Key Words:Key Words:
2) Needs and the organizations
3) The structure of organizations
4) Organizational cultures
5) Styles and functions of management
6) A systematic approach to management
8) Related articles
Defining some key management terms and concepts.
Reviewing the main characteristics of the
Setting up scheme of organizational needs.
Identifying elements of structure in a school
Evaluating different approaches to organizational
Considering management styles and functions.
Q: What is the relationship between
people and organizations?
What is meant by “Organization(s)”?
-Two or more people working together to achieve
something that often cannot be accomplished alone .
A collection of people working together in a coordinated
and structured fashion to achieve one or more goals.
- Consist of relationships between people who have come
together for a purpose.
- Without people, there is no organization- just as,
without students, a school has no existence as a living
and functioning organization.
- Organizations are strongly influenced by the people
that form part of them.
- Organizations can take in part of the
personality of the people within them and
their attitudes, perceptions and behaviors
affect how an organization will operate.
Because all of us as individuals combine a
mixture of the rational and irrational, so , too,
organizations contain both rational and
- Beside people, there is another vital aspect of an
organization: its technology by which various operations
are carried out to achieve organizational goals including
hardware and software.
- In addition to all these important things, in educational
technology of a school, the curriculum is considered as
an important part since it embodies not only the
pedagogical aims of the school but also the methods and
materials employed in realizing those aims.
- Finally Organizations are characterized by belief and
value systems which influence the relationships, practices
Organizations Role in Society
Organizations exist to allow
accomplishment of work that could not be
achieved by people alone.
As long as the goals of an organization
are appropriate, society will allow them to
exist and they can contribute to society.
Needs and the organizations
A figure is depicted by Adair 1983 and Bacie
1978;They pointed out that a school as an
organization would have to fulfill and maintain
in balance three board sets of needs as
1. Task Needs: are those needs which have to be satisfied in
order successfully to carry out the work of the organization.
Such needs like:
- Planning, - allocating, - providing, - contacting, - monitoring.
2. Group Needs: are vital needs to meet task needs for the
organization, such group functions as:
- Setting standards
- Marinating discipline
- Building team spirit
- Encouraging and motivating
- Appointing sub-leaders
- Training members of the group and ensuring
communication with it.
3. Individual or personal needs: the lack of these needs will
be a loss of morale and motivation among the individuals who
make up the group or team. These needs involve:
1.Attending to personal problems.
4.Recognizing and using abilities
5.Training the individual.
- A successful organization is one which people feel
worthy as an individual member as it has been given
appropriate attention just like a good educational practice
that advocates the students apply equally well to teachers
and other staff.
- But what Maslow proposes in his theory of
individual development in 1943 is against these
individual needs, according to his theory
people are wanting beings, they always want
more but what they want depends on what they
have, in addition, human needs are arranged in
a series of levels starting from the lowest level
of physiological needs to the highest level of
self-actualization as a hierarchy or pyramid
figure of needs.
The structure of organizations
- The term is defined by some writers as:
1.The deliberate patterning of relationships between
organization members. (Paisy,1981:64)
2. The pattern of relationships among positions in the
organization and among members of the organization.
- The notion “structure” is the fundamental concept of
organizations. It’s a list of what has to be organized.
- There is a diversity in models of structure. Some models
attempt to provide prescriptions for what should be done,
While others try to account for what is believed to happen.
What is the purpose of the structure in organizations
according to Mullins?
A. Dividing of work among members and co-ordination their
B. Creating a framework of order and command through which
the activities can be planned, organized, directed and
Elements of Structure:
- Paisy points out, when we ask the question, ‘ what is the
structure of a school?’, we are trying to understand the
distribution of jobs, authority and position within the
organization. In other words, the questioner is interested in
finding out who is who, who does what, and what the limits of
their power are.
Formal models of organization also emphasize the official
and structural elements of organizations. They assume that
organizations are hierarchical systems in which managers
use rational means to pursue agreed goals. ( Bush, 1986:23)
But Bush and Paisy discuss the weaknesses of formal
1. They are focusing on the organization as an entity and ignore
or underestimate the contribution of individuals within
2. Formal approaches are based on the implicit assumption that
organizations are relatively stable, but as Bush observes it
can be argued that assumption of stability are unrealistic in
many organizations and invalid in many schools and
3. Its unrealistic to characterize schools and colleges as goal-
directed organizations because few educational organizations
actually have a formal or even informal statement of their
4. A central assumption of formal models is the power that
resides at the apex of the pyramid but in school there is an
inherent tension between the teacher’s claim of autonomy in
pedagogical matters and the responsibility and accountability of
the principle for the quality and efficiency of the work carried out
by the school.
-In view of the criticisms of formal models of organizations and
management, alternatives such as democratic, political,
subjective, and ambiguity models have been proposed.
-But non of these models is fully accounted for organizational
structure and management processes. Bush (1986) suggests
that the validity of the various models depends on 5 overlapping
considerations which are:
The size of the institution.
