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How Narrative is being Media Social?

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How Narrative is being Media Social?

  1. 1. How Narrative is being Media Social? Keynote at SOMUS 2014 Frank Nack (nack@uva.nl) Alex GS : http://www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/display/18784785
  2. 2. In Memoriam Kevin Brooks 1958 - 2014 Storyteller Researcher Dreamer Adventurer
  3. 3. http://www.fotocommunity.de/pc/pc/display/21200083 The space we operate in
  4. 4. A social media story http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zr_-55kiDLM Storytelling about Social Media
  5. 5. A social media story http://www.mandelastory.com/ Storytelling with Social Media
  6. 6. A social media story Aurelie Dupont and Herve Moreau in Sasha Waltz's Romeo and Juliet. © Laurent Philippe. http://dancetabs.com/2012/05/paris-opera-ballet-romeo-and-juliet-paris/ What is a story?
  7. 7. What is a story? Aurelie Dupont and Herve Moreau in Sasha Waltz's Romeo and Juliet. © Laurent Philippe. http://dancetabs.com/2012/05/paris-opera-ballet-romeo-and-juliet-paris/ What is story-worthy? What is the conflict? Get me to care Allow it to be self-reflective
  8. 8. Aurelie Dupont and Herve Moreau in Sasha Waltz's Romeo and Juliet. © Laurent Philippe. http://dancetabs.com/2012/05/paris-opera-ballet-romeo-and-juliet-paris/ What drives a story? Human motivation Pity Fear Catharsis Aristotle Suffering Struggle Overcoming Schiller Aristotle (1968). Poetics, Introduction, Commentary and Appendixes by D.W. Lucas. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lesley Sharpe (1991) . Friedrich Schiller – Drama, Thought and Politics. Cambridge University Press
  9. 9. Aurelie Dupont and Herve Moreau in Sasha Waltz's Romeo and Juliet. © Laurent Philippe. http://dancetabs.com/2012/05/paris-opera-ballet-romeo-and-juliet-paris/ What drives a story? Structure Matter Subjects => Tragedy vs Comedy Method Aristotle Fabula the raw material of a story Syuzhet the way a story is organized Russian Formalists Aristotle (1968). Poetics, Introduction, Commentary and Appendixes by D.W. Lucas. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Propp, V. W. (1968). Morphology of the Folktale. University of Texas Press.
  10. 10. Aurelie Dupont and Herve Moreau in Sasha Waltz's Romeo and Juliet. © Laurent Philippe. http://dancetabs.com/2012/05/paris-opera-ballet-romeo-and-juliet-paris/ Storytelling Telling a story is a subjective task BUT so is the perception of a story. Matching the expectation of the author with the experience of the perceiver is the challenge.
  11. 11. Tudor’s model of communication (p. 31) Tudor, A. (1974). Image And Influence. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. Storytelling
  12. 12. Chatman’s model for narrative structure (p. 26) Chatman, S. (1978). Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film. Cornell University Press Story content and structure
  13. 13. Story content and structure Theme The central topic the narrative treats General human emotions love, grief, lust, guilt Conflict society vs. individual human vs. technology Motif Any recurring element that has symbolic significance in a story Light, poison, etc. Genre a loose set of criteria for a category of composition Epic, tragedy, comedy, novel, short story, drama, documentary, etc. Hardgood, C. (2011) Semiotic Term Expansion as the Basis for Thematic Models in Narrative Systems. PhD thesis – University of Southampton, UK.
  14. 14. Narration – Character development Vogler, C. (1998) The Writer’s journey. 2nd edition. Michael Wiese Productions. http://www.thewritersjourney.com/hero%27s_journey.htm Base on the Monomyth cycle in Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949. Also: http://www.dramatica.com/theory Wardrip-Fruin, N. and Harrigan, P. (2004). First Person – New Media as Story, Performance, and Game, MIT Press McCloud, S. (1993). Understanding Comics – The Invisible Art. Harper Perennial Schell, J. (2008). The Art of Game Design, Elsevier
  15. 15. Storytelling Context Freytag’s model for drama structure G. Freytag. Technique of the Drama. S.C. Griggs and Company, Chicago, sixth edition, 1895. Translated by Elias J. MacEwan
  16. 16. http://www.augensound.de/bild65383-landschafts-_naturfotografie-_pusteblume_ What we know
  17. 17. http://www.augensound.de/bild65383-landschafts-_naturfotografie-_pusteblume_ Events
  18. 18. Event presentations Frame Minsky, M. L. (1988). The Society of mind. London: Picador. Scripts, Plans, Goals Schank, R. C., & Abelson, R. (1977). Scripts, Plans, Goals And Understanding. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. Conceptual Graphs Sowa, J. F. (1984). Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Case-based Reasoning Riesbeck, Christopher, and Roger Schank. Inside Case-based Reasoning. Northvale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1989. Janet Kolodner. Case-Based Reasoning, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1993.
