: Femlnist Thought: The Basìc Historical Writings, ed. Alma M‘. Gzrcîa. NewYork: Routledge, 1997. , 3. This Bridge Called My llackflVritings by Radical Womert of Color; ‘e ed". Òherrîe Moraga and Gloria Anzaldua‘. 2nd Edition. New York: Kitchen Tahle: Women of Color Press, 1981. In the Foreword to the second edition, Moraga rnaps U. S. femînists’ of color political location within a globàl con- text. For a full dlscussion of this transnatìonzil impulse, see my Feminîsm on the Berder: Chiama Gender Politica‘ ami Literature. 4. In the essay, "Border Arte: Neptmtltz, El Lugar de la Frontem, " Anzaldua ldentifies border visual art 21s one that "supercedes the pictorinl: It depicts both the soul‘ of the artist and the soul of the pueblo. It deals with who tells the stories and what stories and histories are told. l cull this form of visual nàrrntive autohistorirzs. This form goesbeyond the traditional self- portrait or autobiography; in telling the writer/ nrtists’ personal story, it also includes the artist's cultuml history" (113). She continues that whenshe
  22. 22. 14 Notes to the Introduction creates art, such as ttn altar, she represents much mote then herself, “they are ‘ representations of_ Chicana culture" (113). While ‘her definition here targets vìsual artistty, I believe that lit could well describe the Borderlands gente as well. in La Frontera / The BordenAft About the Mexico / United State: Border Experience, ed. Natasha Bonilla Martinez. San Diego: Centro Cultura! de la Raza, Museum of Contemporary Art, 1993. , 5. See Yvonne Yarbro-Bejarano, ‘(Gloria Anzaldùzfls ‘Borderlands / La Jirontem: Cultural Studies, ‘Difference, ’ and the Non-Unitary Subject. ” Cultura! Critlque, Fall 1994, 5-28. My reading was greatly influenced by her comprehensive study and by our numerous discussions about Chicana femi- nism(s), mestizaje, and Borderlands. ' ' ‘6. Angie Chabram-Demersesiams “On the Socia! Construction of Whiteness within Selected Chicana/ o Discourses" offers abrilliant discussion of the construction ofAztlÉn by Chicano cultuml nationalists and presents a reading. of Borderlands. In Dìsplacing Whiteness: Essays in Social and Cultura! Crlticism, ed. Ruth Frankenberg. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1949.7, 107-64. ‘ v 7. My interpretation of these early Chicana/ o novels builds on Doris Sommefls observations about Latin Ametican- historîcal’ fiction, Foundattonal Fictions: The National Romarices ofLatin America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. ' 8. CaballerwA Historical Nouel, Jovita Gonzilez ‘and Eve Ralcigh. — College Station: Texas A 8L M University Press, 1996. This novel was origi- > lished until this decade. nally ‘written in the late 1930s but not “recovered” until recently. (Thete is ' some question about the extent to Which Eve Raleigh participated in the actual writing of the text. ) 9. Américo Paredes, George Washington Gémez. Houston: m; Pfiblico Press, 1990. This is yet another novel of the 1930s that was not pubi‘ ' 10. For a discussion of the Seditiottistsand their manifesto, see America Paredes, A Texas-Mexlcan Cancionero. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1976, 33. See also Ramòn Saldîvztfls discusslon of the Seditlonists 1nd El Pian de San Diego in Chicano Narrqtlueflhe Dialecticsof Dzflerence. Madison: University ofvflsconsin Press, 1990, 28751. For the text of the Pian de San Diego see Literatura Chicano: Texto y Corttexto, ed. Antonia Castafieda Shuler, Tomis Ybarra-Frausto, and David Somtner. Englewood Cliffs, NjrPrentice-Hall, 1982, 31433. ’ h 11. Inderpal Grewal in “Autobiographic Subjects, Diasporic’ Lochations, " nnkes a similar polnt: "AJIZEIIdIÎEIÉS exploration of the ‘borderland’
  23. 23. 15 Notes to the Introduction consciousness powerfnlly asserts itself asfeminist . . . . [it] reveaus] dif- ferent modes of multiple positioning and practices around ìssues of feminists and‘ feminism" 2356. In Scattered Hegemonies: Postmodernity and Transnationàl Feminist Practices, ed. Inderpal Grewal and Caren Kaplan. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Presvs, 1994, 231-54. _ 12. For a comprehensive vanalyses of Malintzîrt Tenépal see Norma Alarcòms two essays: “Chicanafis Feminist Literature: A Revision Through Malintzîn/ Or: Malintzîn: Puttìng Flesh Back on the Object, " in 1791s Bridge Called My Bacia, ed. ‘ Cherrîe Moraga and Gloria Anzaldfia. New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Ptess, 1981,, 182-90; and “Traddutora, Traditom: A Paradigmatic Figure of Chicana Feminism, " in Cultura! Crifique, *1_«'all 1989, 57-87. For one of the first Chicana feminist exammations of Malintzîn, see Adelaida del Castillo, “MalintzînTenépal: A Preliminary/ Look into a New Perspective" in Essayà on La Mujer; ed. Rosaurasànchez and Rosa Martînez Cruz. L05 Angeles: Chicano Studies Research Center Publica- tions, University of California, Los Angeles, 1977. 15. “The Caribdo Cafe, " in ÎÌJe Moths and Otber Sitories, Helena Maria Vùamontes. Houston: Arte Pfiblico Press, 1985, 61-75. “Tears on My Pillow, ” Helena Maria Virarnontes in New Chicano/ q Writing. Èd. Charles Tamm. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, ’ pp. 11045. “Woman Hollering Creek, " in ‘Woman Hollering Creek and Otber Staries by ‘Sandracisnerosfi NewYorltz Vintage Beck's, 1991, 43:56. For readings of la Llarona in the above stories see my Feminism on the Border: Cbicana Gender Politici‘ 4nd Literature. 14. My reading of this passage is informed by Norma Alarcòn’: bril- liant discussion, “Chicana Feminism: In the Tracks of ‘The’ Native Woman" in Cultura! Studies, 1:5 (October 1990), 248-56. 15. In "Chicana Feminism, " Alarcén explzlins: “the namc ‘Chicana, ’ in - the present, is the narne of resistance that enables cultural and politica! pdînîs or ‘debartùre ‘and thinking‘ through the multiple ntigmtions and dislo- cations ofwomentofMexicaif descent. The nume Chicana, Iis not a name that women (or men) are born to or with, as is often the case with fMexicanJ but rather it i5 consciously and critically assumed . . . " (Z50). In the short story , ‘ in ‘the’ Woman Hollefing Creek colleetion, “Little Miracles, Kept Promises, " Sandra Cisneros also evokes those multipleChicana/ Mestiza ldentities. 16. Walter Mignolo. "linguistic Maps, Literary Geographies, and Cultuml Landscapes: Langunges, Langunging, hnd (Transmationnlismf 190- 91. In Modem Languqge Quarterljl, 57:2, June 1996, 182-96. ‘ 17. Cheyla Sandoval, “U. S. Third World Feminism: The Theory and iMethod of Oppositioml Consciousness in the Postrnodern World. " Genders 10 (Spring 1991): 1-24.‘
