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- TA was formulated by ERIC BERNE (1960s)
- Berne’s Games People Play(1964) & Thomas Harris’s I’m OK
- Eric Berne was born n 1910 in Montreal, Canada
- TA is a model of psychotherapy and theory of personality
which integrates psychoanalytic concept with humanistic
1955-1962 – First Phase
Developed Concept Of Ego States.
1962-1966 - Second Phase
he concentrated on ideas about games and transactions.
1966-1970- Third Phase
He emphasized the reasons some individuals choose to play certain games in
1970 – Onwards
He emphasised action and energy distribution
View Of Human Nature
- TA is an optimistic theory
- Its basic assumption is the people can change despite any
unfortunate events of the past
- TA is also anti- anti deterministic, believing that people
have choices in their lives
BASIC PHILOSOPHICAL ASSUMPTIONS
1. People are born OK: psychological disturbances is acquired.
2. People are capable of thinking independently(unless
severely brain damaged)
3. People are responsible for the decision they made, and
1. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS – understanding what is
happening within the individual.
2. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS – Describing what happens
between two or more people.
3. GAME ANALYSIS – understanding transactions between
individuals that lead to bad feelings.
4. SCRIPT ANALYSIS – understanding the life plan that an
individual is following
Berne defines an ego state is “a consistent pattern of
feeling and experience directly related to a
corresponding consistent pattern of behavior”
Ego States are dynamic aspects of personality
Exteropsyche - Parent
Neopsyche - Adult
Archeopsyche - Child
1.CHILD EGO STATE
• First ego state to develop is the child, which is that part of
personality characterized by child like behaviours and
• The child ego state is the archive of a person’s total life
experience to date, moments of which may be evoked and re-
experienced in the present.
• When we are in the child ego state we act like child we
• The ego states are fully experienced states of being, not just
3 Types -
1. Natural Child - When the child is hateful or loving,
impulsive, spontaneous or playful, self centered.
2. Adapted Child – the complaining part of personality
that confirms wishes and demands of parental figures
3. Little Professor – when it is thoughtful, creative or
2. PARENTAL EGO STATE
• The parent ego state incorporates the attitudes and
behaviours(the don’ts, should, and ought) of parental
• In the parent ego state ‘introjected’ parent figures from the
past are evoked in the present. They are the beliefs,
mannerisms and emotional responses of an actual parent
from the past
• Outwardly the messages are delivered through prejudice,
criticism, and nurturing behaviour
Parental Ego State:
1. Nurturing Parent – who comforts praises and aids
2. Critical Parent – who finds fault, displays
prejudices, disapproves and prevents others from
feeling good about themselves.
3. ADULT EGO STATE
• The adult ego state is the congruent, aware person attuned to
themselves and their environment , who responds congruently without
the contamination of parental prejudice or childhood fantasy
• When the adult ego is in control, people behave in
a thinking, rational, calculating, factual, unemotional manner.
• The adult gathers information, reasons things out, estimate
probabilities and makes decision with cool and calm behavior.
• When communicating in the adult ego state, you avoid becoming the
victim of the other person by controlling your response to the
• Generally, the most effective behavior, human relations,
and performance come from the adult ego state.
• When interacting with others, you should
be aware of their ego state.
BASIC HUMAN EGO STATES
FURTHER BREAKDOWN OF EGO STATES
LECTURING, CRITICIZING, MANY “OUGHTS”,
CONSOLING, “TAKING CARE” OF OTHERS,
OBJECTIVE, RATIONAL, ORIENTED TOWARD
PROBLEM SOLVING, DE-EMPHASIZE EMOTION
MODIFIED BEHAVIOUR TO CONFORM TO
ADULT EXPECTATIONS, MANUPULATIVE,
PLAYFUL, IMPULSIVE, NATULRALLY CURIOUS
&CREATIVE, FUN LOVING, REBELLIOUS
• These are the basic unit of communication.
• Transactions occur when a person relates to another
• Each transaction is made up of a stimulus and a response
• Within ego states there are three different types of trans
action: complementary, crossed, and ulterior
• Two basic levels of transactions:
1. Social level – which is observable
2. Psychological level – which is sensed.
A basic rule of communication is that when transactions are
made at both levels, the outcome will be
determined at the ulterior, psychological level
• Both persons are operating either from the same ego state
or from complementary ego states.
• Responses are predictable and appropriate.
• An inappropriate ego state is activated, producing an
• Crossed transactions hurt.
• Persons tend to withdraw from each other or switch topics
• Transaction is one in which two ego states operates
simultaneously and one message disguises the other.
• They appear to be complementary and socially acceptable
even though they are not
• Games are ulteriorly motivated transactions that appear
complementary on the surface but end in bad feelings.
