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American High Education

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American High Education

  1. 1. The Current State of University Education in America:Where Should Japanese Universities Go from Here? Yuka Tachibana, Phd Center for the Advancement of Higher Education Tohoku University
  2. 2. Topics: The American University System 1. Overview 2. Global Influence 3. Student Perspective 4. Use of Technology 5. Summary: Considerations for Japan
  3. 3. Overview
  4. 4. University is an institution of higher education andresearch which grants academic degrees. derived from the Latin word meaning “community of teachers and scholars.”
  5. 5. Purpose 1. Develop the highest degree of creative thought. 2. Contribute to society by solving real world problems.
  6. 6. Academic Freedom Freedom to teach or communicate ideas or facts without fear.
  7. 7. Creative Thought Creative thoughtleads to innovation. Innovation solves real world problems.
  8. 8. Noble Prizes Creative Thought + + = 177
  9. 9. Noble Prizes Creative Thought + + = 146
  10. 10. University State University System “In State” is a group of public universities supported by an individual state.The majority of public universities are state funded. Each state has at least one.
  11. 11. University Out-Of-State Public Universitiesare universities located and funded in astate other than your own. The tuition is higher for students attending schools out-of-state.
  12. 12. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Established 1789 - Oldest Public University in America
  13. 13. The University of California, Berkeley Top ranked public university in America. Noble Prizes: 47
  14. 14. University Private Universitiesin the U.S. operate as educational and research nonprofit organizations.
  15. 15. Harvard University Top ranked private university in America. Noble Prizes: 46
  16. 16. University Liberal Arts Degree Students major in a particular disciplinewhile exposed to a wide range of academicsubjects including science and humanities.
  17. 17. University Liberal Arts DegreeDevelops knowledge about subjects thatare considered essential for a free person to know in order to take an active part in civic life and public debate. Usually take 4 years to complete.
  18. 18. Technical Degrees:Very career oriented, with practical hands-on training particular to aspecific field of study. Usually take two years to complete.
  19. 19. Top 5 Technical Degrees:1. Computer Specialist2. Dental Hygienist3. Fashion Designer4. Registered Nurse5. Environmental Engineering Technician
  20. 20. Academic Degrees: Specialized trades such as chef,Certificate 3 ~ 24 months message therapist or welder. Vocational or technical fields.Associate 2 years AA = Associate of Arts AS = Associate of Science AFA = Associate of Fine Arts Require general studies classes.Bachelors 4 years BA = Bachelor of Arts BS = Bachelor of Science BFA = Bachelor of Fine Arts Master an area of study. Masters 2 years MBA = Master of Business Administration MS = Master of Science MED = Master of Education Qualifies holder to teach at the collegeDoctoral 3 ~ 5 years level. Doctorate is latin for “to teach.” Ph.D. = Doctor of Philosophy
  21. 21. 1 Business Administration2 Psychology3 Nursing4 Biology5 Education Top 10 College Majors6 English7 Economics8 Communications Studies9 Political Science10 Computer Science
  22. 22. High School 88% Some College 57%Associate and/or Bachelors 40% Bachelors 30% Masters 8% Doctoral 3%
  23. 23. 20 Million Students 4,500 Institutions
  24. 24. Universitas 21 rankedthe United States as having the best higher education system in the world in 2012.
  25. 25. More than 30 of thehighest-ranking 45 institutions are inthe United States.
  26. 26. MIT ranked top in the world.
  27. 27. MIT Vision Statement:To use technology and knowledge to improve the human condition. MIT Alumni Companies 25,800+ Worldwide Yearly Sales $2 trillion+ About the GDP of: Brazil or Italy
  28. 28. Global Influence
  29. 29. International Students atAmerican Colleges and Universities 723,277
  30. 30. 32%2000 - 2010
  31. 31. 280%2000/01 = 56,0002010/11 = 158,000
  32. 32. Rank Country Number % of Total 1 China 158,000 22% 2 India 104,000 15% 3 South Korea 74,000 10% 4 Canada 28,000 4% 5 Taiwan 25,000 4% 6 Saudi Arabia 23,000 3% 7 Japan 21,000 3% 8 Vietnam 15,000 2% 9 Mexico 14,000 2% 10 Turkey 12,000 1%
  33. 33. Top 5 Majors for International Students1 Business and Management2 Engineering3 Math and Computer Science4 Physical and Life Sciences5 Social Sciences
  34. 34. Largest Number of International Students The University of Southern California, Los Angeles 8,600
  35. 35. 317 world leadersform 115 countries were educated in the USA. Presidents 46Prime Ministers 29 Ambassadors 30
  36. 36. This is a form of “soft power” that helps improve Americaʼs relationship withcountries throughout the world.