The nature of the organizational structure
The availability of resources
The nature of rate of change in the environment.
- Following Enderud, Davis and Morgan in 1980 to 1983, Bush
outlines a four – phase model for policy information which bring
together many of the characteristics of the models just
described. The phases are:
A. The anarchic phase
B. The political phase
C. The collegial phase
D. The formal phase
All organizations have the history and traditions, rules and regulations,
ways of doing things, and conventions governing relationships, which
together constitute the culture of that organizations.
Organizational culture is defined as shared philosophies, ideologies,
beliefs, feelings, assumptions, expectations, attitudes, norms and values.
Observed Behavioral Regularities
Charley Handy in 1984 points out that ( there are no
wholly bad cultures and no wholly good cultures; all
cultures are OK, in the right place, because each culture
is good for some things, and less good at others), later
he has suggested four types of organizational cultures
and has applied his classification to the characterization
of schools as organizations.
His discussion is concerned with looking at the way in
which attitudes and relationships give rise to a climate or
culture that can be highly successful in achieving the
goals of organizations and the very unsuccessful in
working productively towards shared aims.
The four organizational cultures by Handy’s are:
1. Power or club: is characterized as a spider web with a power
source at the hub, surrounded by concentric circles of
intimates and influence. The lines radiating out from the
center indicate the lines of responsibility and functions of the
organization. Handy (1984) observes that organizations
based on this principle have very personal cultures.
Communication within a club culture tend to be informal and
personal. But if the spider is not strong and capable the
organization will reflect the head’s weakness, therefore,
selecting a group of compatible people is an important
consideration in such an organization. Handy also suggests
that power ( power or club cultures) are a convenient way of
running things when the organization is small around 20
2.Role: this is quite different, resembling a pyramid of boxes.
These job boxes joined together in a logical and orderly fashion
so that together they discharge the work of the organization.
Handy (1984). Communication within a role culture, in contrast
to that within a club culture, will follow prescribed conventions,
and memoranda go from role to role, and not to individuals.
3. Task: is a job or project oriented, its members are able to
respond to change in a less individualistic way than members of
a club culture and more quickly than occupants of a role culture.
It provides an exciting work environment and it may well be the
case that a good school is one in which a task culture
predominates Handy suggests that the ‘organizational idea’ of
the task culture is ‘ that a group or team of talents and resources
should be applied to a project, problem or task. In that way each
task gets the treatment it requires, and the group can be
changed, disbanded or increased as the task changes.
4. Person: in this last type the priority is the individual’s talents
rather than the organization’s purposes and it must be serviced
by some sort of minimal organization. ( Handy 1984)
- The evolution of a person culture in a school could give rise to
conflict since it would tend to be identified with the setting up of
differentiation among people who would otherwise regard
themselves as peers.
- size, work flow, environment, and history are the factors of the
cultural mix which characterizes any organization, in general,
large size and role cultures go together. When work is
organized on an interdependent sequential basis a role culture
is typical, as handy says ‘ a lot depends on what the job of the
organization is seen to be’ , in addition the environment will
have an important influence on the development of
organizational culture. A stable environment promotes the
evolution of a role culture.
Culture is a set of values and beliefs that has been defined
by community and society. Organizational culture is a
system of shared beliefs, values, assumptions and rituals
which has been defined by organizational people.
The conflict arise within the large organizations because
different sections may have quite different cultural
characteristics from one another.
-Administration of a school deals with aspects as financial management,
registration and examinations will usually be characterized by a role
-Teachers concerned with the operations side of the organization such as
curriculum development, course design, and actual teaching will tend to se
themselves as operating within a task culture.
Styles and functions of management
Social psychologist Douglas McGregor studied the general
behavior of human beings and classified such behavior into
two parts which is popularly known as Theory X and Theory
Theory X revolves around the traditional assumption
about the human behavior that they are pessimistic in nature.
The basic assumptions of Theory X about worker’s
behavior are – they dislike the work, they are unwilling to
assume responsibility, they are dull and not ambitious, they
avoid any assigned work and so should be supervised
closely. Douglas McGregor through his research support
challenged these assumptions because they are untrue in
most of the circumstances.
Theory Y in contrast, He propounded an alternative theory
which poses optimistic behavior patterns of the workers. These
assumptions highlights that workers are ready to do hard work,
they are ready to assume responsibility, they exercise self-
imposed disciple avoiding the need of close
supervision, they possess the capacity to innovate, they get
psychic pleasure in doing the work and consider work
as rest or play.
By making such a distinction between managing and doing,
Mullins suggests that management can be seen as:
(The planning of work, organizing the distribution of activities
and tasks to other people, direction of subordinate staff and
controlling the performance of other people’s work.).
In additions to these functions, Everard and Morries (1985)
believe that the manager’s mission should be:
- Utilizing and integrating resources economically.
- Facilitating beneficial change.
- Maintaining and developing resources.
A systematic approach to management
Management is the activity of getting things done with the
aid of people and other resources.
