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Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges

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XIII IBEROAMERICAN SYMPOSIUM ON POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION, which will be held in Monterrey, N.L., Mexico, on February 19-24, 2017.

Publicado en: Ingeniería
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Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges

  1. 1. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 FUTURE SMART-ER GRID: CHALLENGES PANEL: IMPACT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POWER SYSTEMS PROTECTION AND OPERATION Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt* Loughborough University, UK XIII IBEROAMERICAN SYMPOSIUM ON POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico 19-24th February, 2017
  2. 2. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Agenda • Context: Where do we need to change? • Smart grid, NO!/ Smart-er grid • Smart-er grid: What it is? • Existing Non-dummy systems • Smart Network and Low Carbon • Sources of Uncertainties • Power Network (present)  Energy Systems Future • Context: Changes in GB • Reduced inertia • Declining Short Circuit Levels • Can they deliver the solution? • Closing… or Opening? Copyright Notice The documents are created by Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt and contain copyrighted material, trademarks, and other proprietary information. All rights reserved. No part of the documents may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means - such as graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems without the prior written permission of Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt . The use of these documents by you, or anyone else authorized by you, is prohibited unless specifically permitted by Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt. You may not alter or remove any trademark, copyright or other notice from the documents. The documents are provided “as is” and Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt shall not have any responsibility or liability whatsoever for the results of use of the documents by you.
  3. 3. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Context: Where do we need to Change? EV IM Storage PV MTDC AC System Wind Farm The other half of the challenge lies in building the transport and distribution networks As the low-emission economy evolves, building new generation technologies is just half the challenge @fglongatt Gonzalez-Longatt, F. (2014). Frequency Control and Inertial Response Schemes for the Future Power Networks. Large Scale Renewable Power Generation. J. Hossain and A. Mahmud, Springer Singapore: 193- 231.
  4. 4. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 DC is a real option
  5. 5. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Smart DC Micro-grids http://smgaznec.fglongatt.org/
  6. 6. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Smart grid, NO!/ Smart-er grid • The term smart grid has been in use since at least 2005, when it appeared in the article "Toward A Smart Grid" by Amin and Wollenberg. Smart Grids European Technology Platform http://www.smartgrids.eu/ http://energy.gov/oe/technology-development/smart-grid "Smart Grid / Department of Energy" https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/maintaining-uk-energy-security-- 2/supporting-pages/future-electricity-networks Department of Energy & Climate Change and Ofgem
  7. 7. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Smarter Grid
  8. 8. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 What it is?
  9. 9. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Smart-er Grid Information Flow Power Flow Power Flow Information Flow Demand Response AMI DG-PV Thermal Storage PEVUtility grade PVWind farm Solar farm Smart Grid Traditional Environment Merging Two Smart Infrastructures
  10. 10. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Future Off-grid http://iuats.fglongatt.org/
  11. 11. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Primary Substation CB CB Secondary Substation SS SS Tie-switch Existing Non-dummy systems Bulk Generation Homes, Schools, Shops, Businesses Transmission Distribution Very Good observability and controllability Limited coordination between transmission and distribution Fossil Fuels Centralized plants Networks are designed for “passive customers” “Fit and forget” approach  Low asset use Almost zero observability and controllability CB : Circuit breaker SS: Sectionalizing switch ASS: Automatic sectionalizing switch LV Grid MV Grid N. Ochoa. Modelling of Distribution Networks: State-of-the-Art and Challenges
  12. 12. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Primary Substation CB CB Secondary Substation Tie-switch Smart Network and Low Carbon Bulk Generation MV Micro Grid + - Local control Local control Local control + - + - Massive penetration of renewable Medium-scale renewable controllable Full coordination between transmission and distribution Local control Hierarchical control Distributed Generation Real-time monitoring and control Local control Centralized network management Maximizing the assets utilization Maximum renewable harvesting Optimization forecasting LV Micro Grid Frequency response operation
  13. 13. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Primary Substation CB CB Secondary Substation Tie-switch Smart Network and Low Carbon Bulk Generation LV Micro Grid MV Micro Grid + - + - IED: Intelligent Electronic Device DMS: Distribution Management System MEMS: Microgrid Energy Management System SCADA: Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition MV Microgrid LV Microgrid Communication link DMS SCADA IED IED IED MEMS MEMS MEMS MEMS + - + - Smart Distribution Network + - Electric Vehicle Heat pump Energy storage Solar photovoltaic system Wind Power
  14. 14. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Beyond the Smart-er Grid http://www.fglongatt.org/Desechable/SEMINAR%20Exploring%20Beyond%20frontier.pdf
