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Fallen Leaf LakeLocated in South Lake Tahoe, Ca- Fallen Leaf Lake is located approximately 1.5 miles from Lake Tahoe on the plain of LakeValley. This lake was formed by two glaciers that traveled from Glen AlpineValley in thedirection of Lake Tahoe. As the glaciers descended onto the ﬂat plain of LakeValley, they created the lake basin where Fallen Leaf Lake is today (James, n.d, para. 1).- If the glaciers that formed Fallen Leaf Lake had continued traveling towards Lake Tahoe rather than stopping where they did, Fallen Leaf Lake would have been a bay, much likeEmerald Bay is (Fallen Leaf Lake,n.d, para. 1).- Glen Alpine Creek ﬂows into Fallen Leaf Lake. Water then ﬂows out to Lake Tahoe via Taylor Creek.- Tallac Mountain borders the western side of the lake.Glen Alpine ValleyLake Tahoe to the NETallac MountainFriday, June 21, 13
Rocks Types NearFallen Leaf Lake:Friday, June 21, 13
IGNEOUS - GRANITE-Very common in the Lake Tahoe area.- Granite is formed in the Earth’s crust by cooling magma. The slowly cooling magma contains a substantial amount of silica and the “slow cooling produces the large crystalsin granite” (Peck, n.d).- Igneous Granite is typically white or light grey, but its also sometimes yellowish or even pink. These rocks usually have dark specks of biotite and sometimes hornblende onthem (Peck, n.d).Friday, June 21, 13
IGNEOUS - PEGMATITE ?- This rock was especially difﬁcult to identifydue to the oxidation and weathering on itscortex.- The lower left side appears to have relativelylarge crystals, indicative of a Pegmatite (King,n.d, para. 1).- Considered an “extreme igneous rock”,pegmatites “form during the ﬁnal stage ofmagma’s crystallization” (King, n.d, para 1)- They are considered “extreme” due to theirlarger than average crystals. Also, pegmatitessometimes contain more rare minerals thanmost other rocks (King, n.d, para 1)- Pegmatites tend to have a similar compositionto granite, consisting of quartz, feldspar, and mica(King, n.d, para 3)- Frequently referred to as “granite pegmatites”because of its similarities to granite (King, n.d,para 3).Friday, June 21, 13
Plant life nearFallen Leaf Lake:Friday, June 21, 13
Quaking Aspen(Populus Tremuloides)- Named and described by Michauxin 1803 (Harper, Shane, Jones, n.d, p.1).- Trees with a likeness to theQuaking Aspen have been aroundsince the middle Miocene time(nearly 15 million years ago) (Harper,et al., n.d, p. 1).- Researchers speculate that themodern Quaking Aspen was “stronglyinﬂuenced by episodes ofhybridization during the lateCenozoic era” between P.Tremuloides and P. Grandidentata(Harper, et al., n.d, p. 1).- The Quaking Aspen can be found allover North America and its easilyrecognized by it’s white bark andseasonal color change.- Closely related to the EurasianAspen (Populus Tremula)- Quaking Aspens can be found atany elevation in the north-centralpart of North America, whereas, theycan only be found in higher elevationsin the southern parts of the US andMexico (Grant, Mitton, 2010, para. 2).- The white bark is living tissue thatcarries out photosynthesis -something that sets it apart fromother North American trees (Grant,Mitton, 2010, para. 3).- Aspens lose their leaves in thewinter.- Aspen groves have interconnected root systems that allow for geneticallyidentical clones to grow nearby. This shared root system is the reason thatAspens are generally growing in large patches and not just by themselves(Grant, Mitton, 2010, para. 4).Friday, June 21, 13
Snow Plant(Sarcodes Sanguinea)- Snow Plant is thought to be closely associated with “at least three distantly related groups offungi” (Bruns, Bidartondo,Taylor, 2002)- The snow plant, also known as Monotropoideae, is part of the Ericaceae family (Bidartondo, 2005, p. 8).- The Snow Plant is the only member of the Ericaceae family that is non-photosynthetic (with the possibleexception of a few Pyroloideae) (Bidartondo, 2005, p. 8).- ”All nonphotosynthetic plants with monotropoid mycorrhizas” (like the Snow Plant) “evolved fromphotosynthetic plants that formed mycorrhizas where otherwise ectomycorrhizal fungi actually penetratedepidermal root cells” (Bidartondo, 2005, p. 5).- Snow Plant is a parasitic plant that gets its nutrients via fungi that attaches to the roots of trees(Sarcodes, n.d, para.1).- Snow Plant is native to western North America and it generally grows in the early spring or summershortly after the snow has mostly melted away (Sarcodes, n.d, para. 3).Friday, June 21, 13
Pale Swallowtail Butterﬂy(Papilio Eurymedon)- The earliest recorded butterﬂyfossils are from the mid Eoceneepoch (between 40-50 millionyears ago (Butterﬂy, n.d, para. 1).- Because butterﬂies andcaterpillars feed on ﬂoweringplants,“their development isclosely linked to the evolution ofﬂowering plants” (Butterﬂy, n.d,para. 1).- Some researchers theorizethat butterﬂies originatedsometime during the Cretaceousperiod (Butterﬂy, n.d, para. 6).- Pale Swallowtails are part ofthe Papilionidae family,descendants of the Papilionoideafamily (Butterﬂy, n.d, para. 3).- The Pale Swallowtail is acommonly found butterﬂy in alarge portion of the westernUnited States (Papilio, n.d, para.1).- Pale Swallowtails are generallyfound living in open woodlandareas near bodies of water(Papilio, n.d, para. 1).Friday, June 21, 13
REFERENCESBidartondo, M. I. (2005).The evolutionary ecology of myco-heterotrophy. New Phytologist, 167(2), 335-352.Bruns,T. D., Bidartondo, M. I., & Taylor, D. L. (2002). Host speciﬁcity in ectomycorrhizal communities: what do the exceptions tell us?. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 42(2),352-359.Butterﬂy Evolution. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterﬂy_evolutionFallen Leaf Lake (California). (2013, June 2). In Wikipedia . Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallen_Leaf_Lake_(California)Grant, M., & Mitton, J. (2010). Case Study:The Glorious, Golden, and Gigantic Quaking Aspen. In The Nature Education. Retrieved June 20, 2013, fromhttp://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/case-study-the-glorious-golden-and-gigantic-13261308Harper, K.T., Shane, J. D., & Jones, J. R. (n.d.).Taxonomy. In US Forest Service. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_rm/rm_gtr119/rm_gtr119_007_008.pdfJames, G.W. (n.d.).The Lake of the Sky - Lake Tahoe. In Exploration.net. Retrieved June 20, 2013, fromhttp://explorion.net/lake-sky-lake-tahoe/chapter-viii-glacial-history-lake-tahoe?page=4King, H. (n.d.). Pegmatite. In News and Information About Geology and Earth Science. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://geology.com/rocks/pegmatite.shtmlPapilio eurymedon. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papilio_eurymedonPeck, D. (n.d.). In The Rock Identiﬁcation Key. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://www.rockhounds.com/rockshop/rockkey/Sarcodes. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarcodes*All photos were taken by Author*Friday, June 21, 13