1. CHAPTER I
In the world of agriculture, planting media is something that absolutely
necessary to be able to perform farming activities. Generally, people familiar with
the soil as growing media primary. But with the rapid population growth and the
high demand of agriculture production contributed to the increasing exploitation
of the land to be used as a planting media, especially the upper soil (top soil or
horizon O / A and B)
Nowadays farmers generally have started looking for alternative media
beside soil, this is because most of the land has been processed so that the
top soil not longer contain organic material and nutrients are high.
Planting media from waste coconutfiber was one alternative that is
increasingly in demand. This media has several advantages like: the ability to hold
water and nutrients are high, has a crumbly texture, can improve soil aeration, free
from pathogens, easy to obtain and cheap.
1.2 Limited of problems
1. Riau province has lot of histosol especially peat moss (gambut) which is
not suitable as planting media because the pH level that ussualy low.
2. Utilization of the coconut fiber which is waste of coconut crop still not
maximum. In the other side, cocofiber waste in Riau are plenty.
3. The change of climate has made rainfall distribution not evenly spread in
one year period. So, water not always available for plant.
4. Demand of cheap vegetable to fulfill nutritious food is increase these days.
1 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
2. 1.3 PURPOSE
The purpose of making this paper are:
1. Provide information to the public regarding the utilization of waste
coconut fiber as growing media.
2. Improving economic value from coconut .
3. Provide information to the people that cocopeat can be use as planting
media for plants, especially plants in pots / polybag.
2 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
3. CHAPTER II
THE LITERATURE OF THE RESEARCH
2.1 Definition and terms of planting media
Planting media is a material that serves to sustain the plants, providing
nutrients and provides a place for plant roots to grow and flourish. Through
growing media the plants get most of the nutrients. For the cultivation of plants in
containers or polybags , growing media is made in exchange of soil. Therefore, it
must be able to replace the function of the soil for the plants ( Kemas Ali
Planting media must have good physical properties, chemical and
biological that suits with the plant need. Generally, a good growing media must be
have the following requirements:
Able to provide growing space for plant roots, while also able to sustain
the plant. This means growing media must be loose so that the roots of
plants can grow well and perfect, but still pretty solid hold roots and stems
that do not collapsed .
Have a good porosity, means it can save water at the same time also have
drainage (ability to drain water) and aeration (ability to carry oxygen) is
Providing enough nutrients both macro and micro. Nutrients are essential
for plant growth. These nutrients can be supplied from fertilizer or activity
of microorganisms contained in growing media.
Does not contain the seeds of disease, growing media must be clean of
pests and diseases. Pests and diseases contained within growing media can
attack plants and causing death in plants. Good Planting media not has to
be sterile because many of soil microorganisms are actually very beneficial
to the plants, but must be hygienic from germs.
3 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
4. 2.2 The potential of waste coconut fiber as planting media
Now the world's attention focused on the greening for the salvation of the
world. Needs of fertile soil will continue to increase , but the problem arises when
it comes to greening the urban soil is no longer fertile. The easiest way is to take a
productive and fertile land elsewhere or forests actual also interfere with the
preservation of nature. In some developed countries have already banned the soil
from one area to another, the purpose of preventing outbreaks of pests and
diseases that usually come in the land.
Therefore, in developed countries began looking for a replacement of the
soil, one of good alternative is cocopeat. This product is produced from coconut
fiber, unfortunately cocopeat it is not widely used by farmers and the hobbyists in
cultivation, while cocopeat has the ability to hold water and nutrients.