  19. 19. Event - Eventory X. Wang, S. Mamadgi, A. Thekdi, A. Kelliher, and H. Sundaram. Eventory – an event based media repository. In Semantic Computing. IEEE, 2007 An Event Based Media Repository with event description in MySQL
  20. 20. Event - LODE Raphaël Troncy, Bartosz Malocha and André Fialho. Linking Events with Media. In the Open Track of the Linked Data Triplification Challenge, colocated with the 6th International Conference on Semantic Systems (I-SEMANTICS'10), Graz, Austria, September 1-3, 2010
  21. 21. Event – Model E U. Westermann and R. Jain. Toward a common event model for multimedia applications. IEEE MultiMedia, 14(1), 2007.
  22. 22. Event – Model F - A A. Scherp, C. Saathoff, T. Franz, and S. Staab: A Core Ontology on Events for the Se-mantic Representation of Human Experiences in the Real World, Multimedia Tools and Applications, Multimedia Tools and Applications, Springer, 2011. Based on DOLCE + DUL • Participation of objects • Temporal duration • Spatial extension of objects • Structural relationships • mereological • causal • correlation • Documentary support • Interpretation
  23. 23. BBC – News Storyline Ontology http://www.bbc.co.uk/ontologies/storyline/2013-05-01.html
  24. 24. http://www.augensound.de/bild65383-landschafts-_naturfotografie-_pusteblume_ Interactive Storytelling
  25. 25. Interactive Storytelling 25 Michael Joyce (1990) : Afternoon – The story G. P. Landow (1994). The Rhetoric of Hypermedia: Some Rules for Authors. E. J. Aarseth, (1997) Cybertext: perspectives on ergodic literature M. Bernstein. (1998). Patterns of Hypertext Walker, J. (1999). Piercing together and tearing apart: finding the story in afternoon Sawhney, N., Balcom, D., and Smith, I. (1996). HyperCafe: narrative and aesthetic properties of hypervideo. Mateas, M., Vanouse P. and Domike, S. (2000) Generation of Ideologically-Biased Historical Documentaries. Richard, B., Prié, Y., and Calabretto, S. (2008) Towards a unified model for audiovisual active reading, Propp, V. W. (1968). Morphology of the Folktale. University of Texas Press. Rumelhart, D. E. (1977). Understanding and summarizing brief stories. Andersen, S., & Slator, B. M. (1990). Requiem for a theory: the 'story grammar' story. Szilas N. (2003). IDtension: A narrative engine for Interactive Drama,
  26. 26. Interactive Storytelling Davenport, G. and Murtaugh, M. (1995). ConText an associative media browser E. F. Churchill, L. Nelson, L. Denoue, P. Murphy, and J. I. Helfman THE PLASMA POSTER NETWORK Social Hypermedia on Public Display. In Public and Situated Displays. Social and Interactional Aspects of Shared Display Technologies. K. O’Hara, M.Perry, E. Churchill and D. Russell (Eds) London: Kluwer Academic Publishers, December 31, 2003 Williams, D., et al (2007) Experiments with the Production of ShapeShifting Media: Summary Findings from the Project NM2 (New Millennium, New Media) Bocconi, S., Nack, F., and Hardman, L. (2008). Automatic generation of matter- of-opinion video documentaries Hansen, F. A., Kortbek, K. J. & Grønbæk, K. (2008). Mobile Urban Drama – Setting the Stage with Location Based Technologies. Interactive Storytelling Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 5334, 2008, pp 20-31 Lund, K. J., Coulton, P. & Wilson, A. (2011). Free All Monsters!: a context- aware location based game. MobileHCI '11 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services. New York: ACM, p. 675-678 Nack, F., El Ali, A., van Kemenade, P., Overgoor, J., and van der Weij, B. (2010) A Story to Go, Please. The 3rd International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling (ICIDS), November 1st – 3rd 2010, Edinburgh UK Zombies Run (2012) https://www.zombiesrungame.com/ Brooks KM (1999). Metalinear Cinematic Narrative: Theory, Process, and Tool MIT Ph.D. Thesis. Mateas, M., Stern, A. (2005). Structuring content in the facade interactive drama architecture Aylett, R. and Louchart, S. (2007). Being There: Participants and Spectators in Interactive Narrative Charles, F. et al (2007). "Affective Interactive Narrative in the CALLAS Project,”
  27. 27. http://www.augensound.de/bild65383-landschafts-_naturfotografie-_pusteblume_ Social Media IR
