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BRIEF REVISION - HYDROLOGY - 01. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

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BRIEF REVISION - HYDROLOGY - 01. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

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BRIEF REVISION - HYDROLOGY - 01. EVAPORATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION

  1. 1. AS GEOGRAPHY BRIEF REVISION HYDROLOGY 01 EVAPORATION EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
  2. 2. EVAPORATION Evaporation is the process by which liquid water is transformed into water vapour, which is a gas.
  3. 3. ESSENTIAL PART OF THE WATER CYCLE Evaporation is an essential part of the water cycle. The sun (solar energy) drives evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, moisture in the soil, and other sources of water.
  4. 4. EVAPOTRANSPIRATION In hydrology, evaporation and transpiration (which involves evaporation within plant stomata) are collectively termed evapotranspiration. Evaporation of water occurs when the surface of the liquid is exposed, allowing molecules to escape and form water vapor; this vapour can then rise up and form clouds. With sufficient energy, the liquid will turn into vapour.
  5. 5. POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION In a nutshell, evapotranspiration is the total amount of moisture removed by evaporation and transpiration from a vegetated land surface. Potential evapotranspiration is the amount of water that could be evaporated or transpired from an area given sufficient water available. Potential evapotranspiration is directly related to prevailing temperature conditions. The relationship between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration for an area is represented by a soil moisture graph.
  6. 6. IN A NUTSHELL Evaporation is water turning into water vapour – turning from a liquid to a gas. Transpiration is evaporation from plant leaves – plants and trees take up water through their roots and transport it to their leaves where it evaporates into the atmosphere. Evapotranspiration is the process of evaporation and transpiration together. Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is the amount of water that could be lost by evapotranspiration. Actual evapotranspiration is what actually happens.
  7. 7. EXAMPLE In a desert potential evapotranspiration is high (because heat increases the amount of evaporation) but actual transpiration is low (because there isn’t that much moisture in the first place). Evapotranspiration stations at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nevada.
  8. 8. EXAM QUESTION Define evaporation. ANSWER ON THE NEXT PAGE
  9. 9. EXAM ANSWER Evaporation is the process by which water changes into a gas.

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