Picture 1 : Coconut fiber
The other product from coconut that can produce foreign exchange for the
country is coconut fiber which consist of fibers (fiber long), bristle (smooth and
short fibers), and coir dust. The fibers can be processed into elastic fibers, mat,
geotextile, carpet, and craft products / household industries. Mat and elastic fibers
are widely used in industrial seats, mattress and upholstery heat. Coir dust can be
processed to compost and cocopeat, and particle board / hardboard. (Suwarto, et al
4 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
5. Utilization of coconut fiber that is not less interesting as coco peat is the
coconut husks are processed into granules of coconut fiber. Coco peat can hold
water and the elements of fertilizer and also can neutralize soil acidity. Because of
these haracteristics, coco peat can be used as a good media for the growth of
horticultural crops and greenhouse plants media. (http://www.chem- is-try.org/)
Based on the research, coconut fiber powder is one of the alternative
planting medium that are both organic and abundant to archipelago countries
including Indonesia. The advantage is fiber (lasting 10 years to decompose) and is
able to absorb and retain water and fertilizer 8-10 times, it is flexible and loose, so
that the oxygen and sunlight easily reach in depth, so that the the roots of the
plants will be more active and productive.
Cocopeat is expected to be an alternative in the world for the improvement
of soil fertility, because when mixed with sandy soil, yields were also amazing.
Cocopeat coconut fiber or an alternative organic materials that can be used as a
growing media. Coconut fiber for growing media, better derived from olds
coconuts because it has a strong fiber.
Cocopeat media can be a safety substitute for soil and healthy plants.
Because the characteristic of cocopeat which saves a lot of water and air rich pore
growth to seed germination is very good at soil level fertile soil will always be
loose so that the new roots grow fast and heavy. No longer susceptible seedlings
ends when moved outdoors.( Kevin hendrik et al, 2010)
In addition cocopeat other advantages are:
1. Characeristic of cocopeat easily accommodate water in the pores. This is
beneficial because it will keep the splashed liquid fertilizer until the plants
to fertilization frequency can be reduced.
2. Loosen soil with pH neutral and environmentally friendly (> 10 years).
3. Able to binds smells in the vicinity.
4. Supporting the growth of roots quickly, so it is good for the nursery.
5 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
6. 5. Cultivation hydroponik In anthrium recommended using cocopeat.
6. Cocopeat containing Trichoderma molds can reduce disease in the soil.
7. Cocopeat also is hydrophilic which can absorb the water surround it, the
recent of cocopeat developments is used as a biological filter water and
absorb oil spills.
According to Joko Pramono, the user cocopeat in Semarang, Central Java.
Cocopeat is able to reduce the difference of temperature between day and night
that is too high. 'The media made from organic absorbs heat during the day and
release it slowly at night. Therefore, the temperature of the media tend to be
stable, "said Joko. Medium temperature stability is very important for maintaining
the activity of microorganisms. 'Microorganisms require a temperature of 25 –
30oC in order to work correctly. (Trubus, February 2014).
Picture 2: the Cocopeats that already to use
The results research of Dr. Geoff Creswell, from Creswell Horticultural
Services, Australia, cocopeat growing media could hold up to 73% water. Of 41
ml of water that flowed past the layers of cocopeat, wasted only 11 ml. The
amount is much higher than the sphagnum moss that is only 41%. In general, the
degree of acidity of 5.8 to 6 cocopeat media. on the condition that plants absorb
nutrients optimally. Necessary acidity ideal plant 5.5-6.5.
6 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
7. The optimum pH level for the soil to provide nutrient is around 7, in this pH
level all th macros element are available for the plant, meanwhile the micros
element are no available except for Mo, therefore the chance for the micros
element to poisined the plant can be supressed.
In the pH level below 6,5 the elements P, Ca, and Mg are sutficieat that
can be deficient for the plant, and the taxicition of elements Br, Mn, Cu, Zn, and
Fe can be happened. Meanwhile at the pH level beyond 7,5 the deficiency of P, B,
Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ca, and Mo and the poisination of B and Mo can be happened.
( Kemas Ali Hanafiah, 2012).