• Games are a series of transactions with a familiar pattern and
• Those who are involved start out in one of three classical game
roles : - Persecutor, Rescuer or Victim.
• A game is characterized by the sudden switching of roles and
the collection of a payoff.
• These games are played outside awareness as a means of
generating familiar, often negative, unit of recognition or
• Stroke – the fundamental unit of social action
• A stroke is a unit of recognition, when one person recognizes
another person either verbally or non verbally.
• In infancy strokes are essential for survival and comes mainly
from close physical contact with a primary parent figures..
• Later strokes are symbolized by word and gestures.
• Spitz observed that infants deprived of handling – in other
words, not receiving any strokes – were more prone to
emotional and physical difficulties.
• Berne took Spitz’s observations of these infants and developed
theories about the needs of adults for strokes.
• Berne postulated that adults need physical contact just like
infants, but have learned to substitute other types of recognition
instead of physical stimulation.
• Berne also reasoned that any stroke, be it positive or negative, is
better than no strokes at all.
• Everyone makes a life script or life plan, early in childhood, by
the age of five.
• Life scripts is constructed in infancy in response to parental
• The scripts passes from consciousness but it is often faithfully
• Infants, depends on parental figures for survival, reach
conclusions based on themselves and others on the basis of
perceived messages from parents and adapt accordingly .
• Positive messages given to a child function as permissions
and do not limit people in any way.
• Negative messages or injunctions, are more powerful and
may become the basis for destructive scripts
• The script decisions in response to these messages reflect a
fundamental belief about the self in relation to others.
1. I’m ok
2. You’re ok
3. I’m not ok
4. You’re not ok
ROLE OF THERAPIST
• Initial role of being a teacher
• TA uses treatment contracts, the therapist make contracts
with the client.
1. TA focuses on helping clients transform themselves from
‘frogs’ into ‘princes’ and ‘princesses’.
2. It is emphasis is on attaining health and autonomy.
3. Help individuals to identify and restore distorted or
damaged ego states
4. The major emphasis of TA is on learning about the self
in order to decide who one wishes to become
1. TREATMENT CONTRACT
A specific , concrete contract that emphasizes agreed upon
responsibilities for both counsellor and client
Speaking to a client’s adult state until the counsellor receives an
Occurs on an adult to adult ego state level. The counsellor
teaches the client about some aspects of TA
Enlightens the client or elaborate a point
Used when previously modified behaviour occurs again and the
therapist points this out to the client
Involves the therapist’s explanation to the child ego state of the
client the reasons for the client’s behaviour
Consists of an adults - to – adults transactions in which the
client comes to an awareness that individuals game playing
may be given up if so desired
It involves the therapist’s pointing out inconsistencies in the
client’s behaviour or speech
STAGES OF TREATMENT
Establishing a work alliance, mapping the nature problem and
negotiating a preliminary contract
De-contamination of the adult ego state
The therapist help the client to identify the parental
prejudices and childhood fantasies that they have used to
distort reality and reign force their life script
De- confusing the child ego state and developing an internal
It is important to establish that they have decided to keep
themselves safe, act safely with others and stay touch with the
Integration of new decisions and bringing to a close therapeutic
This stage often involves the client reviewing other relationships,
discovering disowned aspects of their authentic self and
experimenting with new ways of being
Transactional Analysis applies to different
1. The clinical side of therapy.
2. The analysis of personality.
3. The interpersonal communication.
4. The group dynamics.
5. The organization analysis (organizational theory of Eric
6. Used in the domains of education, consulting, training,
coaching, recruitment, skills assessment and organization.
Transactional Analysis Provides Simple Yet
Powerful Ways To:
1. Increase understanding in communication with others
2. Deal with stress and change healthily
3. Handle and resolve conflict
4. Understand human behaviour
5. Gain autonomy and build self-esteem
1. The approach uses terms that are easily understood and
2. The approach is easily and collectively companied with
other more action – oriented approaches
3. The approach puts the responsibility of change on the
4. The approach is goal- directed
1. The approach has been criticized for its primary cognitive
2. The approach is criticized for its simplicity, structure, and
3. The research behind the approach is relatively weak.
4. The approach has not developed much after Berne’s
death in 1970
VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE
ROLE OF THERAPIST
1. www.ericberne.com/transactional-analysis/ accessed
date:28/2/16 Time: 2.30 pm
2. www.counselling-directory.org.uk/transactional analysis.html
date: 28/2/16 Time: 4.00 pm
Date: 28/2/16 Time: 4.30 pm
4. Stein M Samuel. Essentials of psychotherapy. Oxford Auckland
Boston Johannesburg Melbourne. New Delhi.
5. Gladding ,T. Samuel Counseling A Comprehensive Profession.
Indian edition published by Dorling Kindersley India pvt ltd