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C3 Technology - When and How to Use

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Please join GEO Inc. for a technical presentation on C3™ Technology (Cooling, Compression, Condensation) that will provide regulators, consultants, and field applicators with an understanding of the appropriate and diverse uses of this advanced vapor extraction and treatment system. Additionally, this slideshow will help identify when C3 Technology should be used, and how to apply the technology most effectively to achieve optimal efficiency and output rates.

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C3 Technology - When and How to Use

  1. 1. Vapor Extraction/Treatment with Cooling-Compression & Condensation (C3 Technology) When and How? Presented by: Grant Geckeler, Principal www.georemco.com
  2. 2. Agenda  What is C3 Technology and who is GEO?  How does C3 Technology work?  When should I consider using C3 Technology?  When has C3 Technology been used in the past?  How can I use C3 Technology to benefit my project?
  3. 3. Agenda  What is C3 Technology and who is GEO?  How does C3 Technology work?  When should I consider using C3 Technology?  When has C3 Technology been used in the past?  How can I use C3 Technology to benefit my project?
  4. 4. History of GEO  Woman owned small business  Offices in California and Maine  Vapor condensation developed in 1989  First model was 100 cfm  2000 cfm systems operating since 2008  100% SUCCESS in Condensation of VOCs  Repeat clients include Honeywell, Boeing, Hewlett Packard, Northrop Grumman 4
  5. 5. Off-Gas Treatment  Soil venting and groundwater remediation  Industrial process air treatment
  6. 6. C3 Technology  Refrigerated cooling compression and condensation combined with regenerative adsorption  NO UPPER LIMIT of VOC concentration  NO INLET DILUTION!  >60 projects completed  >15,000,000 pounds of VOCs treated
  7. 7. C3-Technology (cont)  VOC contaminants recovered as a non- aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)  > 99.9% removal efficiency
  8. 8. Agenda  What is C3 Technology and who is GEO?  How does C3 Technology work?  When should I consider using C3 Technology?  When has C3 Technology been used in the past?  How can I use C3 Technology to benefit my project?
  9. 9. Extraction Well Manifold 8,000 lb GAC 8,000 lb GAC TI ATMOSPHERE DISCHARGE TO Roots Type Blower PI PI PI PI PI PI EXTRACTION WELLS CAM LOCK CONNECT FLEX HOSEFLEX HOSE CAM LOCK CONNECT SKID MOUNTED UNITS (two) ENCLOSURE FENCE BV-3 AIR/WATER SEPARATOR FLOW CONTROL TRANSFER PUMP ~10 GPM H2O VESSEL Aftercooler REFRIGERATED HEAT EXCHANGERS (12) REGENERATIVE ADSORBER (3) 6,000 gallon or larger Chemical and Condensate Recovery Tank OVA RootsType Blower BYPASS FLOW CONTROL 540 SCFM COMPRESSOR 540 SCFM COMPRESSOR Vapor phase granular activated carbon for polishing Vent stack 15 ft Sample Ports TI Gauges Legend Aftercooler DRAINS W/FLOAT SWITCHES RECEIVER TANK CONDENSER 507a (3) RECEIVER TANK ENCLOSED TRAILER COMPUTER PLC FLOW METER Stainless Steel Drain C3-Technology Process Flow Diagram Pressurized to 150 psi Cooled to -40 Degrees F Chemical Collected GAC seldom replaced 1,000 SCFM System
  10. 10. Agenda  What is C3 Technology and who is GEO?  How does C3 Technology work?  When should I consider using C3 Technology?  When has C3 Technology been used in the past?  How can I use C3 Technology to benefit my project?
  11. 11. When Should I Consider Using C3 Technology?  High Concentrations of VOCs  Expedited Vapor Mass Removal Desired  Replacement of Carbon or ThermOx Systems  Off-Gas Treatment of Thermal Remediation Systems  Recycling, Reuse of Chemical May Offset Costs
  12. 12. G.E.O. Inc - Copyright 2010 Vapor Treatment Options - Fuel LowFlow 50-5001,000 <500 2,000 >10,0005,000 VOC concentrations in PPMV FlowRateinCFM HighFlow >>5,000 C3 Refrigerated Condensation Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Zeolite Catalytic Oxidation Thermal Oxidation Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) FUEL Sites
  13. 13. G.E.O. Inc - Copyright 2010 Off-Gas Treatment Space LowFlow 50-5001,000 <500 2,000 >10,0005,000 VOC concentrations in PPMV FlowRateinCFM HighFlow >>5,000 C3 Refrigerated Condensation Zeolite Catalytic Oxidation Thermal Oxidation Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) Chlorinated Solvent Sites
  14. 14. Cost Per Pound Comparison  PCE, TCE and BTEX Cost rises due to air dilution, decreased uptime and increase in time of remediation *Inclusive of all labor, materials, equipment, expendables, consulting fees, reporting, and permits. *Greater than 90% uptime
  15. 15. Cost Per Pound Comparison  PCE, TCE and BTEX At 500-600 ppmv consider performance optimization or planned transition to alternative technology *Inclusive of all labor, materials, equipment, expendables, consulting fees, reporting, and permits. *Greater than 90% uptime
  16. 16. When Should I Consider Using C3 Technology?  High Concentrations of VOCs  Expedited Vapor Mass Removal Desired  Replacement of Carbon or ThermOx Systems  Off-Gas Treatment of Thermal Remediation Systems  Recycling, Reuse of Chemical May Offset Costs
  17. 17. Expedited Vapor Mass Removal  At a SVE/MPE project, 80% to 90% of COC mass might be extracted during the first 3 to 12 months of the project.  Goal: Maximize performance and cost-effectiveness of this important “mass removal” phase of SVE/MPE operations.  Solution: Use a Flexible Two-Staged Approach  1. Begin with C3 Technology for economic and fast (no dilution) mass removal and treatment. 2. Use a vGAC (carbon) based system for longer term SVE “polish” treatment. This module of the C3 Technology may be used (i.e. you simply remove the condensing portion of the unit, preventing any site delays).
