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Content based instruction

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Content based instruction

  1. 1. ON THE ROAD TO BILINGUALISM: GETTING TOTHE CORE OF CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION Kathleen Corrales & César Maloof Universidad del Norte ELT Conference 2009, Bogotá
  2. 2. AgendaCharacteristics andChallenges of CBICBI in ActionResults of a studyon CBI
  3. 3. Characteristicsand Challenges of CBI
  4. 4. Definition of CBI“The concurrent study of languageand subject matter, with the formand sequence of languagepresentation dictated by contentmaterial…” Brinton, Snow, & Wesche (1989)
  5. 5. Features of CBI• Curriculum based on content• Language is a medium for learning content and content is a resource for mastery of language• Dual objective: content & language mastery• Authentic language, texts & tasks• Better meets students needs• Language is approached at a discourse level
  6. 6. Role of Teachers• Knowledgeable about the target content area• Knowledgeable about language • Co-teaching • Team-teaching
  7. 7. Models of CBI• Sheltered• Adjunct• Theme-based• Language-Content-Task (LCT)• Skills-based
  8. 8. Sheltered ModelDefinition Subject matter courses with an integration of languageTeachers Subject-matter teachersStudents ESL/EFL learnersSpecial •Focus on learning contentFeatures •Possible team-teaching with language professional •Used in Bilingual schools
  9. 9. Adjunct ModelDefinition Link language & content coursesTeachers Subject-matter teachersStudents Only ESL/EFL learners in language class / mixed learners in linked classSpecial •Language and study skills whileFeatures learning academic content •Balance in language & content •Coordination between teachers •Used usually in ESL university settings
  10. 10. Theme-based ModelDefinition Based on topics or themesTeachers Language teachersStudents ESL/EFL learnersSpecial •Focus on language &Features content •Easily adapt to needs of learners •Easily integrated into course •Widely used in EFL
  11. 11. LCT ModelDefinition CBI combined with task-basedTeachers Usually language teachersStudents Only ESL/EFL learnersSpecial •Students do real-worldFeatures tasks using authentic materials •Uninorte Business English
  12. 12. Skills-based ModelDefinition Integration of language skills & contentTeachers Usually language teachersStudents ESL/EFL learnersSpecial •Focus on specific languageFeatures skills (e.g., academic writing) •Integrate content, language & skills •EAP, ESP, VESL
  13. 13. Challenges of CBI• Teachers – Training in content/language and methodology – Willingness to teach CBI• Balancing language/content *• Choosing relevant topics• Finding appropriate authentic materials• Budget
  14. 14. CBI in Action:Uninorte’s Medical English Program
  15. 15. Instituto de IdiomasUniversidad del NorteMedical English Program
  16. 16. History of the program• Origin - 1999• New Program - 2006 –Levels 1-3: General English –Levels 4 & 5: Content Based Instruction (CBI)
  17. 17. Approaches• Theme-based CBI• Discourse level approach to language
  18. 18. Level 4• Syllabus: organ systems• Materials: – Textbook: Anatomy and Physiology – Supplementary material
  19. 19. Level 5• Syllabus: medical semiology• Materials: – Textbook: English in Medicine (EFL) – Supplementary material
  20. 20. Results of this CBI Program
  21. 21. Objectives• Determine effectiveness of new design on oral skills• Identify how CBI enhances language learning process
  22. 22. Method and Techniques • Paradigm: Qualitative • Design: Ethnographic • Participants: 16 medical English students, level 4 • Techniques: – Class observations • Presentations • Whole-class interaction – Learning diaries – Semi-structured interviews
  23. 23. Effects of CBI• Language gains• Gains in subject-matter knowledge• Increase in learner motivation• Improvement in students’ self-confidence• Higher self-assessment of own skills• Positive influence on attitude towards language
  24. 24. Reasons behind these effects• Motivates• Raises self-confidence / lower anxiety• Matches students’ interests and needs with interesting and meaningful content• Facilitates content-language interaction• Develops camaraderie• Activates prior knowledge• Provides language models for imitation• Uses “appropriate” methodology
  25. 25. Why would CBI be effective in Colombia?• Highly efficient both lang. & content• Helps meet the needs of the students• Students find it more ? interesting, relevant, and challenging• Teachers find it interesting to teach
  26. 26. Issues to consider• Educators must teach language in a way that is different from the method they would use for general English courses• Importance of using both listening and written authentic material in class• Theme-based = most viable
  27. 27. Is CBI a possibility for your school?How can you implement CBI into your program?
  28. 28. Contact
  29. 29. Balancing content & languageFocus on language Focus on content• Remember: this is a language class and not a content class.• Students need input in terms of language to deal with content