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Keynote speech on Knowledge Management - Mr Chris Cooper
23/04/20131Conference on Innovation in Tourism and Hospitality16‐19 April 2013Valencia ‐ Benidormcit2013.florida.esProf Chris CooperProfessor Chris Cooper is currently Pro‐Vice Chancellor and Dean of the Business Faculty at Oxford Brookes University, UKProfessor Cooper is the co‐editor of Current Issues in Tourism and is a member of the editorial board for leading tourism, hospitality and leisure journals. He has authored a number of leading textbooks in tourism and is the co‐series editor of Channelview’s influential book series ‘Aspects of Tourism’ and series editor of Goodfellow Publisher’s Contemporary Tourism Reviews.“Knowledge Management”How do Destinations Learn?Chris CooperOxford Brookes University UK
23/04/20132Today• Organizational adaptation and learning• Tourism and climate change• A Jersey case study• A small entertainmentManaging Destination Knowledge• Generation and exchange of knowledge• Critical for destination competitiveness• Sector slow to adopt these ideas
23/04/20133So the Question• How can tourism organizations learn about, and adapt their operations to deal with climate change?Managing Destination Knowledge• Vital for a competitive destination• Three approaches:– Knowledge creating organizations– Organizational learning– Adaptive capacity
23/04/20134Type of Organization will Determine Effectiveness• Open to innovation• Task oriented• Bureaucratic• ConfrontationalOrganizational Adaptation• A process to enhance performance• Key to success in a changing environment• Organization has a better fit for for the new environment
23/04/20135BUT• Organizational adaptation theory assumes a known end state• Yet climate change knowledge still evolving• …especially in tourism!• A fluid environmental condition• And to compound the problem…Gidden’s ParadoxThe dangers faced by global warming are not tangible, immediate or visible in day to life.Therefore many sit on their hands and do nothing
23/04/20136Demands ‘Robust Transformation’• About ‘routines’• Routines are repositories of learning• Organizational learning is about making and updating these routines• These routines are– Primary form of knowledge; and– Organizational not individualTo Deliver Learning Organizations• Competitive advantage • Adapt more quickly• Learning is important to survive change
23/04/20137So to summarise• Giddens plus a fluid environmental state equals the need for adaptive learning as a logical responseClimate Change and Tourism• Tourism is a climate dependent industry• Climate change therefore a significant issue• DMOs prepare by enhancing adaptive capability to face a new fluid environmental condition
23/04/20138DMO Response• Translate the threat to opportunity• Restructure tourism products• Use influencing role to change sector behavior• Use promotional role to change visitor behavior Success Depends Upon:• Timely recognition of the need to adapt• The incentive to adapt• Having in place organizational learning and adaptive strategies
23/04/20139Case Study: the States of Jersey• Investigate the nature of climate change knowledge in the shaping of the DMO’s strategy and organizational change• How did the DMO learn about climate change and adapt• Structured interviews with the DMO and other public agenciesJersey• Island Micro‐state in the Channel Islands• Most southerly of the British Isles• Climate important• Long tourism pedigree• Challenges for tourism:– Structural changes in the market– Competition from the finance sector
23/04/201310Findings• Changing industry practice• Changing product portfolio• Climate not really their responsibility – the Gidden’s paradox• Awareness of climate change at a very general levelWhy Is This?• Constitutional Status– No direct international relations– Less exposed to international conventions– Absence of tangible global connections• Political System– Assembly– No party political system– Members all independents– Inward and parochial
23/04/201311Implications• No climate change policy• No carbon reduction target• Leadership vacuum• Weak political memory• Tourism the poor cousin in the economy• Private sector not involvedImplications• No climate change policy• No carbon reduction target• Leadership vacuum• Weak political memory• Tourism the poor cousin in the economy• Private sector not involved
23/04/201312So to Return to Success Factors • Timely recognition of the need to adapt• The incentive to adapt• Having in place organizational learning and adaptive strategies • And a now a short entertainment to demonstrate the power of learning ‐ and what happens if it fails…