  24. 24. i Burderlands la Fra/ Ilari»! i
  25. 25. 7 H mxazkamnlflmm game c w sia:
  26. 26. Preface to" the‘ First Edition V . ‘The actualphysical borderland that‘ I'm dealing with in this i ' book is the Texas-UE Southwest/ Mexican borderjThe psycholog-s icalborderlands, the sexualborderlands ’a. nd the spiritual border- lands are not particular to the Southwest. In- Afact, the Borderiànds are physically present‘ wherever two or more cul- ' tures edge eachvother, where people. of different races occupy ' the same territorya-Where under, lower, middle and upper class— es toucli, where the space between two individuals shrinks with îintimacy. ‘ ‘ i 4 ‘ V" . ‘i ' I ama bordeì-‘woman. I grew up between two cultures, the Mexican (with a- heavy Indian influence) and the Anglo (as a ‘member of a colonized people inour ownterritory). I‘ have been straddling that tejas-Mexicm border, and others, my life. It’s , not a comfortable territory to live in, this piace of contradictions. Hatred, anger and exploitation are the prominent features of this Llandscape. ' ' ‘ ' ‘However, there have been compensations for this Mestiza, 3 ” and certaini joys. Living on borders and in margins, keeping . intact one’s shifting and multiple identity and integritY. is like try- - V - ing to swim in a new element, anfalîerflelement. There is‘ an , exhilaration in being a participant in the further evolution of humànltind, in being "Worked" on. I have "the isense that certàin “faculties"—- not just in me but in every border resident, colored or non-colored—and dormantareas of consciousness are being activated, awakened. Strange, huh? And yes, the "alien" elernent . has become familiar-never comfortable, not with society‘s èlàmor vfo-iiphòlîììhe ioldftoÎéjoin ‘the’ flotkfito go with the herd. No, hotcornfortable but home. _ p - I ‘ ' This boòk, then, spealcs of my existence. My preoccupatìons i [with the inner life of the Self, and with the struggle of that Self, amidst adversity and violàtìon; with the confluence of primordial images; 'wìth_ the unique ‘ positionìngs consciousness takes at these‘ confluent streams; and with rny alrnost instinctive urge to communicate, to speak, to write about life on the borders, life in the shadows. i , ; ‘ . Books-saved my sanity, knowledgefiopened the locked places in me-andtaughtme first how to sui-vive and then how Vto soar. La madre naturaleza succored me, allowed me to grow roots
  27. 27. y that anchored me to the earth. My love of imàges-mesquite flowering, the wind, Ebécatl, Whispering its secret lmowledge, the fleetingimages of the soul in fantasy-and words, my passion‘ for the daily struggle ‘to render them concrete in the world and on paper, to render them flesh, keeps me alive. , The switching of "codes" in this book from English to Castillian Spanish to the North Mexican dialect to Tex-Mex to a sprinkling of Nahuatl to a mixture of all of these, reflects my lan- guage, .a new language-the language of the‘ Borderlands. There, at the jùncture of cultures, languages cross-pollinate and are EFYiFîEZ-EEÌJ. 5129x3116. afléartîtbgtrl. .. Ercsèntly this ‘mfant language. this bastard language, Chicano Spanish, is not approved by ‘any society. But we Chicanos no longervfeei that we need to beg entrance, that We need always to make the first overture-"to translate toAnglos, Mexicans and Latinos, àpology blurtingpout of our mouths with every. step. Today we ask to rbe mct halfwayr. This book. is our invitation to you——-from the new mestizas.
  28. 28. m sue m; msaak%ssfiém
  29. 29. ' o The Homeland, Aztlàn atrio MéxicoÌ El otro México que aczî hemos construîdo el espacio es lo que- ha sido v territorio nacional. ‘ ‘ Este es el esfuerzo de todos nuestros hermanos y lattnoamerièavnos que han qabido progressar ' ‘ ' ——Los Tigres delfNorte‘ . “TheflAztecas del norte . ; . compose the largest single tribe or nation of Anishinabeg (Indìans)! found in the United, States todày . . . . Some call themselves Chicanos and see themselves as people whose true hotrìelahd is Aztlin [theXU. S. Southwestlî’? __. _ . . _. -.Wind. .tuggì. "ng. atmy. s1eeve, .._. _.; .. _. _.. ‘____. ..____. ..l. _._ _ . ... - _ . . feet smking into the sand . _ I stand at the edge where earth touches ocean where the two overlap a gentle còmîng together. — a: otheì‘ ‘times and places a vîolent clash. Across the border in ‘Mexico t A’ stark silhouette of hoùses gùtted by waves, ' cliffs crurnblingvìntp the sea, ‘ silver waves marblèd with spurne ' gaèhingo a hole under the border fence.
  30. 30. 24 The Homeland, Aztlàn / El otro Mexico Miro el mar tztacar la cerca en Border Field Park con sus bucbonesde agua, ’ an Easter Sunday resurrection of the brown blood in my veins. . Oigo el florido del mar; el respiro del aire, rny heart surges to the beat of ‘the sea. - Inthe gray haze of the sun ‘ ' the gulls’ shrill cry of hunger, _ . . the_t. aogy_sme11_o_f_the_aeejeeping into me. Iwalk through the hole in the fence to the other side. . Under my fingers. Ivfeel the gritty wire rusted by 139 years 0_f the sàlty breath of the sea. Beneath theiron sky Mexiean children‘ kîck their soccer hall aeross, ‘ run after it, entering the U. S. , ‘ I press my hand to the steel curtaìn- ehaiplink fence crowned with rolled barbed wire- rippling from the sea where Tîjuana touches San Diego unrolltng over mountains ' ' and plains l anddeserts, this “Tortilla Curtaìn" turning into el rio Grande flowing‘ down to the flatlands ’ . _ » of the Magie Valley of South Texas its mouth emptying into theGuLf. 1,950 mile-long open wound ’ dividing a pueblo, a culture, nmnìng‘ down the lengthof my body, staking fence rods in my flesh, splits me splits me ì me raja rne raja