Usage of cocopeat as growing media should be conducted in areas with low
rainfall. Excessive rain water can easily lead to this growing medium obsolete. In
addition, the plants became rapidly decaying, so that could be the source of of
disease. To overcome decay, coconut fiber should steeped first in a solution of
fungicide. When compared with other media, giving fungicide on coco medium
should be repeated frequently because it is quickly obsolete so easily invaded by
fungi. ( Kevin hendrik et al, 2010)
2.3 Cultivation Collards (Brassica juncea)
Collards is an annual plant, its shape almost resembles caisim. Caisim and
Collards sometimes difficult to distinguish. Collards leaves, oval, smooth,
hairless. Palm plants have shorter stems more slender from the the chinese
cabbage. The main leaf veins narrower than chinese cabbage, but its leaves are
7 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
8. Generally, the growth pattern of scattered leaves (rosette) is difficult to
establish the crop. This plant has a taproot with many side roots, but shallow. The
flowers are similar to chinese cabbage, but a series of shorter bunches. Flower bud
size is smaller with specific pale yellow color. Small seed size and black-brown.
Seeds are contained in both sides of the bulkhead wall fatter poll. and Collards it
tastes good and contains vitamin A, B and a bit of vitamin C.
Picture 3 : Collards (Brassica juncea)
Collards easily grown in lowland and highland, while the essential
requirements is to cultivate collards are loose soil, many containing humus
(fertile), good drainage and soil pH between 6-7. Better planting time is at the end
of the rainy season.
Collards seeds need to be planted first. Before sowing the seeds,
processed land first by digging as deep as 30 cm and were given as much as 10
tons of animal manure / ha. After that, the land made beds-beds with a width of
one meter. The beds made of three rows with 30 cm spacing between rows and 40
cm distance. After 3-4 weeks of time dispersive (leaf approximately four strands)
are then transferred to the beds. Furthermore, give urea fertilizer plant at the age
of 10 days in bed. (cvnaikdaunjombang.wordpress.com)
8 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
9. CHAPTER III
3.1 TIME AND PLACE
This research was conducted in the nursery garden Food Crops and
Horticulture Riau Vocational High School for Integrated Agriculture , 10 KM
Jalan Kharuddin Nasution Marpoyan Damai, Pekanbaru. on March 28, 2014 until
May 15, 2014.
3.2 Research methods
Research was conducted by PLANTING MEDIA COMPARISON trial. With
1. planting media such as coco peat (100%)
2. planting media such as top soil (100%)
3. planting media such as cocopeat + top soil mixture (ratio 50%: 50%)
3.3 Tools and Materials
1. The tools used in this experiment are follows: Buckets,hoes,watering
pot, labels, cutter, stationery observation table, scotch tape, strainer,
2. The materials used are: cocopeat, top soil, sands, Organic fertilizer,
Water, polybag, sweet collards seeds.
3.4 Implementation of the experiment
3.4.1 Make coconut fiber to be cocopeat as follows:
1. coconut fiber steeped for 3x24 hours with the goal of eliminating
Thanin substances contained in coconut fiber.
2. Last immersion given fungicide Dithane 45M to prevent the
development of fungi that are pathogens of various types of diseases.
3. Before and after immersion was measured degree of acidity (pH level)
9 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
10. 4. After 3 times of submersion and then dried the coconut fiber under the
5. Once dried, sieve coconut fiber until fit with the required fineness
6. Coconut fiber has become cocopeat and ready to use as a growing
3.4.2 Experiments planting by comparing the several growing media.
A. Germination media
1) For the mustard plant first prepare the trayer/ nursery box with the
size of 1m x 0,8 m 3 pieces
2) Prepare three (3) types of growing media, are media from cocopeat
(100% cocopeat), cocopeat + sands (ratio 20:80), top soil (100%
3) Make 3 nursery boxs
4) In each nursery boxes give 800g farmyard manure
5) Sow 100 collards on the nursery boxes
6) Perform maintenance with regular watering 2 times daily in
morning and evening.
7) Make observations every day, and the parameters measured was:
B. Collards growing media
1) Prepare the specified media and add as much the manure
2) Prepare each 5 pieces polybag size 15x35 cm for each treatment
3) Remove the seeds from the nursery box carefully into a polybag
4) Once transferred, flush the polybag with water the plant get some
5) Do the maintenance everyday, and measuring the growth of plant
with parameter high plant and number of leaves.