No business in the world has ever made more money with
System in simple terms in respect to management, it’s a
set of different independent parts working together in
interrelated manner to a accomplish a set of objective.
- For example:
1. The human body is a system with all the organs.
2. In a company a group of division people working for a
common goal or success.
The term system is derived from Greek Word “synistanai,”
which means to bring together or combine.
- System Approach is the most acceptable approach in the
modern management. The major contributories are
Herbert A. Simon. George Homons, Philip Selznick etc.
This approach considers organization as a unified, directed
system of integrated parts. It emphasized that every
organization is composed of different parts and one part
part affect all other parts in a varying degree.
Types of system
Closed System View of Organizations : According to Louis
E. Boone and David L Kurtz, “Closed system are sets of
interacting elements operating without any exchange with the
environment in which they exist. This definition implies that
closed system require no inputs – human, financial etc..
from the external environment in which they exist. But no
organization can be totally closed system.
The two basic characteristics of a closed system are :
(1) It is perfectly deterministic and predictable
(2) There is no exchange between the system and the
If one college campus converts into deemed university,
then it becomes closed system. To some extent, you can
predict styles of exam, schemes, and syllabus as there is
no exchange with any affiliated university. So rules and
norms somehow remain predictable.
Open System View of Organizations : Traditional closed
system views ignored the influence of the external environment.
This sometimes led to the failure of plans and inefficient
handling of resources. Boone and Kurtz define an open system
as “A set of elements that interact with each other and the
environment, and whose structure as a result of interaction”.
For example, If one college is affiliated with some
university, then it is an open system because there is
exchange with external environment.
- As we have seen from the explanation that there is no theory
or model of management provides a complete explanation of
how an organization works. And no theory of management
give a fool-proof for success, because management above all
else is concerned with people who are themselves so diverse
and varied that no two combinations of individuals will ever
be the same.
- All managers have a responsibility to be as well-informed and
provide adequate resources and facilities for carrying out
agreed aims. Some follow the processes like setting
objectives, planning, controlling and delegating but above all
the successful managers will attempt to involve everyone in
the organization in decision making, planning,
implementation, and provide conditions for the action to be
Related ArticlesRelated Articles
1. Responsibility in organizations
Written by three researchers Royakkers, Grossi, and Dignum from Utrecht
and Eindhoven universities, The Netherlands.
- The main aim of their research is to provide a formal analysis of the
connection between collective obligations to individual responsibilities,
for example which individual agent in a group should be held responsible
if an obligation directed to the whole group is not fulfilled?.
- Since the collective obligation is beyond the capacity of an individual
agent, the agents have to communicate, cooperate, coordinate and
negotiate with each other to achieve the collective task, for this purpose
several theories have been developed about joint goals, plans, and
- In the research the three researchers offered a glance of some
observations and they hope to extend this area in the future work.
The research comes to an end of conclusion that the
researchers have provided some notions of responsibility that
are useful in the process of designing an organizational
structure, and conversely in understanding how a given
organization is structured.
In addition to notions, the researches have shown that
responsibilities have an impact both on what agents should do
within an organization and to whom to turn when things go
The research results ( observations) are shown :
- The organizational structure plays an even greater role in the
monitoring and control of execution of the tasks for which the
agent is responsible.
- The logical framework that are presented by them offers a
semantics for the notions of responsibility.
- Giving some insights into when an agent can really be held
responsible for when tasks are not performed.
2. Conflict in Organizations: Beyond effectiveness and
performance. ( Written By: Carsten and Bianca) , University
of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
In this article the researchers do three things.
First , they briefly review the insights about conflict that conflict
management research and theory have revealed thus far.
Second, and more importantly, they provide an overview of the
variables and processes that are key in organizational
psychology yet isolated from conflict theory and research.
Third, they briefly introduce the four articles that follow
this introductory article and that each in their own way try to
redress the problems.
Two perspectives surface in literature an information
processing perspective and a conflict typology framework are
proposed the ways that employees manage conflict at work
conflict researchers have examined the possible effects conflict
has on individual and work-team effectiveness and productivity
The information-processing perspective implies that the
relationship between conflict and information processing is
curvilinear so that performance benefits from moderate levels of
conflict, but not from either low or high levels of conflict.
The conflict typology framework relies on the distinction
between task conflict and relationship conflict. In essence, it
argues that relationship conflict interferes with performing tasks,
and thus lowers effectiveness and innovativeness. Task
conflict, however, is thought to trigger information processing
and to lead participants to consider multiple perspectives and
various problem solutions.
Each in its own way, and together, they shed light on how
conflict theory and research can be connected to con
temporary work in organizational psychology on job
satisfaction (and related constructs such as commitment and
motivation), well-being, and occupational health. The results of
their study reveal that within
both organizations relationship conflict was negatively related to
job satisfaction and well-being. Further more, task conflicts
were negatively related to job satisfaction and well- being in
the private ,high goal orientation organization but not in the
public, low goal- orientation culture. In the latter organizational
culture, supporting relations appeared to play a much more
important role than goal orientation.