  31. 31. 25 The Hoùieland, Aztlàn / El otra México. This is my home this thìn edge of p barbwìre. _ ‘ r But the skin of the earth is seamless. The seatcannot be fenced, v el mar does not stop at borders. T0 show the white man whàt she thought of his V ' ‘ -arrogance, ì p ' Yemayd blew that wire fence down. This land was Mexican once, ‘ was Indian always " and i5. And will be again. Yo sqy un puente tendido . del mando gabacho al del mojado, i lo pasado me estira pa’ ’trds _ y lo presente pa’-’delante, Que la Virgen de Guadalupe me cuide Ay ay ay, soy rnexicana de este lddo. The U. S.-Mexican border e: una herida alaierta where the Thìrd World grates against the first and bleeds. And before a scab forms it hemorrhagesagain, the lifeblood of two worlds merging to form a third country-a border culture. Borders are set up to define the places that are ‘safe and unsafe, to distìnguish us from them. A border i_s a dividing line, a narrow strip alonga steep e edgetwborderland is ‘a vàgfieîavîid‘îxîìîìîîrîrîfiîîfilîèîîzîeîîefi"B57" the emotional residue ofan unnàtural boundary. It is in a con- stant state of transitioxi. The prohibited and forbidden are its inhabitants. Los atravesados live here: thesquint-eyed, the per- verse, thequeer, the troublesome} the mongrel, the malato, the haIf-breed, the half dead; in shorythose‘ who cross over, pass over, or go through the confines of the “normal. ” Gririgos in the U. S. Southwest consider the inhabitants of the borderlands’ trans- gressors, aliens-whether they possess documents ‘or not, - whether they're Chicanos, Indians or Blaeks. D0 not enter, tres- passers will be raped, maimed, strangled, gassed, shotuThe only “legitimàte” inhabitants are thosepin power, the whitès and those
  32. 32. 26 The Homeland, Aztiàn / El otro Mexico r twho align themselves with whites. Tension grips ‘the inhabitants of the borderlands like a virus. Ambivalence . and unrest reside there and death is _no stranger. In the fields, la migrafi My aunt saying, ”No coi-rari, don't run. They'll thìnk you're del otro lao. " In the confu- sion, Pedro rari, terrified ofdbemg caught. He couldn't speak; î English, c0u1dn’t tell them he was fifth generation American. Sin papeles—he did not carry his birth certificate to work in the fields. La migra took him away yvhile we watched. Se lo lleuar0n. ... Hc. triedtczsmile wheahsaldohegtbatck attuato. v . . raise his fist. But I" sayv the shame pushing his head down, I saw the terrible Weight of shame- hunch his shoulders. They deported him to Guadalajara by piane. The furthest he'd ever been to Mexico was Reynosa, a small border town d opposite Hidalgo, Texas, not far from McAllen. Pedro walked all the Way to the Valley. Se lo llevaron sin un cen- tavo al polare. ’ Se vino andando desde Guadalajara. During the origina! peopling of the Americas, the first inhab- itants migrated across the Bering Straits and walked South across the continent. The oldest evidence of humankind in the U. S.—- the Chicanos’ ancient Indian ancestors-——Was found in Texas and has been dated to 35000 B. C.3 In the Southwest United States archeologists have found 20,000-year-old campsites‘ of the Indians who migrated through, or permanently ‘occupied, the Southwest, Aztlàn-land of thegherons, land of whiteness, the Edenic piace of origin of the Azteca. ‘ ' . In 1000 B. C., descendants of the origina! Cochise people? migrated into what is now‘ Mexico and Central America and becamc the direct ancestors of many ‘of the Mexican people. (The Cochise culture of the Southwest is the parent culture of the Aztecs. The Uto-Aztecan languages stemmed from the lan- guage of the Cochise peop1e. )4 The Aztecs (the Nahuatl Word for people ofAztlàn) left the Southwest in 1168 A. D. Now let us go. Tibueque, tibueque, ‘Vdmonos, vdmonos. . Un pzîjaro canto.
  33. 33. 27 The Hoigieland’, Amari / El otro México Con sus ocbo ‘tribus salieron" e . de la "cueva del origen. " "los aztecas siguieron al dios e Huitzilapocìqtli. . Huìtzìlopocbtlz’, the God of War, guided them to thevplace‘. (thatlater, becatne Mexico City) where gin eagle with si writhing serpent in its beak perched on a cactus. The eagle symbolizes the. spixit (as the sun, the. father); the serpent sytnbolìzes the soul (às the earth, the inother). Together, «they'symboiize', the« sttuggle between ‘the’ spifitual/ celestial/ male and the under- . ’ world/ earth/ feminine. The symholic «sacriiiee of the‘. serpent to the “higher"_masculine powers indicate; that lthe- patriarchàl order had already vanquished the femmine ànd matriarchàl order in pre-Columbìan America. i ‘ Àt the begiqning of the ‘l‘6th_ century, _ the Spaniards and Heijnàn Cortés invaded Mexico and, with the help of tribes that ‘ the Aztecs hadtsubjugated, conqueted it. Befotje the Conquest, there were twenty-fivemiflion ‘Indim people in_ Mexico and the Yucatàn, Immediately after the Conquest, the Indian population‘ ' had been "reduced tqunder seve_n million. By 1650,’ only one-ano- a-haLf-million pure-blooded Indians Areinained. " The mesìizbs who were geneticàliy equipped ‘to survîve small pox, ineasles, ‘and typhus (Old World diseases to which the nativesj hadno immunity), founded-a new hybrid race and inherited Centralvand South Americafi Eri 1521 znaciò una nueùa raza, el mestizo, el mqxicano (people, of mixed Indianahd Spanish blood), a race that had never existed before. ‘ Chicanos, Mexican-Americans, are the offspring of thosefirst matîngs. ‘“ " ' "”""‘"'î”""’“""""'"Î"'" " Ourspanish, Indian, ma mesttzo‘ ancestors explored and settled parts of the U. S. Southwest as early as the sixteénth cen- ‘tury. For every-gold-hungry conquistando)‘ and soul-hungrymisg - ‘sionaty Ìwho came north from Mexico, tenîto twcnty Indiahs ànd ' ‘mestizos Went along as porters orin other capacitiesfl For the Indians, this constituted a return to the-piace of origin, Aztlàn, ' ‘ thus makìng ‘Chieanos originally and eecondarily indigehoue to the Southwest. Indians and mestizos from centtal Mexico inter- . married with North Amerìcan Indians. The‘ continua] ‘interinar- riage between‘ Mexicap and American Indians and. Spaniards. formeciaq even greater mespizaje.