  37. 37. American Students Abroad 270,604
  38. 38. American Students Abroad33,000 28,000 25,000 17,000 13,000 6,000 UK Italy Spain France China Japan
  39. 39. Goucher College All students are required to study abroad. Baltimore, Maryland
  40. 40. Student Perspective
  41. 41. University Selection Process ?Five Factors to Consider 1. Qualifications for Admission 2. Academic Opportunities 3. Location and Setting 4. Campus Life 5. Cost and Funding Available
  42. 42. University Selection Process1. Qualifications for Admission High School GPA SAT and ACT scores Extracurricular Activities ?
  43. 43. University Selection Process2. Academic Opportunities Students must consider: Academic majors The student to faculty ratio Opportunities to do research Honors and scholars programs Study abroad programs Internships for academic credit ?
  44. 44. University Selection Process3.Location and Setting Students must consider:Urban or rural areaClimate and weatherCampus sizeCenter of excellence in your field ?
  45. 45. City University of New York 540,000 Largest number of Students
  46. 46. University Selection Process 4. Campus Life Students must consider:Academically rigorousExtracurricular activitiesDining servicesDormitoriesSportsClubsCommunity service activities ?
  47. 47. University Selection Process5. Cost and Funding Students must consider: Public universities Cost of living Financial aid Scholarships Work opportunities ?
  48. 48. Friends and Relatives 7% Grants and Scholarships 9% 23% Student Income and SavingHow the averageAmerican Family StudentPays for College Parent Income Borrowing 14% and Savings 37% Parent Borrowing 10%
  49. 49. $ $32,026 2011Average full timetuition, room and board: $21,373 2001
  50. 50. $ 80% Receive financial aid.Full TimeStudents: 23% Work 20 or more hours per week.
  51. 51. Requirements Highly Selective Open Enrollment Want the best students Everyone welcome Require excellent high school Average state school GPA of 3.7+ with Hard Classes requires a 2.5 GPA Require high SAT or ACT scores Average state schoolStanford University requires a 2040 - 2330 SAT or a 30 - 34 ACT SAT 1540 or ACT 22 Require letters of recommendation Not required Require an essay Not required Demonstrated Leadership Ability Not required Demonstrated Achievement Not required other than academic Demonstrated Passion to Not required Change the World
  52. 52. “Creative thinking involves two components:courage and critical thinking.”-Marvin Minsky, co-founder of the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at MIT
  53. 53. Critical Thinking: is the process of improving our ability to judge well. It provides a way for us tolearn from new experiences and to form sound beliefs and judgements.
  54. 54. American Universities Encourage the Development of Critical Thinkers who can:1. judge the credibility of sources2. ask clarifying questions3. judge an argument4. develop a reasonable position regarding a belief or an action5. formulate plausible hypotheses6. plan and conduct experiments well7. draw conclusions with caution
  55. 55. Strategies American universitiesuse to development critical thinking skills include encouraging class discussion and developing both verbal and written communication skills.
  56. 56. Strategies to Develop Critical ThinkingClass Discussion1. Urge students to be reflective, to stop and think, instead of making snap judgments, or accepting the first idea that comes into their heads, or automatically accepting whatever is presented in the media. 2. Gently ask such questions as “How do you know”, "What are thereasons?" and “Is that a good source of information?” thus prodding them to have good reasons for their views and to seek reasons for others views. 3. Emphasize alertness for alternative hypotheses, conclusions, explanations, sources of evidence, points of view, plans, etc.