  28. 28. http://www.integratedbrands.org/news/big-data-gives-brands-big-advantage Social Media based IR Borgatti, S.P., and Foster, P.C. "The network paradigm in organizational research: A review and typology," Journal of Management (29:6) 2003, pp 991-1013. Carpenter, T., Karakostas, G., and Shallcross, D. (2002) "Practical Issues and Algorithms for Analyzing Terrorist Networks," WMC 2002. Raghu Ramakrishnan, Andrew Tomkins, "Toward a PeopleWeb," Computer, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 63-72, Aug. 2007 Boyd, D.M. "Friendster and publicly articulated social networks," ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems ACM Press, Vienna, 2004, pp. 1279-1282. Eifrem, E. (2009) Neo4j -- The Benefits of Graph Databases, presentation given at OSCON 2009 http://www.slideshare.net/emileifrem/neo4j-the-benefits-of-graph- databases-oscon-2009 Xin Lu, Changhu Wang, Jiang-Ming Yang, Yanwei Pang, and Lei Zhang (2010). Photo2Trip: generating travel routes from geo- tagged photos for trip planning. In Proceedings of the international conference on Multimedia (MM '10). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 143-152. Shamma, D. A., Kennedy, L. and Churchill, E. F. (2010). Conversational Shadows: Describing Live Media Events Using Short Messages. In 4nd International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM'10), Washington, USA, 2010. Xueliang, Liu, X., Troncy, R. and Huet, B (2011). Finding Media Illustrating Events. In 1st ACM International Conference on Multimedia Retrieval (ICMR'11), Trento, Italy, April 17-20, 2011
  29. 29. http://www.integratedbrands.org/news/big-data-gives-brands-big-advantage Social Media based IR Yew, J., Shamma, D. A., Churchill, E.F. (2011). Knowing Funny: Genre Perception and Categorization in Social Video Sharing. CHI 2011, Vancouver, Canada Lochrie, M. & Coulton, P. (2012). Creating a playful experience to encourage participation in the meta-narrative of conference discussions. MindTrek '12 Proceeding of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference. New York: ACM, p. 263-266 Ramzan, N., Zwol, R., Lee, J.-S., Clüver, K., Hua, X.-S. (Eds.) (2013). Social Media Retrieval. Springer Series: Computer Communications and Networks, 484 p., Springer •  Fundamentals of social media retrieval •  Encoding, compression and network architectures for the exchange of social media information •  Multimedia tagging in social environments •  Personalization and privacy •  Applications (social aware TV, sharing media in academic and social networks)
  30. 30. http://www.augensound.de/bild65383-landschafts-_naturfotografie-_pusteblume_ Examples
  31. 31. Associated story Yuill, N.; Joscelyne, T. (1988). Effect of organizational cues and strategies on good and poor comprehenders' story understanding.. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol 80(2), Jun 1988, 152-158. Iyer, H. and Lewis, C. D. (2007), Prioritization strategies for video storyboard keyframes. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58: 629–644. doi: 10.1002/asi.2055 Nack, F., El Ali, A., van Kemenade, P., Overgoor, J., and van der Weij, B. (2010) A Story to Go, Please. The 3rd International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling (ICIDS), November 1st – 3rd 2010, Edinburgh UK
  32. 32. Story Stream Vriesede, T. and Nack, F. (2011). StoryStream: Unrestricted Mobile Exploration Of City Neighborhoods Enriched by the Oral Presentation of User-Generated Stories. The 4th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling (ICIDS), November 29th – December 1st 2011, Vancouver, Canada
  33. 33. What is the story? 1.Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali resigns as president of Tunisia. 2.Hosni Mubarak: That will not happen to me! 3.people wants Mubarak to resign. 4.1000 of people start demonstrating on the Tahrir Square in Egypt. 5.Hosni Mubarak: Let them demonstrate, it is their right. 6.10000 of people start demonstrating on the Tahrir Square in Egypt. 7.Hosni Mubarak: They will not get away with this! 8.Hosni Mubarak sends out the army. 9.Hosni Mubarak: That will teach them! 10.100000 of people start demonstrating on the Tahrir Square in Egypt. 11. Hosni Mubarak: Maybe I should listen to the people?! 12. Hosni Mubarak: Let me introduce you to a close friend! 13.Omar Suleiman named vice-president of Egypt. 14.Hosni Mubarak resigns as president of Egypt. 15.10000 of people are celebrating Egypt in Tahrir Square. 16.Hosni Mubarak: Haha, stupid people! 17.Converstation between Hosni Mubarak and Omar Suleiman 18.Hosni Mubarak: Punish the people! Let them know who is in charge. Frank Smit: What is the story? Transforming News Events into Narratives, BSc AI Thesis, UvA 2011
  34. 34. http://www.kunstnet.de/werk/205194 Where to go?
  35. 35. Think Story
  36. 36. Work Interdisciplinary
  37. 37. http://everydayaperture.com/2010/09/10/the-miracles-of-everyday-chemistry/ http://thecreatorsproject.vice.com/blog/a-mini-mechanical-metropolis-runs-on-real-time-urban-data http://theoxenofthesun.blogspot.nl/2012_01_01_archive.html • Detect story worthiness • Who tells and who listens • Traversal and change • The story cogprint • User and story modeling • Authoring The problems
  38. 38. Build a community
  39. 39. http://www.mymodernmet.com/profiles/blogs/popculture-referencing

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