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<ul><li>Each stage of the life cycle requires different professional inputs. Below is the multi-disciplinary approach adopted by most companies at all stages during the life of the project. </li></ul>Reservoir Engineer Petroleum Engineer Production Maintenance Engineering Drilling Engineer Geologist Geophysicist EXPLORE APPRAISE DEVELOP PRODUCE ABANDON SUPPORT e.g. Finance, HR, Legal, IT, Safety, Logistics, PR MANAGER The support functions of Finance, HR, IT, Safety, Logistics and Government Relations would be fully involved in the making of key decisions.
<ul><li>Exploration stage of life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Since main goal of this phase is to find commercially viable field development opportunities, the main roles in professional disciplines is to predict production potential through studying the earth, rocks, their formation and characteristics. The material used in this stage consists mainly of surface maps, well logs and seismic data. </li></ul><ul><li>Key disciplines: Geologist, Geophysicist, </li></ul><ul><li>Petrophysicist, Reservoir Engineer </li></ul>Computer Model of oil reservoir
<ul><li>Geologist - This discipline defines terms pertaining to Earth—its history, structure, composition, life forms and processes that continue to shape and change it. This broad field of science covers many subspecialties </li></ul><ul><li>Geophysicist uses complex equipment to collect data on earthquakes and seismic waves, which move through and around the earth. The geophysicist's main responsibility is controlling data quality by monitoring displays and performing some initial interpretation. He would use methods such as seismic, magnetic and gravity to image the surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Petrophysicist studies rock types, especially properties that pertain to fluid behavior within the rock, such as porosity , capillary pressure , permeabilities, irreducible saturations or saturations. Petrophysical rock types are often calibrated from core and dynamic data, but are usually calculated from wireline logs </li></ul><ul><li>Reservoir Engineer work to optimise production of oil and gas via proper well placement, production levels, and enhanced oil recovery techniques; Reservoir models simulate behavior of fluids within a reservoir under different conditions to help asset teams develop optimal production techniques </li></ul>
Wireline Log - Exploration Well Evaluation by petrophysicist CycloLog - a toolbox of functions specifically designed for geological interpretation of wireline logs
<ul><li>Appraisal Stage of life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>This stage is closely intertwined with the Exploration as its objective is to obtain information about the reservoir in order to make a decision whether or not to proceed with development of the field. The value of this information must always exceed its cost which is usually that of acquiring additional seismic data as well as the drilling of appraisal wells. The key characteristics of the reservoir are identified, using computer simulation models of the reservoir, and ranked according to their impact on the type and scale of development under consideration. Some of the disciplines involved are: </li></ul><ul><li>Reservoir simulation engineer – develops simulation models that, for new fields, identify the number of wells required, the optimal completion of wells, the expected production of oil, water and gas; while for the old oil field he develops models of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes that identify opportunities to increase oil production in heavy oil deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>Seismic Interpreter - investigates seismological structures through seismic exploration by taking equipment out to various locations around the world and deploying seismometers. He decides on suitable seismic measurement and data processing techniques, interpreters and reports on collected data, uses computers for data management, quality control and communication between the office and field locations </li></ul>
3D Seismic model by Geocap programme Typical Seismic reflection plot
<ul><li>Development Stage of life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>The initial phase of field development planning could involve the assessment of more than one development option and might include such disciplines from the Exploration and Appraisal stages as Geoscientist, Reservoir Engineer and Seismic Interpreter. </li></ul><ul><li>The later phases of the Development stage are targeted at developing facilities and infrastructure as well as operation and maintenance. These are the phases that involve the Multi-discipline technical positions. Examples of the technical disciplines within these phases are: </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-discipline Maintenance Engineer performs Maintenance analysis of platform equipment and systems, analysis of maintenance work content and development of work order documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Subsea Engineers are involved in any structural engineering taking place beneath the surface of the sea. They design, build and install mechanical systems used under the ocean, such as underwater pipelines and pumps, subsea wellheads and offshore drilling rigs. They may also be involved in underwater data collection, which entails using imaging technology or remotely operated vehicles to gather information, such as computer-aided design (CAD) systems </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Manager - Direct supervision of Operation, Repair and Maintenance with diverse product lines as Tubular, Liner Hangers, Artificial Lift, Completions, Fishing, Drilling Tools and Wireline </li></ul>
<ul><li>Production Stage of life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Production Stage is targeted at bringing the oil and gas to the surface and preparing them for transportation to refinery or processing plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Key disciplines typical for this stage are: </li></ul><ul><li>Production Technologist - is concerned with inflow into the well, with flow up the production tubing and with the interface with surface processing plant and any resulting production constraints. </li></ul><ul><li>Process Engineer - work is concerned with chemical and biochemical processes in which raw materials undergo change, and involves scaling up processes from the laboratory into the processing plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Engineer uses engineering principles to provide efficient solutions to the development of processes and products, ranging from small component designs to extremely large plant, machinery or vehicles. They can work on all stages of a product, from research and development to design and manufacture, through to installation and final commissioning </li></ul><ul><li>Rotating Equipment Specialists e nsures rotating machinery is operated and maintained in a manner that optimizes lifespan, efficiency and operating costs </li></ul>
<ul><li>Decommissioning/Abandonment stage </li></ul><ul><li>Decommissioning is the process by which options for the physical removal and disposal of structures at the end of their working life are assessed. In the UK, there are approximately 470 offshore oil and gas installations. Decommissioning industry has a lucrative opportunities not only for new market entrants but also for contractors who can transfer their skills from various existing businesses in oil and gas industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Key disciplines of this stage are within the following activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering design </li></ul><ul><li>Clean-up and facilities preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Drilling and sub-sea </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy-lift and transportation by barge </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal and refurbishment </li></ul>
Decommissioning process The Maureen installation as it is towed to shore and dismantled
<ul><li>Some of the disciplines in the industry arose as a result of offshore activity. These include: </li></ul><ul><li>Subsea Pipeline Engineer Develops field architecture, flowline configurations and designs for subsea development studies; Supports Preparedness Response Strategies and strategies for pipelines and jumpers within the operating subsea facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Offshore Design Engineer Performs structural engineering analyses and design for riser systems and topsides structural modules in major projects development from the conceptual detail engineering and the construction stage. Undertake front-end engineering studies, as required, to identify and develop performance improvement changes </li></ul>
Offshore design engineer work might also include development of interiors for offshore platforms Interiors of Statfjord B platform, Statoil