  57. 57. Strategies to Develop Critical ThinkingGroup Activities Group activities are frequently required in university classes. Theseactivities include scientific experiments, business simulations, presentations and group essays and reports.
  58. 58. Strategies to Develop Critical ThinkingPublic Speaking Public speaking is a required class for most majors. In addition to public speaking many classes require students make presentations during class.Presenting information in class requires a higher level of understanding. This process develops critical thinking. In addition, fellow classmates are often required to ask questions and provide feedback.
  59. 59. Strategies to Develop Critical ThinkingWriting Skills The development of competent writing skills is also required at Americanuniversities. A common freshman writing class is Composition 101. This class is often required during a studentʼs first college term. Students are often required to retake this class if they get a C grade or lower. Most college classes require written reports and essays. Students receivelower grades if their essays are not well written. Most colleges have tutors at Writing Centers to provide students with extra help with their writing assignments.
  60. 60. Strategies to Develop Career SkillsInternational CitizensTo meet the needs of our increasingly global job market American universities strongly encourage students to become international citizens. This is encouraged in several ways. To begin with most colleges require students to study a foreign language for a least one year. Also, the number of students studying abroad continues to increase.Many universities have strategic plans that including increasing the number of faculty and students that teach and study abroad as well as increasing the number of international students that attend.
  61. 61. Strategies to Develop Career SkillsInternships Internship is a system of on-the-job training for white-collar and professional careers. The internship works as an exchange of services for experience between the student and his or her employer.Internships are a proven way to gain relevant knowledge, skills, and experiencewhile establishing important connections in the field. Internships can be part timeduring the school term or full time over the summer break. Most internships arepaid. Internships are a good way to improve studentsʼ resumes and can lead to job offers after graduation.
  62. 62. 80%Hired after graduation.
  63. 63. Strategies to Develop Career SkillsCareer ServicesAll universities have a career resources department. This department providesinformation about employment opportunities for students. These opportunities include internships and jobs after graduation.
  64. 64. Explore career options Help with resume preparationCareer Services Job search Interview preparation Alumni networking
  65. 65. Career mentoring“Ask-an-alum” Job shadowing Networking opportunities
  66. 66. Technology
  67. 67. Online Degree Is a degree earned primarily or entirely online.
  68. 68. Online Courses 31%
  69. 69. What is online learning?Proportion of content Type of course Typical Description delivered online Course with no online technology 0% Traditional used; content delivered in writing or orally. Course using Web-based technology to facilitate what is essentially a face- 1% to 29% Web facilitated to-face course; may use LMS (learning management system) Course that blends online and face-to- face delivery; large proportion of 30% to 79% Blended content delivered online; uses forums, online practices and quizzes; has fewer face-to-face meetings. Course where most or all content is 80+% Online delivered online; typically has no face- to-face meetings.
  70. 70. Learning Outcomes66%At least as good as face-to-face
  71. 71. Learning Outcomes20%Online Education is Superior
  72. 72. Blended Courses Generally get the best learning outcomes.
  73. 73. First Quarter 20121,000,000iPads sold to high schools and colleges in America
  74. 74. “Education tends to be a conservative institution,but weʼre not seeing that at all on the iPad. The adoption of the iPad in education is something Iʼve never seen in anytechnology.” -Apple CEO Tim Cook
  75. 75. Most teachers areaccustomed to a situation where the teacher is the center of the classroom and the provider ofknowledge. Now the iPad allows teachers to putmore of the responsibilityof learning into the hands of the students.
  76. 76. Six Scholarly Uses for iPad:1. Photographic-led researchThe iPad enables not only the presentation of photographs, but also their cataloging andbundling for research.2. Teaching with screen-based mediaThe iPadʼs capacity to operate as a self-standing screen for time-shifting and space-shifting media makes it ideal for small-group teaching. It is unobtrusive and mobile.3. Archived lecturesThe iPad has enhanced the usability of university video podcasts in research andteaching: when watching lectures recorded with a static camera, the platform offers anintimacy with the speaker.4.Student portfoliosThe iPad offered a way for artists and media practitioners to carry and present theirfilms, photographs, digital storytelling narratives, community media projects andsoundscapes in interviews and consultancies.5.Book readerTextbooks, books, newspapers and magazines can all be accessed on an iPad with theaddition of engaging multimedia.6. Full, portable Internet accessStudents have access to the power of the Internet. They can access online curricula vialearning management systems conveniently anytime, any place.