10 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
11. CHAPTER IV
THE RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 The Results
4.1.1 Producing of cocopeat
From the cocopeat growing media manufacturing process, the resulted
in the planting media is obtained which has the following
1. The colour is dark (dark brown)
2. Has a loose texture (is powder from coconut fiber)
3. Has the level of acidity which tends to neutral, where at the
beginning of the immersion pH = 5.55, after immersion for 3 x 24
hour pH = 6.74 was obtained.
4. Have the ability to keep water (+ 66,6% of total dry weight, total
weight after submersion is 20 kg and after drying in the sun became
12 kg). This characteristic causing cocopeat can save nutrients from
fertilizer therefore it’s available for plant.
4.1.2 Using cocopeat as planting media
a. P1: Cocopeat 100%
b. P2: Top soil 100%
c. P3: Sands : Cocopeat 80% : 20%
With planting sweet collard (Brassica juncea) as an indicator, where the
parameters observed are:
a. Germination rate
b. The growth of plants
11 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
12. Then obtained results as follows:
1. Germination rate
Treatment The Amount of
seeds are Planted
The Amount of
seeds that grow
12 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
P.1 100 96 96% 2 days to
P.2 100 84 84% 3 days to
P.3 100 89 89% 3 days to
2. Plant growth
For the growth of plants the parameters that observed were: plant height,
and number of leaves.
Recapitulation of growth of plant sweet collards (Brassica juncea)
Parameters that observated
Height of plants (cm) Number of leaves (sheets)
P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3
1 4,46 4,36 4,18 4 4 3,4
2 4,68 4,68 4,46 4 4 3,8
3 4,98 4,94 4,72 4 4 3,8
4 5,24 5,22 4,875 4,6 4 3,8
5 5,5 5,44 5,04 4,6 4,6 4
6 5,62 5,74 5,68 4,6 4,6 4,4
7 6,22 7,2 5,82 5 5 4,4
8 6,6 7,94 6,44 5,2 5,4 4,8
9 6,78 8,425 6,88 5,2 5,4 5,2
10 7,18 9,54 7,76 5,6 5,4 5,6
11 7,84 11,16 8,6 5,8 5,4 5,8
12 8,48 11,8 9,4 6,2 5,4 5,8
13 9,18 12,06 10,2 6,4 6 6,2
14 10,1 12,28 11,9 6,6 6,4 6,4
15 11,7 12,66 11,96 7 7 6,4
PARAMETERS THAT OBSERVATED
Height of plants (cm) Number of leaves (sheet)
P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3
16 12,6 13 13,58 7 7 6,4
17 13,04 13,5 14 7 7 6,4
18 14,14 13,7 14,46 7 7 6,8
19 14,8 14,02 15 7 7 7,2
20 16,5 14,64 15,72 7 7 7,2
21 17 14,82 16,16 7 7 7,2
22 17,5 14,98 16,84 7 7 7,2
23 18 15,58 17,8 7 7 7,4
24 18,3 16,18 18,3 7 7 8,2
25 18,6 16,48 18,56 7 7 8,2
26 18,8 16,88 19,26 7,2 7 8,2
27 19,1 17,28 19,8 7,2 7 8,8
28 19,5 17,82 20,4 7,2 7 9
29 19,7 18,78 21,26 7,6 7 9,6
30 20 19,38 22,04 7,6 7,4 9,6
Average 12,07 12,02 12,31 5,71 5,34 6,37
Cappability of Cocopeat in keep the water is high enough, then it is very
nice to use cocopeat as a germination media, This is proven by the results of the
writer's observation that collards faster germination and germination percentage
was higher in treatment 1 (Cocopeat 100%) compared to treatment 2 (top soil 100
%) and treatment 3 (cocopeat: sand 20:80). The results of the writer's observation
cocopeat is good for germination media, because the treatment 1 (cocopeat 100%)
from the 100 are sown there are 96 seeds mustard growing, and it only takes 2
days to germinate, while the treatement 2 and 3 requires 3 days to germinate and
lower germination rate from the treatement mustard 1.