  15. 15. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Sources of Uncertainties IM MTDC AC System @fglongatt • Topology, parameters & settings (e.g., tap settings, temperature dependent line ratings) • Observability & controllability • Pattern (size, output of generators, types and location of generators, i.e., conventional, renewable, storage) • Parameters (conventional and renewable generation and storage) • Parameters of generator controllers (AVRs, Governors, PSSs, PE interface), network controllers (secondary voltage controller), FACTS devices and HVDC line controllers • Contractual power flow (consequence of different market mechanisms and price) • Faults (type, location, duration, frequency, distribution, impedance) • Communications (noise, time delays and loss of signals) • Time and spatial variation in load, load composition, models and parameters
  16. 16. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Power Network (present)  Energy Systems Future Proliferation of nonconventional renewable generation – largely stochastic and intermittent (wind, PV, marine) at all levels and of various sizes • Large on-shore and offshore wind farms Wind Farm Offshore wind power Storage Electric-vehicles Renewable Energy Resources
  17. 17. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Power Network (present)  Energy Systems Future MTDC Multi-terminal HVDC Increased use of HVDC lines of both, LCC and predominantly VSC technology (in meshed networks and as a super grid) • Liberalised market • Increased cross-boarder bulk power transfers to facilitate effectiveness of market mechanisms
  18. 18. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Power Network (present)  Energy Systems Future • Integrated “intelligent” Power Electronic devices • Integrated ICT & storage • Small scale (widely • dispersed) technologies in Distribution networks • Active distribution networks • New types of loads within • customer premises Bi-directional energy flow Different energy carriers Multi-directional info flow
  19. 19. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Context: Changes in GB 15% of energy from renewable 34% reduction in CO2 emission versus 1990 2020 No renewable target 80% reduction in CO2 emission versus 1990 2050 % of end use energy ~20% Carbon intensity (kgCO2/MWh) ~200 % of end use energy ~50% Carbon intensity (kgCO2/MWh) ~5Electricity 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 20402030 2050 Oil Gas Coal Hydro Nuclear Solar Wind Geothermal Biomass CCS BillionBarrelsofOilEquivalentperyear 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 % of end use energy ~40% Carbon intensity (kgCO2/MWh) ~184 % of end use energy ~35% Carbon intensity (kgCO2/MWh) ~184Gas % of end use energy ~40% Carbon intensity (kgCO2/MWh) ~247 % of end use energy ~40% Carbon intensity (kgCO2/MWh) ~247Oil Data source: National Grid Gone Green scenario fglongatt 2013
  20. 20. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Reduced Inertia http://www2.nationalgrid.com/UK/Industry-information/Future-of-Energy/System-Operability-Framework/
  21. 21. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Declining Short Circuit Levels As the short circuit level decreases, the size of the area affected by a voltage dip will increase. The effects of transmission voltage dips are not only observable across the transmission network, but are also observable on distribution networks in the vicinity of the fault (the effects are “3- dimensional”). The critical role that reactive current injection plays in the response of the network to a voltage depression. http://www2.nationalgrid.com/UK/Industry-information/Future-of-Energy/System-Operability-Framework/
  22. 22. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Transformer terminal RET 541 Distance Relay PD531, AEG, 1991LFCB102 Digital Current Differential Relay MiCOM P54x P543, P544, P545 & P546 Current Differential Relay M-3425A Comprehensive Generator Relay Form 6 Recloser Control G60 Generator Protection System Micrologic Reyrolle 7SR210 & 7SR220 Argus SIEMENS Schweitzer SEL-751A Feeder Protection Relay IPROTEC 7UT63 and 7UT635 differential protection relays Sprecher Distance Protection SPRECON-E- P DD..6-Series Line Differential Protection GRL100 VAMP by Schneider Electric You have a lot of options, but can they deliver the solution?
  23. 23. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Closing… or Opening?
  24. 24. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Some of the main technical challenges Low Voltage Distribution Grids (< 1kV) • Voltage rise/drops due to PV panels/EVs • Thermal limits: Are the wires fit for purpose? • More unbalances? Harmonics? etc. Medium Voltage Distribution Grids (> 1kV and < 150kV) • Voltage rise due to wind power (rural networks) • Increase in short circuit level (urban underground) • Power quality, “Islanding” and Protection • Thermal limits • Increased energy losses? Variability? • Stability and reserve requirements Observability Controllability Integratedmulti-scalesolutions Integrated planning operation with transmission systems Voltage management Thermal and fault management Integration of solution and services …
  25. 25. Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor.Copyright©2017.http:www.fglongatt.org Future Smart-er Grid: Challenges. Monterrey, Mexico 21 February 2017 Questions and Answers Dr Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt fglongatt@fglongatt.org Copyright Notice The documents are created by Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt and contain copyrighted material, trademarks, and other proprietary information. All rights reserved. No part of the documents may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means - such as graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems without the prior written permission of Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt . The use of these documents by you, or anyone else authorized by you, is prohibited unless specifically permitted by Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt. You may not alter or remove any trademark, copyright or other notice from the documents. The documents are provided “as is” and Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt shall not have any responsibility or liability whatsoever for the results of use of the documents by you. Thank you!

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