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  1. 1. The Global Positioning System: Policy, Program Status and International Activities 15th Korean Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Workshop Busan, Republic of Korea October 30-31, 2008 Ray E. Clore Senior Advisor for GPS-Galileo Issues Office of Space and Advanced Technology U.S. Department of State
  2. 2. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 Overview • U.S. Space -Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Policy • GPS Program Status and Modernization • GPS Augmentations Status • U.S. International Activities
  3. 3. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 3 2004 U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy • Provide GPS and augmentations free of direct user fees on a continuous, worldwide basis • Provide open, free access to information needed to develop equipment • Improve performance of GPS and augmentations to meet or exceed that of international systems • Encourage international development of PNT systems based on GPS • Seek to ensure international systems are interoperable with civil GPS and augmentations • Address mutual security concerns with international providers to prevent hostile use
  4. 4. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 4 2004 U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy • Recognizes the changing international scene – Other nations are implementing space-based systems that provide PNT services • National Executive Committee (EXCOM) for Space-Based PNT – Chaired by Deputy Secretaries of Defense and Transportation – Membership includes: State, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Homeland Security, Joint Chiefs of Staff and NASA • National Coordination Office (NCO) – Established with staff from member agencies • National Space-Based PNT Advisory Board
  5. 5. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 Overview • U.S. Space -Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Policy • GPS Program Status and Modernization • GPS Augmentations Status • U.S. International Activities
  6. 6. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 6 Current Constellation • 11 Block IIA satellites operational • 12 Block IIR satellites operational • 6 Block IIR-M satellites operational – Transmitting new second civil signal (L2C) – 2 Block IIR-M satellites remain to be launched • Continuously assessing constellation health to determine launch need – Next IIR-M launch planned for early 2009 – First IIF projected for launch mid 2009 • Global GPS civil service performance commitment met continuously since 1993 29 Operational Satellites (Nominal Constellation: 24) 29 Operational Satellites (Nominal Constellation: 24)
  7. 7. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 Current GPS Accuracy • Signal-In-Space (SIS) User Range Error (URE): 0.92 m RMS • User Position Error (maximum): 4 – 8 meters • User Position Error (observed): 2 – 4 meters Signal-in-Space User Range Error (SIS URE) the difference between a GPS satellite’s navigation data (position and clock) and the truth, projected on the line-of-sight to the user 4.6 4.3 3 2.7 1.8 1.5 1.1 1 0.92 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1990 1992 1994 1996 1997 2001 2004 2006 2007 RMSSISURE(m) 2000 ORD
  8. 8. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 8 GPS Modernization • System-wide improvements in: – Accuracy – Availability – Integrity – Reliability • Backward compatibility • Robustness against interference • Improved indoor, mobile, and urban use • Interoperability with other space-based PNT systems
  9. 9. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 9 Modernized GPS – Civil Signals • Second civil signal (“L2C”) starts with GPS Block IIR-M – Designed to meet commercial needs • Higher accuracy through ionospheric correction • Higher effective power and improved data structure reduce interference • Speed up signal acquisition and enable miniaturization of receivers – First Launch Sep 2006; expect 24 satellites: ~2016 • Third civil signal (“L5”) starts with GPS Block IIF – Designed to meet requirements for transportation safety-of-life (aviation) • Highly protected Aeronautical Radio Navigation Service (ARNS) band – First launch: ~2009; 24 satellites: ~2018 • Fourth civil signal (“L1C”) starts with GPS Block III – Designed with international partners to enable GNSS interoperability – First launch: ~2014; 24 satellites: ~2021
  10. 10. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 Recent GPS Program Accomplishments • Completed GPS Architecture Evolution Plan (AEP) – Transitioned to new GPS Ground Control Segment – Sept. 2007 – Activated fully capable backup GPS Operations Center at VAFB, CA • Announced GPS III without Selective Availability – Sept 2007 • Awarded GPS OCX Development Contracts -Nov 2007 • ICAO accepted updated U.S. offer on GPS/SPS and WAAS • Launched two GPS-IIR(M) satellites (Dec 07/Mar 08) • Awarded GPS IIIA Contract - May 2008 10
  11. 11. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 Overview • U.S. Space -Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Policy • GPS Program Status and Modernization • GPS Augmentations Status • U.S. International Activities
  12. 12. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 WAAS Architecture 38 Reference Stations 3 Master Stations 4 Ground Earth Stations 2 Geostationary Satellite Links 2 Operational Control Centers
  13. 13. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 Geostationary Satellites (GEO) Telesat 107°W PanAmSat 133°W
  14. 14. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 WAAS Avionics Status • General Aviation – Over 37,000 Units Sold – Increasing at ~1000 Units Per Month – New Products Coming to Market in Late 2008 • Business & Regional Aircraft – Over 500 Units Sold Since 2007 – Two Additional Products Coming to Market in Late 2008 – Cessna CJs Delivering with WAAS Avionics in 2009 – Acceptance Rates Should Increase Significantly in 2009 • Air Carrier & Cargo Aircraft – Southwest Airlines Equipping 200 Boeing 737s – Federal Express Has Equipped 253 Caravan Aircraft – Horizon Airlines Equipping 48 Bombardier Aircraft • Helicopter Aircraft Implementing WAAS – Significant Growth Projected for First Responders • WAAS Avionics are Interoperable with Other SBASs