  77. 77. Social Media“The younger generationhas grown up with socialmedia. Itʼs like electricity, they expect it to exist.” -a University of Notre Dame student
  78. 78. Five ways American Universities use Social Media 1. Answer Questions American colleges and universities use Facebook pages and Twitter accounts to communicate with current and perspective students. Students can ask questions and get answers quickly using social media. Also perspective students can network with current students to get student information about a particular university from the students perspective. 2. School News Schools can provide current news and information about events using social media. This news is available to students, family, visitors, and friends of the university. 3. Networking Students can network with their schoolʼs alumni via social media. 4.Student surveys Social media is a great way to quickly get student feedback regarding their opinions on school decisions related to them. 5.Professors use social media in class Twitter and Facebook are used by professors to engage students by answering class related questions, discussing projects and assignments.
  79. 79. “Industrial Age” “Information Age”Broadcast Learning Interactive Learning Teacher-centered Student-centered One-size-fits-all One-size-fits-oneInstruction: Learning about Instruction: Learning to be Individualistic Learning Collaborative Learning Use of Digital Technologies
  80. 80. SummaryConsiderations for Japan
  81. 81. Powerful Characteristics:Academic Freedom - the freedom to engage in intellectual debate without fear ofcensorship or retaliation.Liberal Arts Education - provides students with broad knowledge of the widerworld. This leads to improved critical and creative thinking.Global influence - American colleges and universities welcome students fromaround the world. Educating foreign citizens creates a deeper understanding ofAmerican around the world. Also American students and faculty are encourage tostudy abroad.Critical Thinking - American colleges and universities emphasize critical thinking.There is a strong emphasis on class discussion, group activities, public speakingand writing skills.Career Skills - American colleges and universities have resources available to helpstudents prepare for and find employment.Technology Enhanced Learning - American colleges and universities deploy theuse of learning management systems, online curricula, iPads, and social media toempower students to become more involved in the learning process.
  82. 82. Considerations for Japan:Entrance Exam:Currently the entrance exam system with an emphasis on memorization is interfering with studentsʼdevelopment. Students need more time in high school to develop their written and oral Japanesecommunication skills and their English skills instead of focusing so much time on entrance exampreparation. The university admissions process in American looks at the whole student instead of a singletest score.Liberal Arts:Japanese colleges and universities often have narrowly focused majors. Exposing students to a broaderliberal arts education will help students become more creative and better informed citizens.Global Influence:Japanʼs Global 30 project is a positive step toward the internationalization of Japanʼs high education system.However, much more needs to be done to both increase the number of foreign students studying in Japanand the number of Japanese students studying abroad. South Korea with only half the population of Japansends more than three times as many students to the United States. Japanese universities only have about5% foreign teachers. This number needs to increase as well. Japan must become more globalized and lessisolationist in order to compete economically in the future.
  83. 83. Considerations for Japan:Critical Thinking:Ideally Japanese high schools improve their curricula to include a stronger emphasis on communicationskills. These skills would lead to better prepared college students. Japanese colleges and universities mustdevelop better critical thinking skills by changing to a more student-centric education model. This modelincludes more class discussion, group activities, oral and written skills development.Career Preparation:Japanese industry and universities need to collaborate and change the current system of hiring studentsprior to their final year in college. This situation creates a disincentive for students to study during theirsenior year. This is a waste of potential skill development. An American-type internship system would begood to implement in Japan. Japanese college students could do an internship during their senior year andgain valuable job skills. College credit should be awarded for internships. Finally, Japanese colleges anduniversities need more fully developed career resources departments available to better prepare studentsfor the job market.Technology:Japanese colleges and universities need to study and adopt more of the technologies American universitiesare using. These include more online course work, and the use of iPads, social media and other digitaltechnologies.
  84. 84. End.