  34. 34. 28 v V The Homeland, _Aztlàn / Et agro Mexico " E1 destierro / The Lost ‘Land Entonces corre la sangre no sabe el indio que hacei; le vana quitar su tierra, la tiene que defender; el indio seme muerto, y el àfuerino depie. Levdntdvte, Manquilef ' Arauco tiene una pena _ maîsunegraqiìe su--'chdmdl, ——_ —————--—-v-—"——— ya no son lo: espafioles lo; que le bacen llorm; boy son los propios cbileno; lo: que le quitan su pan. ' Leùdntate, Pailahuan; —Violeta Parra, ‘Hrdiico tiene una pena” In the 1800s, Ànglos migrated ‘illegally into Texas, Which wasthen part of Mexico, in greater and greateixnumbers and gradually drove the tejanos (native Texans of Mexican descent) from their Iands, committing’ all manner ‘of atrocitiesi against them. Their illegal ìnvasion ‘forced Mexico to fight a war to keep itsTexas tei-ritory. The Battle of the Alamo, iriwhich the Mexican l forces ‘vanquished the Whites, became, ‘for ‘the whites, the syrn- bol for the cowardly and villaitious character of the Mexicans. It becanie (and still _is) ha symbol that 1egìtimizedÎ the whiteimperi- yalist takeover. With the capture of Santa Anna later in 1856,ÎTexas became a republic. Jejanos 10st their Ìand and, overnighîì, ‘ became the foreigners. A ‘ Yd la mitad del terreno . les uendià el traidor Santa Anna, con lo que ‘se ha becbo muy ricd la naciòn americana. « ggue‘ abuso no se conformdn i con- el oro delas minàs? ' Ustedes muy elegantes y aqui nosotros en rulnas. —from theMexican coijrido, “Del peligro de la Intervenciqn”
  35. 35. , _ 29 . I ' The Homeland, Aztlin / El 02m Mexico - In 18,46, the U. S. incited Mexico to war. Usttroops invad- ed and, occùpied Mexico, forcing her to ‘give up almost half of i hernation, what is now Texas, New ‘Mexico, Arizona, Colorado and California; ./ _ _ . _ With the Victory of the U. S. forces over the Mexican in the U. S.-Mexican War, los norteamericanos pushed the Texas border down 10.0 miles, from el rio Nyeces to el rio Grande; South ' Texas ceased —to be part of the Mexicanstate‘ of Tamaulipas. Separated from Mexico, ‘ the Native Mexican—Texan no longer looked toward Mexico‘ as homep the Southwest became our» homeland once more. The border fence that divides the‘ Mexican “people Was born on February 2, 1848 with the signing of the Treaty‘OLGuadaIupe-Hidalgo. It left 100,000 Mexican citizens on this side, ‘annexed by conquest along with the ‘land. The land established by the treaty as belonging to Mexicans ‘Was soon swindled away from its owners. _ The treaty was never honored and restitution, to this day, has never been made. The justiceand benevolence of God - will forbid that . .‘ . Texas shoulclagain‘ become a howling‘ ‘wilclerness’ ‘trod only by savages, or. . . benighted by the ignorance and sùperstition, ’ the anarchy and rapine of Mexican misrule. The Anglo-American race are destined to be forever the proprietors of ‘ this land of promise and fulfillment. Their laws will govem it, their learning will enlighten it, "their e-nterprise will irnprove it. Their flocks range its boundless pastures, ’ for them its fertile lands will yield . . . ' luxuriant harvests . . - The wilderness ofTexas has been redeemed by Anglo-American blood 8c enterprisè. , ‘ -—William H. W'harton9 ‘ / , The Gringo, loclted" into the fiction of white superiority, ' ‘seized complete political power, stripping Indians and Mexicans of their land while their feet were still rooted in "it. Con: el destierro y el exilio fu-imos desznîados, destroncados, destrzpa-
  36. 36. 30 The Homeland, Aztlin / El otro México dos-we were jerked out by the roots, truncated, disemboweled‘, dispossessed, and separated from our identity andour history. Many, under the threat of Anglo terrorism, abandoned homes and . ranches and Went to Mexico. Some stayed and protested. But as’ the courts, law enforcement officials, and government officials not only ignored their pleas but penalized them for their efforts, tejanos had no other recourse but armed retaiiation. After Mexican-American resisters ‘ robbed a train in Brownsville, Texas on October 18, «1915, Anglo vigilantevgroups began lynching Chicanos. Texas Rangers would take them into the brush and shoot them. One hundred Chicahos were. ki1ledin. .__, ... a matter of months, whole families lynched. Severi thousand fled to Mexico, leaving their. smallranches’ and farms. The Anglos, ‘afraid that the meàcicanosm would seek independence fromthe U. S., brought in 20,000 army troops to put an end to the social protest movement in South Texas. Race hatred had fmally fomented into an all out war. ” My grandmother lost all her cattle, they stole her land. “Drought hit South Texas, ” my mothertells me. "La tierra se puso bien seca y los zmimales comertzaron a morirse de se’. Mi papà se muriò de un heart attnck dejando a mamcfpregnant y con ocbo buercos, with eight kids and one on the way. K0 fui la ' ‘mayor; tenia diez arîos. Thenext year the drought continued y el ganado got hoof and mouth. Se cayeron in droves en l'as pas- tas y el brushiand, panzas blancas bailooning to the skies. El_ siguiente afià still no rain. Mi pobre madre uiuda perdi6 tWS-‘l. .. thirdsof her ganado. A smart gabacbo lawyer took the land away mamd hadn’t vpaid taxes. N0 bablaba inglés, she didn’t know how-to ask for time to raise the money. " My father’s moth- r er, MamziLocha, also 10st her terreno. For a while We got 512.50 a year for the “mineral rights" of six acres of cernetery, all that ‘was left of the anèestral lands. Mania Loeha hàd; asked that‘ we bury her there beside her husbànd. El cementerio estaba cerca- do. But there was a fence around the ‘cemetery, chaîned and pad- locked by the ranch owners of the surrounding land. We could- n't even get in to visit the graves, much less bury her there. Today, it is still padlocked. The sigtì reads: “Keep out. Trespassers wi. I.l be shot. "
  37. 37. « 51 The Homeland, Aztlàn / El otro México . in the1950s, after Anglo agribusiness corporations cheated ' the small Chicano landowners of their land, the corporations hired gangs of mexicanos to pull out the brush, chaparral and cactus and to irrigare the desert. The land they toiled over had once belonged to many of them, or had been used communally. by them. Later the Anglos brought-in huge machmes and root ploWs and had the Mexicans scrape the land clean of natural veg- etatîon. In my chìldhood I saw the end of dryland farmirig. I wit-- nessed the land cleared; saw the huge pipes connected tounder- water sources sticking up ‘in the air; As children, we’d go fishing ’ e inisome of those canals‘ when they were full and hunt for snakes ' in them when theywere dry. In the 1950s I saw the land, cut up into —thousands of neat rectangles and squares, constantly being irrigated. In the 340-day growth season, the seeds of ‘any kind of ' ' fruit or vegetable had only to be stuck in the ground in order to growj More biggland corporations came in and bought up‘ the remaining land. ' T0 make a living my father became a sharecropper. Rio Farms Incorporated ‘loaned him seed money and living expenses. At harvest time, my father repaid the loan and forlted over 40% of ‘the earnings. esometimes We earned less than we’owed, but always the corporations fared Wellj Some had major holdings in vegetable trucking, lìvestock ‘ auctions and ' cotton Vgìns. Altogether We lived on three successive Rio farms; the second Was adjacent to the King Ranch and included a dairy; farm; the third Was a chicken farm. I remember the white feathers of three » thousand Leghorn Chickens blanketing the land for acres around. My sister, mother and I cleaned, weighed and packaged eggs. “(For years‘ afterwardsl eou1dn’t stomach the sight of an egg. ) I remernber my mother ‘attending some of the meetings sponsored by Well-meanihg whites from Rio‘ Farms: They talked about good nutrition, health, and held huge barbecues, The only thing sal- vaged for my family from those years are modern techniques of food canning and a food-staìned book they printed made up of recipes fromRio Farms’ Mexicanwomen. How proud my mothî er Was to have her recipe‘ for enchiladas coloradas in a book. El CTIÌZHTVHEÎ mojado/ Illegal Crossiflng ‘Hbora s1’ ya tengo una rumba para lloraîfl’ dice Concbita, upon being reunited with
