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Respiration presentation

  1. 2. Vocabulary words <ul><li>aerobic respiration </li></ul><ul><li>air sacs </li></ul><ul><li>alveolus </li></ul><ul><li>asthma </li></ul><ul><li>breathing </li></ul><ul><li>bronchiole </li></ul><ul><li>bronchus </li></ul><ul><li>cell respiration </li></ul><ul><li>gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>gills </li></ul><ul><li>glottis </li></ul><ul><li>hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>larynx (voicebox) </li></ul><ul><li>lung Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>lungs </li></ul><ul><li>nasal cavity </li></ul><ul><li>nose </li></ul><ul><li>pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>pneumonia </li></ul><ul><li>residual volume </li></ul><ul><li>respiratory medium </li></ul><ul><li>respiratory surface </li></ul><ul><li>rib muscles </li></ul><ul><li>spiracle </li></ul><ul><li>surface tension </li></ul><ul><li>tidal volume </li></ul><ul><li>trachea or windpipe </li></ul><ul><li>tracheae </li></ul><ul><li>tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>vital capacity </li></ul><ul><li>vocal cords of the larynx </li></ul>
  2. 3. Gas exchange supplies oxygen for cellular respiration and removes CO 2 <ul><li>Gas exchange – uptake of O2 from environment and discharge of CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria need O2 to produce more ATP, CO2 is the by-product </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 36 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>α SA  large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>α 1/d 2  thin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moist so gases are dissolved first </li></ul>DIFFUSION
  3. 4. Respiratory surfaces and gas exchange <ul><li>Respiratory surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic demands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unicellular organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entire surface area for diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple invertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponges, cnidarians, flatworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diffusion </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Respiratory surfaces and gas exchange <ul><li>More complex animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin, moist epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separates medium from capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entire outer skin  small, long, thin organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized respiratory organs that are extensively folded and branched </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Gills in aquatic animals <ul><li>Outfoldings of the body surface suspended in water </li></ul><ul><li>Sea stars </li></ul><ul><li>Segmented worms or polychaetes </li></ul><ul><li>Molluscs and crustaceans </li></ul><ul><li>Fishes </li></ul><ul><li>Young amphibians </li></ul><ul><li>Total surface area is greater than the rest of the body </li></ul>
  6. 7. Water as a respiratory medium <ul><li>Surfaces are kept moist </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 concentrations in water are low </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation – increasing flow of respiratory medium over the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Countercurrent exchange – process in which two fluids flow in opposite directions, maximizing transfer rates </li></ul><ul><li>Why are gills impractical for land animals? </li></ul>Just keep swimming swimming swimming!
  7. 8. Air as a respiratory medium <ul><li>Air has a higher concentration of O2 </li></ul><ul><li>O2 and CO2 diffuse much faster in the air  less ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty of keeping surface moist </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: respiratory infolding inside the body </li></ul><ul><li>Tracheal system of insects – network of tubes that bring O2 to every cell </li></ul>Spiracles
  8. 9. Lungs <ul><li>Heavily vascularized invaginations of the body surface restricted to one location </li></ul><ul><li>Found in spiders, terrestrial snails, vertebrates </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibians supplement lung breathing with skin </li></ul><ul><li>Turtles supplement lung breathing with moist surfaces in mouth and anus </li></ul>
  9. 10. Mammalian respiration
  10. 11. Extra pictures
  11. 12. Lung ventilation through breathing <ul><li>Positive pressure breathing in frogs </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gulping in” air </li></ul><ul><li>Negative pressure breathing in reptiles and mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Rib muscles and diaphragm change lung volume and pressure </li></ul>
  12. 13. Lung volumes <ul><li>Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tidal volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume of air inhaled and exhaled with each breath </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vital capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum volume inhaled and exhaled during forced breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Residual volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air left in alveoli after forced exhalation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Avian breathing Air sacs act as bellows to keep air flowing through the lungs.
  14. 15. Control centers in the brain regulate breathing
  15. 16. Gases diffuse down pressure gradients concentration and pressure drives the movement of gases into and out of blood

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