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Food nutrition



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Food nutrition

  1. 1. FOOD, NUTRITION & CULTURE ‘ Feeding oneself and one’s offspring is the first concern of all living creatures’
  2. 2. WHY IS THE ACQUISITION OF FOOD SO IMPORTANT? <ul><li>Question answered by the old adage ‘ We are what we eat .’ </li></ul><ul><li>All living creatures need to ‘take in nutrients to live.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition – the science that deals with the body’s ability to transform nutrients found in FOOD into FUEL & FLESH . </li></ul>Calories Muscle & Tissue
  3. 3. PERSPECTIVES ON NUTRITION <ul><li>To scientists , nutrition is the study of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The nutrients found in foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The body’s handling of nutrients to maintain health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrients (some of which provide energy for processes in the body) are substances that can promote: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repair </li></ul></ul>For many, nutrition is all about losing weight!
  4. 4. WHAT IS FOOD? <ul><li>Food is a conduit for nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>It is one central thing about human experience that can open up both our senses and our experiences to our place in the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>– Alice Waters </li></ul></ul>Food is culturally defined, what is considered a food in Culture A is not necessarily a food in Culture B. OCTOPUS MEXICAN FOODS ACKEE AND BREADFRUIT PEARBUSH BUDS
  5. 5. THE NUTRIENTS <ul><li>Whereas there are many different foods. There are only six classes of nutrients namely: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates (CHO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually, more than one class of nutrients is represented in a food (e.g., ( CHO, fats, proteins, water, minerals [e.g., Ca] and vitamins [e.g., Vitamin D] are in milk . </li></ul>
  6. 6. TYPES OF NUTRIENTS protein Vitamin c Fatty acids <ul><ul><li>Organic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(with C- C or C- H bonds) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CHO, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul></ul>water Sodium and Chlorine ions <ul><ul><li>Inorganic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ENERGY YIELDING NUTRIENTS <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose, (preferred energy source) fructose and galactose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fatty acids and glycerol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amino acids </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Vitamins - only organic nutrient that does not supply energy but is needed to get energy from foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential nutrient - body cannot make enough of and must get from food. </li></ul><ul><li>Some dietary and lifestyle practices (smoking, inactivity, drinking alcohol) are risk factors for many health conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Substances (non-nutrients) in foods are phytochemicals that give foods the characteristic taste and smell. </li></ul>MORE FOOD RELATED FACTS ….
  9. 9. FOOD CHOICES <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Habit </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Preference </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Associations </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical location </li></ul><ul><li>Social Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Values and beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Select foods to provide adequate amounts of nutrients and energy! </li></ul><ul><li>When humans eat, foremost in their minds is that they are consuming foods, not nutrients! </li></ul><ul><li>The following influence food choices: </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional Value </li></ul>pizza
  10. 10. CHALLENGE OF CHANGING FOOD HABITS <ul><li>Food is about more than feeding the body. It is embedded in family life, culture and religious ritual. </li></ul><ul><li>Food has always been the most direct, intimate tie to a nurturing earth and a primary means of bonding with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Food has helped us to know where and who we are. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Digestion – process of breaking food into small substances to be absorbed by the body and subsequently used for fuel, growth, maintenance and repair. </li></ul>RELEASING NUTRIENTS FROM FOOD Simple (e.g., phagocytosis- engulf and form food vacuoles in which food is broken down in the unicellular amoeba). Complex (e.g., cooking and chewing food before introducing it to the sophisticated multi-organ, digestive system in multi-cellular humans).
  13. 13. <ul><li>Food energy measured in calories . </li></ul><ul><li>A calorie is not a component of food . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1g fat = 9 calories </li></ul></ul>1g CHO = 4 calories <ul><ul><li>1g protein = 4 calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 g alcohol = 7 calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(alcohol is not a nutrient) </li></ul></ul>MEASURING FOOD ENERGY
  14. 14. <ul><li>Plants store energy as starch. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans eat plants and other animals that have also eaten plants. </li></ul>ENERGY <ul><li>Plants use the sun’s energy to combine carbondioxide and water to form glucose and oxygen. </li></ul>6H 2 O + 6CO 2 = C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
  15. 15. The Cycle of life begins with the sun! The Energy Cycle
  16. 16. THE ABC… OF A NUTRITIOUS DIET <ul><li>Adequacy </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Calorie control </li></ul><ul><li>Moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient Density </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul>
  17. 17. NUTRITION AND HEALTH <ul><li>Health professionals agree that the overall composition of the diet has an important effect on health. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating too much fat, sat. fat and cholesterol and not eating enough vegetables, fruits, and fiber has been linked to an increase in heart disease and other cancers. </li></ul><ul><li>The federal government constantly revises its official U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans to help consumers choose a healthy diet. </li></ul><ul><li>These guidelines make Recommendations for Americans 2 years of age and older. </li></ul>
  18. 18. NUTRITION GOALS <ul><li>Disease Related </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce coronary heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce cancer deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease incidence of diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce prevalence of osteoporosis and </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce dental caries </li></ul>
  19. 19. HOW MUCH FOOD DO WE NEED? The Dietary Reference Intakes ( DRIs ) are a comprehensive set of nutrient reference values for healthy populations that can be used for assessing and planning diets. The % Daily Value (% DV) can help you make informed food choices. Look for it in the Nutrition Facts table on food packages.
  20. 20. MEAL PLANNING GUIDES <ul><li>Food group plan </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange system </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Food Guide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Food Pyramid) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Let the Pyramid guide your food choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep food safe to eat! </li></ul>CHOOSING FOODS ………
  22. 22. FOOD LABELS <ul><li>Food labels provide the following information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common name of product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name and address of manufacturer, packer or distributor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net contents (wt, measure or count). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient content of product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serving size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servings per container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calories/calories from fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient amounts and percentages of Daily Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily values and calories/gram reminder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingredients </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. CHECK THE FOOD LABEL BEFORE YOU BUY <ul><li>Food labels have several parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front panel, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Added nutrients (e.g., “enriched grain/pasta” means thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, and folic acid have been added. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition Facts, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingredients list, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What’s in the food including e.g., added fats, or sugars. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ingredients listed in descending order by weight. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. USING THE NUTRITION FACTS <ul><ul><li>Look at the % Daily Value (%DV) column to see whether a food is high or low in saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you want to consume more of a nutrient (e.g., Calcium), choose foods with a higher %DV. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foods with 5%DV or less contribute a small amount of that nutrient. Those with 20% or more contribute a large amount. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrition Facts serving sizes may differ from Food Guide Pyramid (e.g., 2 ozs of dry macaroni yields about 1 cup cooked, or two [½ cup] Pyramid servings). </li></ul>
  25. 25. HELPFUL HINTS <ul><li>    Use the Food Guide Pyramid to help select healthy foods. </li></ul><ul><li>    Eat a variety of plant foods, including whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>   Eat some low-fat dairy products and low- fat foods from the meat and beans group. </li></ul><ul><li>  Enjoy fats and sweets occasionally. </li></ul>
  26. 26. DIETARY ASSESSMENT <ul><li>The following dietary assessment methods are used: </li></ul><ul><li>24-Hour recall </li></ul><ul><li>Food Record/Diary </li></ul><ul><li>Food Frequency Questionnaire </li></ul>
  27. 27. KEEPING TRACK……… <ul><li>Food Record </li></ul><ul><li>Do the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Record everything you </li></ul><ul><li>eat and drink for 3 </li></ul><ul><li>consecutive days </li></ul><ul><li>Amount (ozs, g) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time eaten </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note other things you did that same day </li></ul>Chicken Bread