  38. 38. . , 32 e The Homeland, Aztlàn / El otro Mexico i her unknown mother just before the mother dies. ——from, lsmael Rodriguez’ film, . Nosotros los Qobres‘? La crisis. Los gringos had not stopped at the border. By the end of the nineteenth century, powerful landowners in Mexico, * in partnership with U. S. colonizing companies, had dispossessed mìllions of Indians of their lands. ‘ Currently, Mexico and her eighty million citizens are almost completely dependent on the U. S. market. The Mexican government and wealthy growers are in partnership with such American conglomerates. _as. American __ N Motors, IT&T and Du Pont’ WIIÌCÌT own factories called maquiladorzzs. One-fourth of all Mexicans work at maquilqdo- ras; most are young women. Next, to oil, maquiladoras are‘ Mexico’s second greatest sourceof U. S. dollars. Working eight to twelve hours a day to wire in backup lights of U. S. ’ autos or sol- der minuscule wires inTV sets is not the Mexican way. While the women are in the maquiladoms, the chiidren are left on their own. Many ‘roam the street, become part of cbolo gangs. The infusion of the values of the ‘white culture, coupled with the exploitation by that culture, is changing the Mexican way of life. The devaluation of the peso and Mexico's dependency on the U. S. _have brought on what the Mexicans cali la crisis. N0 bay trabajo. Half of the Mexican people are unemployed. In the U. S. a rnan or woman can make eight times what they can in Mexico. By Match, 1987, 1,088 pesos "were Worth one U. S. dol- lar. I remember when [Was growing up inTexas how we’d cross the border at Reynosa or Progreso to buy sugar or medicines when the dollar Was Worth eight pesos and fifty centavas. ' La trauesîa. For many mexicanos del otro lado, the choice is to stay in Mexico and starve or move north and live. Dicen que cada mexicdno siempre suefia de la conquista en los brdzos de cuatro gringas rubias, la‘ conquista del paîs poderoso del norte, los Esìados Unidos. Eri cada Chicano y messicano vive el mito del tesoro territorialperdido. North Americans cali this returnto the homeland the silent invasion. , ‘ ' "A la cueva volverdn” —El Puma en la camion flmalia”
  39. 39. , . 35' ‘The Homeland, Aztlan / El otro Mexico South of the border, called NorthAmericws rubbish dumpi’ by ‘ Chicanos, ‘mexicanosbcongregate in the plazas to talk about the best way to cross. Smugglers, coyotes, pasadores, engà-sn- cbadorès approach these people or are sought our: by thiezn. ‘ygué dicenimuvcbachos a ecbzîrsela de mojaaaîîzt? ” “Now among the alien gods with " weapons of magie am I. " —Navajo protection song, sung when going into battle. ” "t, ‘We have a tradition of migration, a tradition of long Walks. Today we are vvitnessmg la _migraci6n de los pueblos maxi- canos, the returnodyssey to the historical/ mythological Aztlzîn. This time, the traffic is from south to north. ” El retorno to the pr0n1ised land fxrstbegan with the Indiane fromthe interior of Mexicoand the mestizos that came with the conquistadoresin the 1500s. Imxnigration continued in the next three centuries, and, in this century, ,it continued‘ with the braceros who helped to build our railroads and who picked our fruit. Today thousands of Mexicans are crossing the border legal- ly and illegally; ' tén million people without documents have returned to the Southwest. . Faceless, narneless, invisible, taunted with “Hey cucaracho” (cockroach). Trembling With fear, yet filled with courage, a courage" ‘born of desperation. Barefoot and uneducated, Mexicans with hands like boot soles gather at night by the river where two worlds mergo creating what Reagan calls a frontline, __. .1flî. ì9.aî: .l‘lìàì9flxctgtnss_hstgsteated 1a shock culture, a bor- der cu1ture, ,a third country, a closed country. _ - Wîthout benefit of bridges, the "mojados” (wetbacks) float on inflatable rafts across el rîo Grande, or wade or swim across naked, clutching their clothesover their heads. Holding onto the grass, they pull themselves along the banks with a prayer to ‘ Wrgen ‘de Guadalupe ‘on their 11175:4434 virgencita morena, mi r v madrecita, dame iu bendiciéna ‘ The Border Patrol hides hehind the local 'McDona1ds on the outskirts of Brownsville, Texas or some other border town. Ìrhey set traps around the river beds beneath the bridge. ” Hunters in army-green uniformsstalk and truck these economic refugees. by the powerful nlghtvislon of electronic serîsing clevilces- planted massiva-se ,
  40. 40. 54 . The Homeland. Aztlàn / E’! otro Méxzflco in the grlound o: mounted on Border Patrol ‘vana. Cornered by flashlights, ftìsked vìhile their arms stretch over their heads, los mojados ate handcuffed, locked in jeeps, and then kicked back ‘ àcross the border. One out of every three is caught. ‘Some return to‘ enact their ' rite of passage as many as ‘three times a day. Some of those who make it across undetected fall prey to Mexican robbers such as those in Smugglers’ Canyon on the Ameriqàn side of the-border qear Tijuana. A5 refugees in a homeland thàt does not want them, manyfmda Welcome hand holding out only suffering, pain, and ignoble death. _ ‘Those who makeuit past the checkjngpomts 'of the Border . Patto! find themselves in the n-xidst of 150 years of racism in Chicano barfios in the Southwest and in big northèrn cities. Living in a no-marrs-borderland, caught between being treated as ‘critnjnals and being able to eat, between resistance and ‘deportation, the illegal reftìgees are some of the poorest and the most exploited of any people in the U. S. It is illegal for Mexicahs towòrk without green cards. But big farming combìnes, farm bosses and smugglers who bring them io make money off the “wetbacks” labor——they don't have to pay federal- minimum ‘wages, 0t ensure adequate housing pr sanitary conditions. The Mexican woman is especiàlly at risk. Ofteri the coyote (smuggler) doesn’t feed her for days or let her go to the hath- room. Often he rapes her or sells her into prostìtutioh. She can- not càll on county or state health or economie resources becaùse she doesn't knowbfinglìsh and’ she fears deportation. American employers are quick to take advantage of her help: lessness. She. can’t go home. She’s sold her‘ lìoùsèî“lîèî°"fùrmfi"ît, . ture, borrowed from friends in order to pay the coyote who charges her four or five thousand dollars to smuggle her to Chicago. " She mày work as a live-in maid fonwhitegchicano or Latino households for as little as S15 a week. Or work in the gar- ment industry, do hotel work. ‘ Isolated and worried about her famìly back home, afraid of getting caught and deported, living with as many as ffteen peopìe inone room, the messicana suf- fers seriops health problems. Se enferma de los nervios, de alta presiòn. ” . b . 1 La mojada, la mujer tndocumentada, is doubly threatened in this countryj Not only does she have to contend with ‘sexuar violence, but like all women, she is prey to a sense of_ physical
  41. 41. . v “s5 . r The Homeland, Aztlin/ El otro México helplessness. A5 avrefugee‘, she leaves the familìar and safe home- ground to venture ‘into unknown and possibly dangerous terrain. This is her home » thisvthìn edge of barbwire.