  15. 15. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 WAAS Approach Procedures - Projected to Exceed Legacy Systems, eg. ILS By Sep 2008 - WAAS Procedures to be Published to All Instrument Runways in the NAS by 2018 September 2008 • 1,333 WAAS LPV Approach Procedures •783 at non-ILS runways •329 at non-ILS airports
  16. 16. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 Future WAAS Considerations • GNSS Modernization – GPS Dual Frequency (L1/L5) Service Provides Foundation – Potential for Larger GNSS or Use of Multiple GNSS Constellations – User Equipment Standards Development for New Signals • WAAS Dual Frequency Upgrade – Determine Appropriate Level of Dual Frequency Integration Required to Maximize Benefit With Minimum Impact • Established GNSS Evolutionary Architecture Study (GEAS) to Investigate Long Range Planning for Dual Frequency GPS – Develop Architectural Alternatives to Provide Worldwide LPV- 200 Service in the ~2020-2030 Timeframe – Leverage Lessons Learned on WAAS/LAAS to Identify the Best Architecture Alternative to Meet Aviation Integrity Requirements
  17. 17. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 National Differential GPS • Operated/managed by USCG/NAVCEN as a joint system with Maritime DGPS • Extension of Maritime DGPS – Corrections broadcast at 285 and 325 kHz using Minimum shift Keying (MSK) modulation – Real-time differential GPS corrections provided in Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services (RTCM) SC-104 format – No data encryption – Real-time differential corrections for terrestrial mobile and static applications – Single coverage on the ground over 92% of CONUS; double coverage over 65% of CONUS
  18. 18. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 National Differential GPS (2) • Accuracy: < 1 meter at broadcast site – Degrades at an approximate rate of 1 meter for each 150 km distance from site – Typical user equipment achieves 1-2 meter horizontal accuracies throughout the coverage area, in real time – High-end user equipment achieves accuracies better than 1 meter, real time • Availability: 99%+ • Integrity: alarm within 6 seconds; site monitors • Fix rate: 1-20 per second, three dimensional
  19. 19. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 200809/15/08 19 National Differential GPS (3)ed DGPS Coverage Today
  20. 20. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 • Surveys: Land, roads, hydrological and environmental location, and management and maintenance • Inventory and asset management: Infrastructure asset location, assessment, management, maintenance and protection • Utilities: Location, management, and maintenance • Roadside management: Precision application of pesticides, runoff minimization, avoidance of protected species, roadside features (condition and location) • Law Enforcement: Incident location and reporting, emergency response NDGPS Highway Applications
  21. 21. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 NDGPS Applications • U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requires two meter accuracy to position dredges
  22. 22. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 • NOAA’s Space Weather Prediction Center uses M/NDGPS data to map the spatial distribution of free electrons in the ionosphere, once every 15 minutes  and delays the arrival of GS The distribution of free electrons in the ionosphere affects HF radio communication and delays the arrival of GPS signals that is interpreted as position errors, which can be as large as 100 meters in extreme cases.trge as 100 meters in extreme cases NDGPS Monitoring of Space Weather
  23. 23. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 National Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) • Managed by NOAA – 1,200+ sites – 200+ public, private, academic organizations • Provides highly accurate, 3-D positioning – Centimeter-level precision – Tied to National Spatial Reference System • Uses include land management, coastal monitoring, civil engineering, boundary determination, mapping, geographical information systems, geophysical and infrastructure monitoring, and future improvements to weather prediction and climate monitoring
  24. 24. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 Overview • U.S. Space -Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) Policy • GPS Program Status and Modernization • GPS Augmentations Status • U.S. International Activities
  25. 25. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 25 2004 U.S. Space-Based PNT Policy (Excerpts focused on International Relations) Goals: • U.S. space-based PNT systems and services remain essential components of internationally accepted PNT services • Promote U.S. technological leadership in applications involving space- based PNT services To achieve this, the United States Government shall: • Encourage foreign development of PNT services/systems based on GPS – Seek to ensure foreign space-based PNT systems are interoperable with civil GPS and augmentations – At a minimum, ensure compatibility The Secretary of State shall: • Promote the use of civil aspects of GPS and its augmentation services and standards with foreign governments and other international organizations • Lead negotiations with foreign governments and international organizations regarding civil PNT matters
  26. 26. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 26 Planned GNSS • Global Constellations – GPS (24+) – GLONASS (24) – Galileo (27) – Compass (35) • Regional Constellations – QZSS (3) – IRNSS (7) • Satellite-Based Augmentations – WAAS (3) – MSAS (2) – EGNOS (3) – GAGAN (3) – SDCM (2?)
