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Ultrasonography ppt[1]

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Ultrasonography ppt[1]

  1. 1. --MS. GEETASHREE MAJUMDAR (Assist.Professor, Deptt of Radiology &Imaging technology,RIMT UNIVERSITY) (Bsc.Radiography and advanced imaging technology- ADTU,Former CT technologist -Sualkuchi FRU hospital, MSc.Radiation Imaging Technology-NIMS, Former Assist. Professor-OM Sterling Global University)
  2. 2. WHAT IS SOUND ??????
  3. 3. a) Sound wave cosists of mechanical vibration b) Sound is not electromagnetic . c) Matter must be present for sound to travel
  4. 4. Categories of Sound- A) infrasound B) Audible Sound C) Ultrasound
  5. 5. Ultrasound in diagnostic Radiology:-
  6. 6. Imaging technology used to diagnose the internal body structures by using high frequency sound waves. it does not use ionizing radiation.
  7. 7.  Piezoelectric effect  Pulse echo principle
  8. 8.  This effect ws named "piezoelectricity" after tge Greek piezein which means to squeeze or press.  The principle of converting energy by applying pressure to a crystal. When an electric voltage is applied to a transducer crystal, the crystal gets excited and is deformed.  Piezoelectric effect explain how ultrasound is generated from ceramic crystals in the transducer. An electric current passes through a cable to the transducer and is applied to the crystal, causing them deform and vibrate. This vibration produces the ultrasound beam.
  9. 9.  It explain how the image is generated.  Ultrasound waves are produced in pulses , not continuously beacuse the same crystals are used to generate and receive sound waves , they cannot do both at the same time.  In the time between the pulses , the ultrasound beam enter the patient and is reflected back to the transducer.  These reflected sound waves cause the crystals in the transducer to deform again and produced an electrical signal ,that is converted into an image displayed on the monitor.  The transducer generally emits ultrsound only 1% of the time , the rest of the time is spent receiving the returning echoes.
  10. 10. What is piezoelectric crystal? -lead zirconate titanate (PZT)
  11. 11. Different parts of ultrasonic machine:
  12. 12. WHAT IS A TRANSDUCER???
  13. 13. Different types transducer
  14. 14.  Piezeolectric crystal arrangement is linear.  The shape of the beam is rectangular.  Near field resolution us good.  The frequency , application depend on wheather the product is for 2D And 3D imaging .  Linear transducer for 2D imaging:- frequency 2.5-12MHz. Application: blood vessels visualization, breast , thyroid, tendon, laproscopy.
  15. 15.  Tendon is a connective tissue which attaches muscle to bone.  Laproscopy is a type surgery that uses smaller cut.(minimally invasive technque). A slender tool that has a tinny video camera and light on the end. When a surgeon insert it through a small cut and into the patient body , they can look at monitor.
  16. 16.  Linear transducer 3D Igmaing:- frequency 7.5-11MHz.  Application- breast, thyroid.
  17. 17.  Also called curved transducer. Because the piezeoelectric crystal arrangement is curvillinear.  The beam shape is convex and the transducer is good for depth examination.  Convex 2D imaging:- frequency-2.5 MHz- 7.5 MHz. Can be used for abdominal , transvaginal, transrectal examination.  Convex 3D imaging:- 3.5- 6.5 MHz. used for abdominal examination.  **micro convex transducer is used for pediatric***
  18. 18.  Frequency- 2-7.5 MHz.  Can be used for cardiac examination , including transoesophageal examination , abdominal and brain examination.
  19. 19.  Also called CW doppler probe.  Measure blood flow and Speed of sound in blood.  Uses low frequency- 2-8 MHz.
  20. 20.  Used for internal examination.  Endovaginal, endo rectal and endocavity.  Frequency- 3.5-11.5MHz.
  21. 21.  used in cardiology to obatin better image of the heart .  Frequency 3-10MHz.
  22. 22.  Produce electrical pulses that are applied to the transducer.  A rate if approximately 1000 pulses per second.
  23. 23. Amplification is used to increase the size of electrical pulses coming from the transducer after an echo is received.
  24. 24. Controls the scanning of ultrasound beam over the body section being imaged.
  25. 25.  Convert Scanning ultrasound beam into a digital image matrix format for processing
  26. 26.  gives specific contrast characteristics and reformatting the image if necessary.
  27. 27.  Used to view the image.
  28. 28.  Contrast is the difference in density.  Density is the amount of overall blackenning ptoduced on the image after processing.  Digital image is the numerical representation of an image(a set of pixel)  A matrix is a square arrangement of number in column and rows.

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