  42. 42. 2 V . Movimientos febeldîay " A lasi culturas que traicionan Esos mouimientos de iebeldia que tenemos en la sangre nosotros los mexicanos surgen coma rîas desbocanados‘ en mi: uenas. Y coma mi razza qye cada en cuando deja caer esa esclavitud de obedecew; de cdllarse y aceptaì; en mi esttî la rebeldîaencimita de mi carne. Debajode mi bumillada mirada esteî una cara insolente , lista para explotm: Me costò muy caro mi rebeldîan-acalambrada con desvelos y dudàs, simtiéìzdame inzîtil, estzipida, e impotente. ' ' Me ‘entra. 1mm raliîza. quando algnimr-sea maaîmcî, la Iglesia, la cultumde ‘tor anglos-me. dice 17429370, bar eso sin considerar mi: desmm: (Repele. Hablzapa’ ’trass Fui muy bocicona. Era" indiferente , a mucbos ùalores de mi culture. N0 me dejé de ‘los homg bìes. N0 fui buena m‘ obediente. ____ V, __l3er0_be, ,crecido. _1’a.1104610paso rada mi vida-botandoelas costumbres y los valdres de mi cultura que me traicionanÌ También recojo las costumbres que por-el tiempo se han probado y las costitmbres. de respeto a la: mujeres. But despite my growîng tolerance, for this Chicana la guerra de iniiependencia is a Constantt ' ‘ The Strength df My Éebellion I have a vivid memory of an old photograph: I’ am six years ' old. I stand between fnyfathefand mother, head cockednto the right, the toes of my fiat feet gripping the ground. I hold my mother’s hand. v '
  43. 43. . 58 _ , Movimientos ‘de rebeldîa yglas culturasque traicionan‘ T0 this day I'm not sureîwhere ‘I found the strength to leave the sonrce, the mother, disengage from myfamily, ‘mi tierra, mi gente, " and all that picture stood for. I had to leave home so I . could" find myself, find my ownvintrinsic nature buried under the personality that had been imposecl on me. 'I was the first in six generations to leave the Valley, the only one in my ‘family to- everleave home. "But I didh’: leave all the parts of me: I kept the ground of my own’ being. On it I walkefi away, taking with me the land, the Valley, Texas. Gané mi camino y me larguéÀ Muy anaariega mi hija. Because I left of , my own accordi me dicen, "d-Cémo te gusta la mala vida? ” At a very early-age I had a strong sense of who I Was and what l was about and what Was fair. I had a stubborn will. It tried constantly to mobilize my soul under my own" regime, to live . life on my own. terms no matter how unsuitahle to others they were. Terca. Even as a child Pwouldnot obey. I Was “lazy. ” Instead of ironing my younger brothers’ shirts or cleaning the cupboards, I would pass many hours studying, reading, paint- ing, writing". Every bit-of self-faith I’d painstakingly gathered took a beating daily. Nothing in my culture approved of me. Habîa agarradomalos pasos. Sornething was“‘wron‘g" with me. ‘Estaba mas alla de la tradiciòn. ' There is a rebel in me-the Shadow-Beast. It is a part of me that refuses to take orders from ontside authorities. It refuses to takeprders fromnny conscious will, ,it threatens the sovcreignty of my rulershìp. It is that part of me that hates constraints of any d, even those self-irnposed. At the least hint of limitations on my time or space by others, it kicks out both feet. Bolts. “ Cultnral ‘Pyranny Culture forms our beliefs. Wc perceigve the version of reali- ". - ty that it communicates. Dominantfparadigrns, predefined con: cepts that‘ exist as unquestionàble, ‘ unchallengeable, are trans- mitted to us through the culture. Culture is madeby those in . ‘pOWCIr-mcn. Males make the rules and ‘laws; women transmit them. How ‘many times have‘ I heard mothers andmothers-ìn- law tell their sous to beattheir wives for not obeying ‘them, ‘for being bociconas (big mouths), for being callejeras (going to visit and gossip with neìghbors), for expecting- their husbands to help with the rearing of children and the housework, for want- ing to be something other than hoùsewives?
  44. 44. y . _ 39 1 Movimientos de rebeldîa y-Ias culturas que traicionan _The culture expects womenyto show greater aeceptance of, and eommîtmentto, the value system tyhan men. ‘ The culture and the ‘Churehyinsistvthat women are subservìent to” males. Iyf a . woman rebels she jis a mujer mala. ‘ If a woman doesn't renounee herself in favor of the male, she is_ selfish. If a woman ' remains atizirgen until shemarries, " she“ is a good woman. ‘ ‘For a ‘ woman of niy culture there used to_'be only, three directions she could turn‘: ‘to the Church as a nun, to the streets as a prostitute, or togthe home as a" mother. Today some of‘ us have a fourth y ' cholce: enter-ing the world by way of edueation and eareer and becomiiig self-autonomqus persons. A very few of us. As a work- 'ing elass people our ‘ehief activity is to put food in our mouths, . a roof over our heads and clothes_ on-your baeks. Educating our children is out of reach forymost ofÎ-us. Edueated orgynot, the y 4 onus is still on woman to be a wife/ mothereonly the nun can escapey motherhood; Women are triade to feeltotal failuresif ‘they don't marryy and have. children. , "gY citando te ‘casas, Gloria? Se te va a pasar el treni’ Y yo le: diga, ‘Tas si me caso, ‘ no va 'ser. con un bombre/ ‘Se quedan calladitas. Si, soyhzja de lay Chingada. _I've always been her daughter. No ‘fés ebingando. Humans fear the supernatural, both the undivine _‘(the ani- Ì mal impulses such as sexuality, the uneonscious, «the unknown, thetalien) and . the divine (the superhuman, the. god in" us). Culture and religion seek t'o protect us from these two forces. The female, by virtue yof creating entities of flesh and blood in her stomaeh (she ‘bleeds every month but does not die), by. virtue of being in ‘rune with nature’s cyeles, is fearedy. Beeause, -.3.°. .99É9É! î8. . _E° "Ch1îì%! jMtx. .3nsiÌ_nJsnL. o.the; -. . major_y_t. eligions, _-. ... _. womanis earnal, anima], and closer t'o the undivine, she- must be protected. Protected from herself. Woman is the stranger, the other. yShe is man's recognized nightmarish pieees, his Shadow-Beast. The sight of her sends him into a frenzy of anger yand fear. y 4 - ' 1 ' _ La gorra, el rebozo, la‘ mantillaare symbols ofmy culture's ' ‘ “protection” of women. ‘ Culture (readmalesyptofesses to pro-' ‘tect women. Aetually i; keeps women in rigidly definedt roles. It‘ keeps the girlchild from other men-don't‘ ‘poaeh; on my pre- serves, only I can touch my‘ child’: body. Our mothers taùght us, well, "Los bombres nomtîs quieren una cosa”; men aren't to be trusted, they are selfish and are like children; Mothers made
  45. 45. 40 Movimientos de rebeldîa y la: cultura: que trgzicionan sure we didn't walk into -a room of brothers or fathers or ‘uncles in nightgowns or Shorts. Wc were never alone with men, not even those of our own family. Through our mothers, the "culture gave us mìxed messagesz No, boy a dejar que ningzîn pelado desgraciado maltrate a miti ’bzjos. And inthe next breathit would say, La mujer tiene que bacer lo que le diga el bombre. Which was it to bus-strong, or ' submissìve, rebellious or conforming? ' ' Tribal rights over those of the individual ihsured the sur- vival of the’ tribe and were necessary then, and, as in the case of «- allmìndigenoùsupeoples vin the world ‘who are still fighting "off intentional, premeditatedtnurder tgenocide), they are ‘still nec- ‘ essary. . Much of what the culture condemhs focuses on_ kinship vrelationships. The welfare of the famîly, the eommunity. and the ‘ tribe is more important than the welfare of the individua}. The individual exists first as kin-as sister, as fathef, a5 padrino-——- and last as self. . In my Culture, selfishness is condemned, especially in women; humilìty and selflessness, the absence of selfishness, is o considered a virtue. In the past, acting humble with rnembers putside the family ensured that vyou would make no one - enuidioso (envious); therefore he _or shewould not use witeh- crafbagainst‘ you. If you get above yourself, you‘re art envtdiosa. Ifyou don’t hehave like everyone else, la gente will say that you think ‘îouîe better than others, qùe te crees grande. With ambi- tion (condemned ùi the Mexìcan_ culture and valued in ‘the Anglo) comes envy. Respeto carries with 1t a set of rules so that social ‘cgtegories and hieraxchieàwìll be kept in order: respectièà - Î reserved for la abuela, papà, elpamîn, those withpower‘ in the eommunity. Women are at the bottom of the ladder one rung‘ above the deviants. The ‘Chicano, mextcanq-and some Indian cultures have no tolerance for dexìriance. Deviance is whatever islcondemned by the eommunity. Most soeieties try to‘ get rid of their deviants. » Most cultures have but-ned and" beaten their homosexuals and otherè who deviate from the sexual common. ‘ 1 The queer are the mix-tor reflecting the heterosexuàl tribefsufear: being dìfferent, being ‘other and therefore lesser, therefore sub- human, in-human, noh-human.