  27. 27. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 27 U.S. Objectives in Working with Other GNSS Service Providers • Ensure compatibility ― ability of U.S. and non-U.S. space-based PNT services to be used separately or together without interfering with each individual service or signal – Radio frequency compatibility – Spectral separation between M-code and other signals • Achieve interoperability – ability of civil U.S. and non-U.S. space-based PNT services to be used together to provide the user better capabilities than would be achieved by relying solely on one service or signal – Primary focus on the common L1C and L5 signals • Ensure a level playing field in the global marketplace Pursue through Bi-lateral and Multi-lateral Cooperation
  28. 28. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 28 The Goal of RNSS Civil Interoperability • Ideal interoperability allows navigation with one signal each from four or more systems with no additional receiver cost or complexity Interoperable = Better Together than Separate GPS QZSS GALILEO COMPASS IRNSS GLONASS
  29. 29. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 29 U.S. - Europe Cooperation • U.S.-EU agreement signed in 2004 provides solid foundation for cooperation • Four working groups were set up under the agreement: – Technical, trade, and security issues working groups have met • Improved new civil signal (MBOC) adopted in July 2007 • First Plenary Meeting in October 2008 June 26, 2004, press conference at U.S.-EU Summit in Ireland (U.S. Sec. of State Colin Powell, Irish Foreign Minister Brian Cowen, EU Vice-President Loyola De Palacio)
  30. 30. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 30 U.S. - Russian Federation Cooperation • U.S.- Russia Joint Statement issued in December 2004 • Negotiations for a U.S.-Russia Agreement on satellite navigation cooperation have been underway since late 2005 • Several very productive technical working group meetings have been held: – Russia WG-1 chair proposed adopting two new civil CDMA signals at L1, L5 to be interoperable with GPS – Still under discussion within the Russian Government – Next WG-1 meeting is planned for December 2008
  31. 31. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 31 U.S. - Japan Cooperation • Japan’s status as a world leader in GPS applications and user equipment makes it an important partner • Regular policy consultations and technical meetings on GPS cooperation began in 1996 and led to the 1998 Clinton-Obuchi Joint Statement • Both countries have benefited from the close relationship: – QZSS is designed to be compatible and interoperable with GPS – U.S. working with Japan to set up QZSS monitoring stations in Hawaii and Guam • Next plenary meeting is planned in Nov. 2008
  32. 32. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 32 U.S. - India Cooperation • Policy and technical consultations on GPS cooperation underway since 2005 – One aim is to ensure interoperability between GPS augmentation system WAAS and India’s planned GAGAN augmentation system based on GPS – Another important topic is ionospheric distortion and solutions • U.S.-India Joint Statement on GNSS Cooperation issued in February 2007 in Washington – Bi-lateral meeting held in Bangalore in September 2007 – Technical Meeting focused on GPS-IRNSS compatibility and interoperability held in January and July 2008
  33. 33. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 33 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation GNSS Implementation Team (GIT) • Promote implementation of regional GNSS augmentation systems to enhance inter-modal transportation and recommend actions to be considered in the Asia Pacific Region • Reports to Transportation Working Group (TPT- WG) through the Inter-modal Experts Group (IEG)
  34. 34. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 34 APEC GNSS recent activities • Thailand with the support of AEROTHAI hosted a GNSS Technological Innovation Summit in May 2008 • Completed the successful $1 million GNSS test bed project, located in Bangkok and funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Administration and supported by the U.S. FAA • Updated the Terms of Reference to take account of environmental benefits • Achieved consensus on a project proposal to survey and assess current applications for surface transportation utilizing GNSS • Adopted a Program of Action
  35. 35. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 35 APEC TPT-WG Outcome • The GNSS Implementation Team (GIT) reported to the Inter-modal Experts Group (IEG). • The IEG was impressed with the GNSS Technological Innovation Summit and the GIT 12 Outcomes and forwarded project proposal to APEC. • GIT contributed to the deliberations in all four working groups (Inter-modal, Maritime Safety, Maritime Experts and Aviation). • Interest expressed in learning more about GNSS in the Plenary and in the maritime safety group at the next APEC Transportation Working Group.