  18. 18. Expedited Vapor Mass Removal  Example 1: 400 cfm C3 Technology unit used for 9 months to remove TCE, Methylene Chloride vapors. Beginning vapor concentrations were > 3,000 ppmV. When vapor concentrations were < 300 ppmV, a change to vGAC was used (additional 30 months of treatment with vGAC).  Example 2: 500 cfm C3 Technology unit used for 6 months to remove BTEX, PCE vapors. Beginning vapor concentrations were > 4,000 ppmV. When vapor concentrations were < 250 ppmV, a change to vGAC was used (additional 24 months of treatment with vGAC).
  19. 19. When Should I Consider Using C3 Technology?  High Concentrations of VOCs  Expedited Vapor Mass Removal Desired  Replacement of Carbon or ThermOx Systems  Off-Gas Treatment of Thermal Remediation Systems  Recycling, Reuse of Chemical May Offset Costs
  20. 20. Replacement of Existing System
  21. 21. Replacement of Existing System  Typical Situations:  Higher-than-expected COC vapor concentrations;  Vapor mass does not quickly reduce (i.e. NAPL present?);  Maintenance costs of existing system are high (i.e. corrosion and/or frequent carbon changeouts and/or dilution with fresh air is needed to for “rich” vapor extraction streams). Example: 250 cfm thermal oxidizer for chlorinated ethane and ethane treatment was replaced with C3 Technology. The switch saved over $30,000/year by reducing O&M costs, and increased runtime from 68% to 97%.
  22. 22. When Should I Consider Using C3 Technology?  High Concentrations of VOCs  Expedited Vapor Mass Removal Desired  Replacement of Carbon or ThermOx Systems  Off-Gas Treatment of Thermal Remediation Systems  Recycling, Reuse of Chemical May Offset Costs
  23. 23. Off-Gas Treatment of Thermal Remediation Systems  More than ten projects completed using C3 Technology for off-gas treatment from in situ and ex situ thermal remediation applications (GEO, Mc-Millan McGee, and past projects with TRS, TerraTherm). Why?:  Large amounts of mass removed in short duration = high concentrations of COCs in off-gas = C3 Technology  C3 Technology is “insensitive” to fluctuations in both contaminant concentrations and humidity of vapor  Lease of system  no capital purchase to amortize  USEPA technical and “green practices” guidance
  24. 24. Off-Gas Treatment of Thermal Remediation Systems >99.9% VOC reduction for permitting in even the most stringent regulatory environments.
  25. 25. When Should I Consider Using C3 Technology?  High Concentrations of VOCs  Expedited Vapor Mass Removal Desired  Replacement of Carbon or ThermOx Systems  Off-Gas Treatment of Thermal Remediation Systems  Recycling, Reuse of Chemical May Offset Costs
  26. 26. Recycling, Reuse of NAPL to Offset Costs  Recovered, condensed COCs (as NAPL) may – in many scenarios – be reused onsite or recycled offsite.  Derived revenues may significantly reduce, offset costs of C3 Technology operations.  Applicable to petroleum hydrocarbons, CFCs, and chlorinated solvents. Other or ‘exotic’ contaminants are also possible. Rule of thumb: if it is recoverable as an off-gas (via SVE or thermal remediation), then C3 Technology can condense and recover it as a NAPL!
  27. 27. Fuel Recovery Economics  500 SCFM Fuel Recovery System  $1.00 per gallon after market value Value vs. Influent Concentration 500 SCFM FUEL RECOVERY MODEL $- $10,000 $20,000 $30,000 $40,000 $50,000 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 100,000 Influent Concentration in ppmV Monthly Operational Cost Monthly Recovered Fuel Value c
  28. 28. Fuel Recovery Economics  What is possible?: Over 200,000 gallons of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted as off- gas, condensed as LNAPL, and recycled at one site alone!
  29. 29. Agenda  What is C3 Technology and who is GEO?  How does C3 Technology work?  When should I consider using C3 Technology?  When has C3 Technology been used in the past?  How can I use C3 Technology to benefit my project?
