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Respiratory system[1]



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Respiratory system[1]

  1. 1. Respiratory System Very nice!
  2. 2. Nasal Passage <ul><li>Does three things to the air we breathe including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A) Warming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B) Moistens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C) Filters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why should you inhale through your nose especially while exercising? </li></ul>
  3. 4. Pharynx <ul><li>Common passage that is immediately behind both the oral and nasal cavities. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passageway for food and air . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows us to breathe and chew at the same time. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. Epiglottis <ul><li>Protective flap that prevents food from entering and blocking your airway. </li></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul>
  5. 8. larynx <ul><li>The larynx or voice box house structures called the vocal cords . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vocal cords vibrate when air passes by them and produce sound . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long and thick cords vibrate slowly and produce a low frequency sound. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short and thin cords vibrate quickly and produce a high frequency sound. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do men generally have lower pitch voices? </li></ul>
  6. 9. Inhaling Gases <ul><li>Why do you sound like Alvin and the Chipmunks when you inhale helium Gas ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helium is less dense than air. The cords can vibrate faster and the pitch is high. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does helium gas kill brain cells? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why do 9 out of 10 moms recommend not inhaling helium? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhaling helium means you are not inhaling oxygen. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Trachea <ul><li>Your trachea or windpipe is simply a passageway that brings air to your lungs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage rings prevent the passageway from collapsing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tracheotomy - A procedure that creates a opening in the trachea allowing a person to breathe. </li></ul>
  8. 12. Trachea Lining <ul><li>Cilia- Hair-like structures that move back and forth in order remove foreign material. </li></ul><ul><li>Goblet Cells- Produce mucus that help trap foreign material. </li></ul><ul><li>How does swallowing help clear our lungs? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do smokers develop “smokers cough”? </li></ul>
  9. 13. Bronchi and Bronchioles <ul><li>Bronchi- The trachea splits in two bronchi that supply the left and right lungs with air. </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchioles- The bronchi branch and forming smaller passageways called bronchioles. </li></ul>
  10. 16. Alveoli <ul><li>Tiny air sacs in the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Site of the diffusion of O 2 and CO 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion- The process of a substance going from a high concentration to a low concentration. </li></ul>
  11. 18. Did you ever wonder? <ul><li>How can performing CPR (mouth to mouth) save someone's life? </li></ul><ul><li>Inhaled Air- O 2 = 21% / CO 2 = .04% </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaled Air- O 2 = 15% / CO 2 = 4% </li></ul><ul><li>There is sufficient oxygen to keep someone else alive. </li></ul>
  12. 19. Breathing Regulation <ul><li>Two components of the brain control the rate of breathing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The primary gas that is monitored is CO 2 . O 2 is secondary. </li></ul><ul><li>Average rate = 10-14/min (5-7L of air) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical activity can increase the rate to 40/min (80-120L of air) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 22. Your brain in action! <ul><li>Determine your “normal” resting rate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Count the number of breaths in 20 seconds and multiply by 3 = _______ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now breathe deeply three times. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Count the number of breaths in 20 seconds and multiply by 3 = _______ </li></ul></ul>
  14. 23. Breathing Continued <ul><li>The lungs contain no muscle tissue. How do they move? </li></ul><ul><li>Inhaling: The diaphragm pushes down and intercostal muscles push the chest outward. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The space between the chest cavity and lungs increases . This decreases the pressure on the lungs and they expand. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 24. <ul><li>Exhaling: The diaphragm relaxes (moves up) and the chest cavity relaxes (moves in). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The space between the lungs and the chest cavity decreases . This increases the pressure on the lungs and they contract. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 25. Why We Breathe <ul><li>Cellular Respiration = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O6 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy (ATP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen allows us to extract the energy from the foods we eat. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 + H 2 O + Energy  C 6 H 12 O 6 +O 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(SUN) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 26. Respiratory Conditions <ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue that supports the alveoli deteriorates . The alveoli cannot perform its function. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking in O 2 becomes more difficult. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lung tissue looks “spongy” containing many air spaces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often caused by smoking . </li></ul></ul>
  18. 28. Asthma <ul><li>Inflammatory disease of the bronchioles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchioles constrict and fill with mucus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tightness of chest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coughing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheezing </li></ul></ul>
  19. 30. Triggers <ul><li>Outdoor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moulds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pollen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indoor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moulds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust mites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul>
  20. 31. Medication <ul><li>Short Term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called “ relievers ”, they help to open the bronchioles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taken when needed . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long Term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called “ controllers ”, contain steroids that help prevent inflammation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often taken once a day . </li></ul></ul>
  21. 34. Lung Capacity <ul><li>Tidal Volume- The volume of air you normally inhale and exhale. =.5L </li></ul><ul><li>Vital Capacity- The volume of air that can be exhaled after inhaling deeply. =5L </li></ul><ul><li>Residual Volume- The volume of air remaining in the lungs after exhaling deeply. = 1L </li></ul><ul><li>Lung Capacity = </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital Capacity + Residual Volume </li></ul></ul>