  36. 36. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 36 International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG) • Emerged from 3rd UN Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space July 1999 – Promote the use of GNSS and its integration into infrastructures, particularly in developing countries – Encourage compatibility and interoperability among global and regional systems • Members include: – GNSS providers (U.S., EU, Russia, China, India, Japan) – Other Member States of the United Nations – International organizations/associations
  37. 37. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 37 International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG) • ICG-2 held in September, 2007 in India • Established Providers Forum to address common issues • Began implementation of the ICG Work Plan within established working groups: – A. Interoperability and compatibility – B. Enhancement of performance of GNSS services – C. Information dissemination, education, outreach & coordination – D. Interaction with monitoring & reference station network organizations • U.S. will host the 3rd ICG in December 2008 – http://www.geolinks.org/ICG3/
  38. 38. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 38 ICG Providers Forum • Six space segment providers listed previously are members • Purpose: – Focused discussions on compatibility and interoperability, encouraging development of complimentary systems – Exchange of detailed information on systems and service provision plans – Exchange views on ICG work plan and activities • Consensus reached at the first meeting on general definitions for compatibility and interoperability – Including spectral separation between each system’s authorized service signals and other systems’ signals http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/SAP/gnss/icg.html
  39. 39. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 Summary • As new space-based GNSS are emerging globally, interoperability is the key to “success for all” • U.S. is actively engaged in bi-lateral, regional, and multi-lateral cooperation on space-based navigation issues • International cooperation in the context of National Space-Based PNT Policy principles is a top priority for the U.S. Government
  40. 40. 15th Korean GNSS Workshop, Busan, October 30-31, 2008 Contact Information Ray E. Clore Senior Advisor for GPS-Galileo issues Office of Space and Advanced Technology U.S. Department of State 1990 K Street NW, Suite 410 Washington, D.C. 20006 202-663-2394 (office) clorere@state.gov http://www.state.gov/g/oes/sat/

Notas del editor

  • - URE is measured per individual satellite.
    - URE root mean squared (RMS) values differ depending on the age of data. The more current the ephemeris and clock data and the more recent the navigation upload to the satellite, the lower the URE.
    User Position Error includes data from as many GPS satellites that are in view of the receiver at the time of the fix.
    GPS Support Center Website:
    http://gps.afspc.af.mil/gpsoc/performance_reports.aspx
  • The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is one of 4 Space Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) in operation or in development around the globe. The Japanese MSAS, and Indian GAGAN systems are derivatives of the U.S. WAAS, and the EU has the EGNOS system.
    WAAS is in it’s final configuration with 38 Wide Area Reference Stations (WRS) feeding data to 3 Wide Area Master Stations (WMS), that compute GPS corrections and integrity information which is forwarded to four geographically dispersed Ground Earth Stations (GES), and uplinked the messages to two geostationary earth orbiting (GEO) satellites and broadcast to the users. The system is controlled from two Operational Control Centers (OCC), one located at the National Operational Command Center (NOCC) in Herndon, VA and the second located at the Pacific Operational Control Center (POCC) in San Diego, CA.
  • WAAS currently relies on the services of 2 leased geostationary satellites, located at 133W and 107W to provide dual coverage over nearly all of the U.S. and Alaska. Within the GEO footprint, users receive basic corrections and ranging signals to augment accuracy and availability for lateral navigation.
  • The user transition to WAAS continues. Currently over 33,000 general aviation units have been sold and that number increases at approximately 1000 units per month. In late 2008, Bendix King is expected to bring a new general aviation product to market, which should further increase the user acceptance rate. In the business and regional market, over 500 units have been sold for retrofit on aircraft with flight management systems, since 2007. By late 2008, two additional flight management systems manufacturers are expected to bring products to market, which should significantly increase the acceptance rate in 2009 and beyond. Air carrier and cargo aircraft are also equipping with WAAS. Southwest airlines is equipping 200 Boeing 737s, Federal Express has equipped 253 Caravans, and Horizon airlines is equipping 48 of their Bombardier aircraft. We also have received significant interest from the helicopter first responder community.
  • In order to fly an LPV approach, users require a published instrument approach procedure, which is the chart the pilot refers to in flight. There are currently 1084 procedures published and we expect that number to exceed legacy instrument landing systems by September 2008. By 2018, all qualifying runways in the National Airspace System (NAS) will have a published WAAS instrument approach procedure.

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