  30. 30. When Has C3 Technology Been Used in the Past? Chlorinated Ethenes PCE (Perchloroethene) TCE (Trichloroethene) DCE (Dichloroethene) VC (Vinyl Chloride) Chlorinated Ethanes TCA (Trichloroethane) DCM (Methylene Chloride) CT (Carbon Tetrachloride) CF (Chloroform) CFCs (Freons) Petroleum Hydrocarbons Fuels Simple Aromatics (BTEX) 4-Ethyltoluene Naphthalene
  31. 31. Select Project Summaries
  32. 32. Agenda  What is C3 Technology and who is GEO?  How does C3 Technology work?  When should I consider using C3 Technology?  When has C3 Technology been used in the past?  How can I use C3 Technology to benefit my project?
  33. 33. Representative Projects Started FY 2015  Replacement of vGAC system: Georgia (USA). 500 cfm. Recovery of BTEX and TCE. Existing blowers retained for vapor extraction purposes.  SVE: Victoria (Australia). 300 cfm. Extraction, treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated ethenes.  ISTR (Thermal): 500 cfm for treatment of BTEX, Naphthalene, PCE (California, USA)  Replacement of vGAC system: New Hampshire (USA). 200 cfm. TCE (NAPL present).  SVE: 1,300 cfm for treatment of TCE, DCE, Vinyl Chloride (California, USA)
  34. 34. $- $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 AverageCostPerKilogramRemoved(One YearofOperation) Influent Concentration of Solvent Mix in ppmV Activated Carbon (GAC) C3 Technology …To Realize Cost Savings At 100-200 ppmV consider rebound performance optimization or planned transition to vGAC  Methylene or Vinyl Chloride or Freon *Greater than 90% uptime
  35. 35. Pilot Test with BTEX, TPH, & TCE (now going to full scale)
  36. 36. Pilot Test with BTEX, TPH, & TCE (now going to full scale) Day (1,300 gallons/32 days) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Gallons/Day Concentrations on Startup = 26,000ppm v  ~14,000 pounds  32 days  200 SCFM system
  37. 37. Small Applications - Drycleaners  50 – 250 cfm mobile units.  Mobilization possible through standard size personnel doors.  Permitted in most stringent AQMDs (SCAQMD, BAAQMD).  Small footprint, Big results.  Typically operational for 3 – 12 months, then switch to vGAC.  Partner firms can handle offsite recycling or disposal of PCE, for “cradle to grave” management.
  38. 38. Larger Applications, Remote Sites  500 – 2,000 cfm units.  Proven in hot, arid + cold, winter environments.  Long-term lease options facilitate competitive budgeting.
  39. 39. To Attain Best Or Competitive “Carbon Footprint” Metrics # 1  C3 has lowest footprint # 3  C3 has lowest footprint  Thermal system oversized to 600 scfm # 2  C3 and TO have equivalent footprint *Annual footprint (metric tons CO2) estimates do not include equipment and component manufacturing System CO2 Footprint CFM CO2 Footprint CFM Footprint CFM GAC 400 100 1300 200 1800 200 Therm-Ox 200 100 300 200 800 600 C3-Tech 150 100 300 200 600 200
  40. 40. Best Available Control Technology  Selected as BACT in several USEPA RODs.  No onsite creation of acid gases.  Complex mixtures of contaminants.  Sensitive locations – i.e. next to schools, residences.  No guessing: easy to quantify mass of recovered NAPL.
  41. 41. …For Cost Certainty, Cost Control  When mass to-be-removed is uncertain, but high off-gas concentrations are expected.  When thermal remediation might cause very high concentrations of COCs in off-gas.  For rapid mass removal with guaranteed results.  For flexible “price per pound” vapor treatment situations.
  42. 42. Thank you! References  AFCEE, 1996. A General Evaluation of Bioventing for Removal Actions at Air Force / Department of Defense Installations Worldwide: General Engineering Evaluation / Cost Analysis (EE/CA). June.  Downey, D.C., Pluhar, C.J., and Archabal, S.R., A Performance and Cost Evaluation of Purus Padre® Regenerative Resin for Treatment of Hydrocarbon Vapors from Fuel-Contaminated Soils. Prepared for AFCEE.  Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Version 3.0, The Global Reporting Initiative, The Netherlands. 2000-2006.  U.S. EPA, 2006. Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Soil Vapor Extraction Systems: State of the Practice, March.  U.S. EPA, 2004. Treatment Technologies for Site Cleanup: Annual Status Report. 11th Edition. EPA-542-R-03-009. February.  U.S. EPA, 2004 Introduction to Energy Conservation and Production at Waste Cleanup Sites. Engineering Forum Issue Paper. Document 542-S-04-001. Michael Gill and Katarina Mahutova. May  U.S. EPA, 2001. Remediation Technology Cost Compendium-Year 2000. Document EPA-542-R-01-009. September.  EPA.GOV, Climate Leaders Reporting- Inventory Management Plan Checklist. Version 03/10/2005
  43. 43. Questions GEO Environmental Remediation Company Exclusive provider of patented C3 Technology ask@georemco.com OR grant@georemco.com www.georemco.com

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