  46. 46. 41 . , . Movimientos de rebeldîa y las culturas que traicionean Half and Half , There was a muchacba who Iived near my house. La gente del puebldtalked about her being una de las otms, “0f the Others. ” They said that for six months she waè à woman who had a vagina that bled once a month, and that for the other-six months she was a man, had a penis and she peed standing up. They called her half and half, mita’ y mita", neither one nor ‘the other but a strange doubling, adeviation of nature that horrified, a work of nature inverted. But there isea magie aspect in abnor- mality and so-called deformity. Maimed, magi, and sexually dif- . _ferent people were believed to possess superhatural powers by ' ' ‘primgl cultufes’ magico-religious thinking; For them, abnormal- "ordinary gift. ity was the price a person had to pay for her or his inborn extra- ‘ There is somethihg compelling about being both male and female, about having an entry into bothworlds. Contrary to some ‘psychiatrtc tenets, half- and halfs are not suffering from a v confusion of sexpal identity, or even from a confusion of gender. What we are suffering from ìs an absolute despot duality that says We are tflplle to be only one or the other. It claims that human nature is limited and cannot evolve into ‘something bet- ter. But I, " like other queer peoplqam two in‘ one body, both male and female. I 21m the embodiment of the bieros ganzos} the comìng together of opposite qualìties within. Fear of Going Home: Homophobia For the lesbian of color, the ultìrhate rebellion she can make __ atgamst hernative gultureeîs"thtdugh. ..hensexùabehaviormshe--. ... ... v goes agàìnst two moral prohibitìons: sexuality and homosexualî- ty. Being lesbian and raised Catholic, indoetrmated as straight, I made the cboice to be queer (for some it is geneticàlly inherent)’. ’ n‘; __ar‘1 interesting path, one that eontinually slips in and out of the white, the Catholic, the ‘Mexican, the ‘indigenous, the instincts. ‘In and "out of my head. It makes for loquerîa, the cra- zies. It ìs a path of knowledge-one of knowing (and of learning) the history of oppression of our mza. It is a way ofbalancing, of mitigating duality. ’ ‘ In a New England college where I taught, .the presence of a few lesbians threw the more conservative heterosexunl students
  47. 47. 42 Movimièntos de rebeldîa y las cultura; que traicionan v and faculty intoà panic. The two lesbian students and we two lesbian instructors met with them to discuss their feàrs. One of the students said, “I thought homophobia meant fear of going home after a residency. " . ' And I thought, how apt. .Fear of going home. And of not being taken ‘m. We're afraid of being abandoned by the mother, the culture, La Rozza, for being unacceptable, faullty, damaged. Most of us unconsciously believe that if we reveal this unaccept- able aspect of the self our mother/ culture/ race will totally reject us. To avoid rejection, some of us conform to the values of the îìì1fùì"e, —pìj’sh’th'e‘unacceptable“partsînto the shadows. Which leaves only one fear-thatvwe will be found oùt and that the Shadow-Beast will break out of its cage. Some of us take another route. We try to make ourselves conseious of the Shadow-Beast, stare at the sexual lust and lust for power and destruction we see on its face, discern among its features the undershadow thatthe‘ reigning order of heterosexual males project on our Beast. Yet still others of us take it another step: we try to_ waken the Shadow-Beast ‘inside us. Not many jùmp at the chance to con- front the Shadow-Beast in the rpirror without flinchìng at her lid- less serpent eyes, hercold clammy moist hànddragging us under- ground, fangs bared and hissing. How does one put feathers on this particular serpent? ‘ But a few ofushave been lucky—on the face of the ‘Shadow-Beast We have seen not lust but tenderness; on its face we have uncovered the vlie. i ‘ Intimate TerrorismzeLife in the Borderlands‘ ' The world is not a safe plaee to live in. Wc shiver in ‘separate cells in enclosed cities, shoulders hunched, barely keepìng the” panìc below the surface of the skjn, daily drinking shock along, with our morning coffee, fearing the torches being setto our buildings, the attacks in the streèts. Shutting down. Woman does not feel safe when her own culture, and ‘white culture, are critì? cal of her; when the males of all races hunt her as prey. x Alienated from her mother culture, îfalìen” in the dominant eulturejthe woman of color does not feel safe within the inner Life of her Self. Petrìfied, she can’t respond, her face caught between los intersticios, the spaces between the different worlds she inhabits. The ability to respond is what is meant by responsibilìty, yet our cultures take away our ability to act-shackle us in the narne
  48. 48. 4- - . . 43 . Mouimientos de rebeldîa y la: cultura: que traiciorian of protection. Blocked, ìmmobflizved, we caxrtvruove forward, ' _vca‘n’t move backwards. Thatwrithing serpent movement, the ' very movement of life, swifter than ljghtning, frozen. ‘Wc’ do not engage‘ fully. Wc do not Tmakefull use of our fac- ‘ ulties. We abnegate. And there in fronnof us is the crossroads and ehoice: to feel a victîm where someone-else i5 in control, and therefore responsible and, to blame (being a victim and transfer- ‘ring the blame on culture, mother, father, ex-lover, friend, absolves‘ me of responsîbilìty), or to feel strong, ’and, for the most part, in cohtrol; . ' . n , My Chicahdidentîty is grounded ir: the Indian women's his- tory of resistance. The Aztec female ritesofmouming wererites of defiance protesting the cultural changes Which disrupted the equalìty and balance-between female and male, and protestihg‘ their- demotion to a_ lesser status, their denigratiori. Like la Lloroha, the Indiztu womarrs‘ only means of protest was Wailing. ' ' So mamtî, Razza, how wonderfùl, no tener que rendir cuen- fas a nadie. IVfeeI perfectty free to rebel and to rail àgainst my culture. Ifeàr no betrayalv on my part because‘, unlike Chicanas and other women of color who grew up white or who have only recently returned to