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1 Features Cervical (3-6) Thoracic (2-8) Lumbar (1-4) 1. By the absence of By the presence of costal facets foramina transversaria By the presence of foramina on lateral surfaces of the Identification transversaria vertebral bodies (1 or 2 on each and costal facets on body side) 2. By its large size 1. Large (kidney shaped) 2. Wider from side to side Small (oval shaped), broader Heart-shaped with roughly than anteroposteriorly Shape from side to side than same measurement from side 3. Height of body is anteroposteriorly to side & anteroposteriorly slightly greater anteriorly than posteriorly 1. Transversely concave 2. Has upward projecting Superior lips on each side 3. Anterior border may be beveled 1. Saddle-shaped (convex laterally & concave anteroposteriorly) 2. Lateral borders are Body beveled & form synovial Inferior joints with projecting lips of next lower vertebra 3. Anterior border projects downwards & may hide the intervertebral disc On each side, it bears 2 costal demifacets. Superior costal demifacet is larger, placed on upper border of body near pedicle, and articulates with Lateral numerically corresponding rib. Inferior costal demifacet is smaller, placed on lower border of body in front of inferior vertebral notch, and articulates with next lower rib. 1. Short 2. Strong Directed backwards & Pedicles laterally Directed straight backwards 3. Projected backwards from upper part of body Vertebral 1. Short, thick & broad arch 2. Directed backwards & 1. Relatively long & narrow medially Laminae 2. Thinner above than Overlap each other from above 3. Overlapping of below adjoining vertebrae is minimumGaraka Rabel
2 1. Thin & tapering 2. Directed laterally & slightly backwards Large, directed laterally & 3. Homologous with ribs backwards. Anterior surface in thoracic region bears a facet near its tip, to 1. Pierced by foramina articulate with tubercle of 4. Accessory process is a transversaria small, rough elevation corresponding rib. In upper 6 Transverse 2. Each process has anterior in posteroinferior vertebrae, these costal facets Processes & posterior roots which are concave & face forwards & aspect of the root of end in tubercles joined by transverse process, laterally, while in lower 6 costotransverse bar which represents true vertebrae, they are flat & face upwards, laterally & slightly transverse process of forwards vertebra 5. Length increases from L1 to L3 & thereafter it decreases 1. Forms a vertical quadrilateral plate Long, directed downwards & 1. Short 2. Directed almost Processes Spinous Process 2. Bifid backwards. 5 to 9 spines are the backwards & only longest, more vertical & (Spine) 3. Notch is filled by overlap each other & lower slightly downwards ligamentum nuchae 3. Thickened along its spines are less oblique posterior & inferior borders 1. Lie farther apart than inferior Project upwards from the 1. Form articular pillars, junction of pedicles and 2. Bear concave facets Superior Articular projected laterally laminae. facing medially & 2. Articular facets are flat backwards Processes 3. Facets are directed Articular facets are flat & 3. Posterior border is directed backwards, little backwards & upwards laterally & upwards. marked by a rough elevation called mamillary process 1. Form articular pillars, 1. Lie nearer to each Fused to the laminae. projected laterally other, than superior Inferior Articular Articular facets are directed 2. Articular facets are flat 2. Bear convex facets Processes forwards, slightly downwards & 3. Facets are directed facing laterally & medially. forwards & downwards forwards 1. Larger than body 1. Triangular in shape 2. Triangular in shape (as 2. Larger than in thoracic Vertebral Foramen Comparatively small & circular region, but smaller than pedicles are directed backwards & laterally) in cervical region Superior Vertebral Shallow Notch Inferior vertebral notches Vertebral Superior & inferior vertebral are much deeper than the Notches Inferior Vertebral notches are of equal size Deep & conspicuous superior vertebral notches Notch Garaka Rabel
3 1. Vertical part of longus coli is attached to anterior surface (on each side of anterior In transverse process : longitudinal ligament) 1. Intertransverse muscles – 2. Scalenus anterior to upper & lower borders 3. Longus capitis 1. Right crus – upper 3 2. Levator costae – on 4. Oblique part of longus vertebrae posterior surface coli 2. Left crus – upper 2 In spinous process : 5. Scalenus medius vertebrae Muscles 1. Trapezius 3. Psoas major – upper & 6. Scalenus posterior 2. Rhomboideus levator scapulae lower borders of all 3. Latissimus dorsi 7. Splenius cervicis lumber vertebrae 4. Serratus posterior superior 8. Longissimus cervicis (behind line of crura) 5. Serratus posterior inferior 9. Iliocostalis cervicis (and many deep muscles of 10. InterspinalesAttachments 11. Semispinalis thoracis & back) cervicis 12. Spinalis cervicis 13. multifidus In transverse process : 1. Lateral costotransverse ligament – at tip 2. Superior costotransverse ligament – along lower border Ligament 3. Inferior costotransverse ligament – along anterior surface In spinous process : 1. Supraspinous ligament 2. Infraspinous ligamentGaraka Rabel