  • Today I will talk to you about food how food, nutrition and culture are interrelated
  • Why indeed is the acquisition of food so. This question is ably albeit simply answered by the age old question “We are what we eat.”
  • If I were to ask each of you for your definition of nutrition, undoubtedly I would hear about food, energy, maintaining weight etc. For many ………………………… To the scientist………………………
  • I just mentioned that nutrition was the study of nutrients found in food. What is food? Read slide ……………….. Even though Bread might be universal or to be biblical, “the staff of life,” each culture has its own food. Here I have examples of various foods e.g., Mexican food, ackee which is very Jamaican, pearbush buds which is very Turks and Caicos, even though I was recently told by someone from home it was being sold in the DC area as Yuppy food!
  • We have already established that we eat food to get nutrients. Read slide………………….
  • These 6 classes are divided into 2 groups. The organic nutrients and inorganic nutrients.
  • Three of the 4 classes of organic nutrients are capable of supplying energy!
  • Here are some additional facts about food and nutrients
  • Even though it is recommended that we select foods provide adequate amounts of nutrients and energy, as humans, when we decide to eat we think of eating food and not nutrients. The pictures that we conjure up in our minds are those of various foods. There are many factors that influence food choices. In most instance Nutritional value is not the most important. This explains, in part, why it is difficult to change a persons dietary patterns without understanding the person!
  • Once consumed, foods need to be transformed into am medium that enables the body to extract the fuel and nutrients from it. Digestion …………………………………………………………. In unicellular animals like the amoeba it is relatively simple………………………….. In complex, multi cellular animals like ourselves, it is much more complicated ……………………..
  • Let us talk a little about energy! The energy found in foods is measured in units of heat called calories! (Read Slide)
  • Lets examine where plants get their energy! Read slide
  • So, The energy cycle begins with the sun. It is much more complicated than the sun simply handing us a slice of bread. Indeed, as humans sit at the top of the food chain. Hence, the sun’s energy goes through a series of transformations before it is incorporated into foods consumed by us. The cycle here shows a predominantly marine cycle beginning with the sun impacting unicellular plankton until we arrive at fish that are eaten by birds or directly by man.
  • What constitutes a nutritious diet? Here are the ABC’s of a nutritious diet. These are expanded upon in Guide lines for Americans.
  • Of course, we pay all of the attention to nutrition in an effort to optimize our health!
  • In keeping with the current epidemic of chronic diseases such as heart diseases, many recommendations to reduce disease risk are diet related since diet is a risk factor for many of the diseases that are listed in the 10 leading causes of death in the USA. Read slide
  • Information to help us plan healthy means.
  • To check if a food is a good source of a nutrient or to compare similar foods: Look at the % Daily Value (%DV) column to see whether a food is high or low in saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium. If you want to consume more of a nutrient (e.g., Calcium), choose foods with a higher %DV. Foods with 5%DV or less contribute a small amount of that nutrient. Those with 20% or more contribute a large amount. Nutrition Facts serving sizes may differ from Food Guide Pyramid (e.g., 2 ozs of dry macaroni yields about 1 cup cooked, or two [½ cup] Pyramid servings).
  • How do we assess the adequacy of diets?
  • The food diary is a
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