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Kinisiology arch of foot

physiotherapy kinesiology topic on foot but just cover on arch of foot part

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Kinisiology arch of foot

  1. 1. Arches of foot
  2. 2. FOOT ARCH • Formed by complex structure of bones, ligaments and tendons of the foot. • Arranged in curve shape which functions to distribute the exerted force to the both end of the foot equally. FUNCTIONS OF THE ARCH OF FOOT • Proportional weight distribution • Acts as segmental lever • Protects plantar vessels and nerves • Arch foot is dynamic and pliable Structural example of an arch
  3. 3. Method of maintaining the arch  Shape of stones  Intersegmental ties  Tie beams  Slings or suspension bridge
  4. 4. Factors that maintaining the arch 1. Bones 2. Ligaments 3. Muscles 4. Tendons Static stabilizer Dynamic stabilizer
  5. 5. Arch of foot
  6. 6. Functions of each bone  Talus * to form a connection between leg and foot so that body weight may be transferred from ankle to leg. * to enable to walk and maintain balance. * to help movement of ankle and together with calcaneus if facilitates the movement of foot.  Navicular * play roles in distribution of body weight through bones in foot. *Helps to hold the arteries running through the foot  Cuboid * provide stability to foot  Metatarsal * support weight bearing of the body * they work with ligament to perform movement.
  7. 7.  Phalanges * Allow metatarsal head to continuosly support the weight of body as foot move from heel to toe.  Cunieform : 1st cuneiform, 2nd cuneiform, 3rd cuneiform * 1st cuneiform is the attachment for numerous ligament, such as the peroneus longus and libialis anterior’s tendon. *2nd and 3rd helps to hold the arteries running through the foot. * 3rd to support the body while playing role in motion.
  8. 8. Ligaments  Ligaments hold the tendons in place and stabilize the joints.  Allow the arch to curve or flatten, providing balance and giving the foot strength to initiate the act of walking by stretching and contracting  Medial ligaments on the inside and lateral ligaments on outside of the foot provide stability and enable the foot to move up and down.  The longest of these, the plantar fascia, forms the arch on the sole of the foot from the heel to the toes  Example : plantar ligament, the plantar calcaneocuboid ligament and the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament
  9. 9. Muscles and tendons  Long flexor muscles and small muscles of foot can exert their action on bones of forepart of foot and toes  Greatly assist the forward propulsive action of gastrocnemius and soleus  Active muscular forces assist the arch when stresses and loads on the foot  Tendons are inelastic but flexible and serve to concentrate the pull of a muscle on a small area of attachment  Example: tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, tendon of tibialis posterior, tendon of flexor digitorum longus
  10. 10. Arches of foot  Longitudinal arch  Medial  Lateral  Transverse arch
  11. 11. Medial Longitudinal arch  The arch is very tall  Extremely resilient due to its large number of component bones ‹ FACTORS STRUCTURES Bones • ‹Formed by: i) calcaneus iv) 3 cuneiforms ii) talus v) 1st, 2nd, 3rd metatarsal iii) navicular • Talus “key stone” rests on navicular and on sustentaculum tali of calcaneus • Joint: talocalcaneonavicular & subtalar Maintained by MUSCLES • Tibialis anterior • Tibialis posterior • Flexor digitorum longus • Flexor hallucis longus • Abductor hallucis • Flexor digitorum brevis Long plantar ligaments, short plantar ligaments, spring ligaments, interosseous ligament, deltoid ligament, plantar aponeurosis Tendon of tibialis anterior, tendon of tibialis posterior
  12. 12. Lateral longitudinal arch • The arch is flat and contains less number of bones • Bears the body weight before medial arch comes into play FACTORS STRUCTURES Bones • ‹Formed by: i) calcaneus ii) cuboid iii) 4th and 5th metatarsals • Calcaneal angle of cuboid supports anterior lower articular surface of calcaneus • Upward tilt of long axis of calcaneus • Cuboid as a “key stone” • Joint : calcaneocuboid joint Maintained by • Peroneus longus • Peroneus brevis • Peroneus tertius • Abductor digiti minimi • Flexor digitorum brevis • Flexor digitorum longus Long and the short plantar ligaments, plantar aponeurosis Tendon of peroneus brevis and tertius, tendon of tibialis posterior, tendon of flexor digitorum longus. *This arch is more stable and less adjustable than the medial one
  13. 13. MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL ARCH LATERAL LONGITUDINAL ARCH Formed by more bones and joints Formed by less bones and joint Characteristic feature is resiliency Characteristic feature is rigidity Higher and more mobile Lower and less mobile Involved in propulsion during locomotion Involved in receiving and supporting body weight Summit is formed by talus Summit is formed by calcaneum Main joint is talocalcaneonavicular joint Main joint is calcaneocuboid joint
  14. 14. Transverse arch FACTORS STRUCTURES Bones • Formed by: i) Cuboid ii) Cuneiform iii) Metatarsals • Wedge shape of 3 cuneiforms • Bases of middle of 3 metatarsals accentuate arch Maintained by • Dorsal interossei • Adductor hallucis • Peroneus longus • Peroneus tertius • Tibialis anterior Deep transverse ligament, plantar ligaments, dorsal ligaments: • Dorsal cuboideonavicular ligament • Dorsal intercuneiform ligaments • Dorsal tarsometatarsal ligaments • Dorsal metatarsal ligaments Tendons of peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, peroneus tertius and tibialis posterior
  15. 15. Abnormal arch of foot PES CAVUS (HIGH ARCH FOOT) • The arch will appear higher • Ankle rolled outwards slightly • Usually a hereditary condition and in rare cases, there may be an underlying neurological problem • Excessive supination- causes problems for runners and other athletes • The foot is less able to provide shock absorption • Can cause plantar fasciitis
  16. 16. PES PLANUS (FLAT FEET) • Little or no arch is seen • It is called flat foot or fallen arch. • When tendons do not pull together properly • The posterior tibial tendon, which connects from lower leg along ankle, to the middle of the arch is damage or inflammed. • Excessive pronation- Occurs when the arches collapse and the ankles roll inwards. • Causing an imbalance and leading to wear and tear in other parts of the body
  17. 17. POSTERIOR TIBIAL TENDON DYSFUNCTION • Posterior tibial tendon becomes inflamed or torn. • Tendon may not be able to provide stability and support for the arch of the foot, resulting in flatfoot. • An acute injury, such as from a fall, can tear the posterior tibial tendon or cause it to become inflamed. The tendon can also tear due to overuse. • The arch will slowly fall (collapse) over time.
  18. 18. Plantar fasciitis • Micro tears or inflammation of plantar fascia • Plantar fascia- a fibrous band of connective tissue located on the plantar surface of the foot • Assists in forming the longitudinal arch of the foot • Holds parts of the foot together, helps protect the sole from injury Achilles tendonitis • Longest tendon in the body, connecting the calf muscles to the heel bone behind the ankle joint. • Persistent strain on the Achilles tendons causes irritation and inflammation and also lead to degeneration and thickening of the tendon. • Cause over pronation (flat feet). As the feet roll inwards excessively, the lower leg is forced to rotate internally, putting a shearing force on the calf muscles
  19. 19. References     Singh, V. (2014), Textbook of Anatomy (Regional and Clinical) Abdomen and Lower Limb, 2nd ed., page 432-438, Elsevier Health Science, India.  Snell, R.S. (2011), Clinical Anatomy by Regions, 9th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.