their native cultura! roots, Lwas ‘totally ìmmersed in mine. It wasn't until I weht to high school that I “saw” Whites; Untìl Iworked on my ‘mastefs degree I’ had not _ gotteu within an arm’s distanceof them. I was totally immersed en lo mexicano, a rural, peasann-isolated, mexîcanismo. T0 sep- arate from n_1y culture (as from my family) I had to feel competent enough ‘on the outside, and secure enough inside to live Life on my own. yet inflleayivng home I_, cl_i; ;l__x; gt_,1o, _se_t_0uch mith. mycorìgins___. .. because lo mexicano is in my system. I am a turtle, wherever I go I carry “h0me" on my bgdk. ‘ Not ‘me sold out my people but they me. —Sò yes, though , t "home" permeates every sflrxew and eartilage in my body, I toò ani — afraid of goipg home. "Though ‘I'll defend my race and culture when they are attaeked by non-rhlexicanos, conqzco el maléstar de mi cùltura. I abhor some of my cultures Ways, how it crip- ples its women, ‘ coma burras, our strengths used agaìnst us, lowly but-ras bearing humilitywith dignjty. The abilkityto serve, claim the males, is our highest virtue. I abhor ‘how my culture makes macho caricatures of its men. No, _I do not buy al] the ‘
  49. 49. 44 - Movimientos de rebeldîa y Ias culturas que traicionan myths of thetribe into Which I was born. I can under-stand why the more tinged with Anglo blood, the more adamantly my col- ored and colorless sisters glorify their colored cultures values- to offset the extreme devaluation of it by the white culture. It’s a legittimate reaction. ' But I will not glorifythose aspects of my culture WhiCh have ‘mjured me and Which have injured me in the name of protecting me. ' ‘ So, don‘t give me your tenets and your laws. Don’t give me ' your lukewarm gods. What I want is an accounting with all three cultures-white, Mexiean, ‘Indian. ’I Want the freedorn to carve ' "——and-chisel-my*13Wn-vface, —to —st—aunch the -bleedingnwìth ashes, to fashion my own‘ gods out of my entrails. And if going home is denied me therx I will have to stand and claim my space, makîng a new culture—-—una cultura mestiza-jwith my own lumber, my own bricks. and mortar and my own fexmnist architecture. - The Woundìng of the india-Mestiza Estas carne: india: que despreciamos nosotros los mexi- canos asz‘ coma despreclamos condenamos a nuestra madre, Malinalz’. N05 condemzmos a nosotros mismòs. Esta raza ven- cida, enemigo cuerpo. I ' Not me sold out my people but they me. Malinali Tenepat, or Malintzîn, has become known as la Cbingadaa-the fucked one. She has become the bad word that passes a dozen tîmes a , day from the lips of Chicanos. Whom-e, prostitute, the woman who sold out her people to. the Spanjards are epithets Chicanos spit out with contempt. ' The Worst kind of betrayal liesm making us believe that-the Indian woman ‘in us is the betrayer. Wc, inaias y mestizas, police the Indianin us, brutalize and condemn her. Male culture has done‘ a good job on us. Son las costumbres que traicionan. La india en mi esla sombra: La Cbingada, Tlazolteotl, Caatlicue. Son ellas qua oyemos lamentando ‘a sus btjas perdtidas. t Not me sold out my people but they me. Because of the color of my skin ‘they betrayed me. The dark-skiuned womanvhas been silenced, gagged, caged, bound into servitude with mar- t. u, . riage, bludgeoned for 300lyears, sterilized and castrated in the ' twentieth century. For S00 years she has been a slave, a force of cheap labor, colonized by the Spaniard, the Anglo, by her own
  50. 50. . 45 Mqvimientes de rebeldia y la: culturas que trafcfionan ‘people (and in Mesoamerica her lot under the Indian pattiarehs was not free of wounding). For 300 years she was invisible, she was not heatd. Many times she wished to. speak, to‘ act, _ to vprotest, tochallenge. The odds were heavilyagaìnst her. ‘She hid her feelings; su; hîd her fruths; she concealed her fire; but she ‘kept stoking the ìnner flame. She remajneq faceless‘, and voice- lese; but ‘a light shone through her ‘veîl of silence. And though she wàs uhable to spread her liinbs and though for her rìght now the sun has sunk ùnder theearth and there is no moon, she con- tinues to tend the flame. "The spirit df -the fire sputs her to fight _ for her own skîn and a piece of ground to stand on, a ground "from Which to view- the world-a perspectitrfie, a homeground whete she can plutub the xjìch ahtzestral roots into her own ample mestìzaheart. She Waits till the waters are not s0 turbulent and ‘the mountains not s0 slippery with sleet. Battered‘ ma bruised she waits, ‘her bruises throwing her back upon herself and the ì-hythmic pulse of‘ the femmine. Codtlalopeub waits with her. ‘ Aqm’ en; la soledyzd. prospera su rebeldîa. En la soledad EllzijirospéraL 1
  51. 51. J.
  52. 52. ‘ i Entering Into", the-Serpente Suefiò conserpientes, con serpientes del mm"; Con cierto mm; ay de serpientes suerîò yo. Largas, transparentes, en sus barrtgas llevan , Lo que puedqn arebatarle al amor Oh, 019,079, la mutò y apareceuna maya}: 3 Ola, con mitcbò mzîs infiemo en digestzfé-n. " I dream of serpents, serpents of the sea, Aeertain sea, oh, of serpents I dream: Long, transparent, intheir bellìes they carry A11 that they can snatch away from ‘love. Oh, oh, oh, I kill one! and a larger one appears. Oh, with more hellfire burning inside! —Si1vio RodriguezfiSuefio Con Serpientes”, In the predawn orangehaze, the ‘sìéégì 256162 of atop the trees. No vayas’ al escusado en lo 0sc‘zar0.1D0n’t go to the outhotise àt night, -Prieta, ‘my mother would say. N0 se te vaya a meter algo par zzllcì. A shake wìlI crawl into Your nalgas} make you‘ pregnant. They seek watmth in the told. ‘ Dicen que las culebras like to sucktfbicbes} can draw mìlk out of you. ‘ En el escusado in the half-light spiders hnng like gliders. ‘ Under my- bare buttocks and the rqugh planks the deep yawning. . tugs a‘t me. I cansee‘! my legs fly upvto my face as my body falls through the round hole into _the sheen of swarming maggots below. Avqiding the snakes under the pprch I walk back into the kitchen, step on a big black one slithering across the floor.

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