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Gender sensitisation

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detail discussion on gender sensitization and how it can be achieved.

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Gender sensitisation

  1. 1. Title Layout Gender Sensitization
  2. 2. Gender Sensitization • Explain the meaning of gender • Develop gender literacy among teachers/students • Understand gender relations and gender issues in classroom/school • Explain roles of schools in promoting gender equality among students. • Develop positive attitude towards gender.
  3. 3. SEX AND GENDER • “Sex” refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women. Hence sex is permanent and universal. Sex refers to a person’s biological make-up as male or female. Typically, a person’s genotype (genetic makeup) and phenotype (observable traits) are used to determine a person’s sex. While sex is the determination of whether a person is male or female which is viewed and accepted as ‘natural • “Gender” refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women. Gender construction varies from one society to another.
  4. 4. SEX AND GENDER •To put it in another way, “Male” and “Female” are sex categories, while “masculine” and “feminine” are gender categories.
  5. 5. Difference between sex & gender Sex (Biological difference) Gender (Social difference) Difficult to change (we are born male or female) Can be changed since gender identity is determined by society. Throughout history and across cultures, sex differences exist. At different times in history and in different societies, gender roles are different. Policies respond to sex differences in areas to do with the physical body. Policies can respond to gender stereotype and traditional gender roles.
  6. 6. continue • "Why do men and women act and think in different ways?" • Two possible explanations have been put forward, one relative to biology and the other to culture. • The scientists adopting the biological explanation usually consider the behavioural differences between men and women as being linked to hormones and brain differences. Experiments performed on rats have shown that there is a link between hormones and certain types of behaviour, such as between androgens and aggressive behaviour. Therefore, following this line of thinking, it is believed that differences in behaviours are fixed in biology. It is considered natural for men to be more assertive and aggressive than women due to their higher level of testosterone. • However, these explanations have been widely criticized and it is difficult to make any conclusive observation from animal experiments that can be applied to human beings. Moreover, researches carried out with people have also been opened to doubt. • The most popular explanation among sociologists remains the cultural one. Gender roles are viewed as being learnt through socialisation. Culture is thus put forward as the key to understanding why men and women hold different attitudes and behaviours and why society actually expects them to behave in different ways and accept these differences as ‘natural'. This is why the term ‘gender' has been coined. It is asserted that men and women are not born with behavioural differences, despite their anatomical differences. They rather learn, as from an early age, that because they belong to a particular sex, they must behave in a specific way. Their gender identities and gender roles are assigned to them, not by biology, but by society's norms and values regarding the different sexes. • The debate, however, is still open. Researches are still being made to settle the question. Even though the cultural explanation seems to bear more weight, no research has as yet been able to prove that the biological aspect holds no influence on behavioural differences between men and women; on the contrary, links have been established between biology and behaviour. The controversy is thus still ongoing and we are now hearing about an interaction between biology and culture as being the answer.
  7. 7. Conditioning •As a child, boys get toys like trucks, guns and super heroes while the girls are given dolls and cooking sets. •This conditioning manipulates young minds into believing that they must act within their “given place” in the society.
  8. 8. Challenges • Girls who do not conform to stereotypical expectations can experience criticism, ostracism and even violence. • This also puts unwarranted pressure on boys who love to read, dislike fighting, or dislike sports or mechanics. • Gender equality benefits both boys and girls
  9. 9. Benefits • Allow boys to express their emotions, encourage them to be expressive. Involve them in activities like gardening and cooking. • Expose girls to role models of women in business, especially those outside the stereotype, like doctors, scientists and leaders. • These role models will help girls to see themselves in professions outside the normal stereotypes.
  10. 10. Change the way we speak
  11. 11. Some quotes I don’t want to be your other half. I believe that one & one make two. We cannot all succeed when half of us are back Malala Yousafzai The soul has no Gender We’ve begun to raise daughters more like sons…. But few have the courage to raise our sons more like our daughters. Gender equality is a precondition to overcoming starvation, poverty & epidemic.
  12. 12. Gender equality • What is Gender Equality? • Gender equality is achieved when women and men enjoy the same rights and opportunities across all sectors of society, including economic participation and decision-making, and when the different behaviours, aspirations and needs of women and men are equally valued and favoured.
  13. 13. continue • "Gender equality requires equal enjoyment by women and men of socially-valued goods, opportunities, resources and rewards." • In other words, gender equality refers to equal access to social goods, services and resources and equal opportunities in all spheres of life for both men and women. When there is gender inequality, it is women that are more likely to be disadvantaged and marginalised; but we should not ignore the negative impact that gender inequality can have on men as well. For example, societal norms regarding the appropriate behaviour for men tend to put them under pressure as regards the need to provide materially for their family, and also deny them opportunities of being more nurturing towards their children and wife. Therefore gender equality is the concern of all and changes must be brought about for both men and women. However, this is not to say that men and women are equally affected by gender inequality. It remains true that women have the greater share of disadvantages. • However, gender equality, as defined above, does not often result in equal outcomes for men and women. Being given the same chances in life is not sufficient to bring about true equality. Women and men have different needs and experiences and accommodation should be made for these differences. For example, giving boys and girls equal access to all the courses offered in a school may not result in girls taking advantage of this opportunity if some courses are predominantly filled with male students and have only male teachers. There is still the unfortunate tendency to consider male norms as a measure for women's position. Providing women and men with the same opportunities is the first step; but for true gender equality to be achieved there is a need for gender equity.
  14. 14. • End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere • Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation • Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation • Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate • Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decisionmaking in political, economic and public life • Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences • Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws • Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology,
  15. 15. Gender equity • "Gender equity is the process of being fair to women and men." (UNFPA) • Women and men should not only be given equal access to resources and equal opportunities, but they should also be given the means of benefiting from this equality. This is where the concept of ‘gender equity' comes into play. Gender equity implies fairness in the way women and men are treated. The different life experiences and needs of men and women are taken into consideration and compensation is made for women's historical and social disadvantages. The lower status of women in society often constitutes a handicap and provisions should be made to redress this inequality before they can take advantage of the opportunities provided. Gender equity thus serves to level the playing field and empower women. Therefore, we can say that equity is essential to achieve true equality. •
  16. 16. • Gender mainstreaming is a strategy for developing policies, legislation, programs, projects, society and community’s development plans from gender equality perspective in order to benefit both women and men
  17. 17. RECOMMENDATION OF NCF-2005 • (1)Access to Education for All Girls: The government must be impressed upon to spend more on education. Nothing short of free and quality education for all and the provision of accessible schools for girls in every area of the country, will ensure that all girls gain equal access to education • .(2)Retention and Quality of Girls’ Education: Government schools are increasingly becoming centres of poor quality education for the marginalised sections of society, specially girls, which in turn is connected to the high dropout rates of girls. Hence the infrastructure and quality of teaching in government schools must be brought up to the mark.
  18. 18. continue • The Issue of Retention: While the overall enrolment of girls has increased, the dropout rate of girls from marginalised and rural sections, specially from the upper primary level upwards is extremely high. A sizeable proportion of out of school dropouts, chiefly migrant, poor and working children, are girls - school discontinuation rates of rural girls are twice as high as that of boys. National-level surveys and data also show that:9 out of every 10 girls ever enrolled in school could not complete schooling. Only 1 out of every 100 girls enrolled in Class I reaches Class XII in rural areas and 14 out of every100 girls enrolled in Class I reach Class XII in urban areas.

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