13 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
14. The results research of Dr. Geoff Creswell, of Creswell Horticultural
Service, Australian, cocopeat growing media could hold up to 73% water. Of 41
ml of water that flowed through layers cocopeat, which wasted only 11 ml. The
amount is much higher than the sphagnum moss that is only 41%. In general, the
degree of acidity of 5.8 to 6 cocopeat media. on the condition that plants absorb
nutrients optimally. Ideal acidity necessary plants 5.5-6.5.
After doing experiments with three treatments the result not to different
each other, because sweet collards is a plant that is easy to grow. The average
growing rate for treatment 3 is higher than others, but the different is not
P2 P3 P1
Picture 4: sweet collards in every treatments
The manufacture of planting media from coconut fiber media needs to be
treated like soaking and washing, in addition to eliminate the existing Thanin
substances on coconut fiber also neutralize the pH of the media and reduce the
high salt content. Moreover soaking in the fungicide is also required, considering
this medium can absorb water and retain water easily which results in a fairly high
humidity, so the media is easily overgrown fungi and micro-organisms harmful
for the plants.
14 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
15. Picture 5: Comparison of sweet Collards
The characteristic of cocopeat can save much water. Because the over
watering can cause the media too moist, and so easy overgrown fungi. A simple
treatment apparently can produce fairly good planting media, so the planting
media from coconut fiber has a chance for the develop again. Moreover the
advantage of this is cocopeat planting media raw materials derived from waste
coconut husks which are abundantly available Riau area so it can increase the
economic value of products plant itself.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
Chart 1 : additional of leaves
15 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
NUMBER OF LEAVES
CHART OF ADDITIONAL OF LEAVES
16. CHART OF HEIGHT OF PLANTS
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29
Chart 2 : Height of plants
Regarding the cappabilities of cocopeat could to hold much water, we
HEIGHT OF PLANTS (CM)
should avoid giving much water, “In some plants, if the media is too moist, it can
cause became rots, therefore, if want to use cocopeat better we mixed the
cocopeat with other materials that water holding capacity isn’t high, like sands or
chorcoal husks, writer’s suggest, given water on cocopeat little by little but
continuosly like drip irrgation or carburation.
Therefore cocopeat is suitable as germination media but for the planting
media it better added as a mixture of sand, because the the characteristic of
cocopeat which saves a lot of water and the air and rich pores and the
characteristic of sand is porous it can makes the growth of growth in very good
level, the land will always be loose so the new roots grow fast and heavy. Ends
mustard plant will grow fast and healthy.
16 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
17. CHAPTER V
1. Coco peat can keep water (from the experiment 66,6% of total weight) it is
can save water therefore suitable in dry season and dry area.
2. Cocopeat is good for germination media, from the experiment show by P1
(cocopeat 100%) with 96% germination rate and takes 2 days for the
3. For the planting media the best results come from treatments 3 (20%
Cocopeat: Sand 80%).
4. Growing Collard with coco peat as planting media can be alternative to
provide cheap and nutritious vegetable
1. For the benefit given by cocopeat as planting media, we should
increase the utilization of cocopeat as alternatif Planting media
2. The utilization of cocopeat as planting media needs further
3. If we want tou use cocopeat as planting media better we mixed
cocopeat with sand, with comparison 80% sands and 20% cocopeat.
17 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media
Anonim, http://www.chem-is-try.org ,acsesed on March 24th , 2014
sawicaisim.html ,acsessed on February 1st ,2014
acsessed on March, 2nd 2014
polybag/, acsessed on February 1st ,2014
Geoff creswell, http://www.cocopeat.com.au/technical/productAnalysis/pdf/
Cresswelldoc.pdf, acsessed on June 2014
Hendrik Kevin, Black Neil “Growing Media for Ornamental Plants and Turf”
(Sydney: University of new south wales press 2010).
Hanafiah Ali Kemas,“Dasar-dasar Ilmu Tanah” (Jakarta : Rajawali Press,2012)
Suwarto, Yuke Octavianty, Silvia Hermawaty, “Top 15 Tanaman Perkebunan”
(Jakarta : Penebar Swadaya 2014)
Trubus, Edisi Februari 2014 “Bisnis hebat olahan coconut”
18 Utilization cocofiber waste as Planting media