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TRANSACTIONAL
ANALYSIS
GREESHMA. T
S4 MSW
- TA was formulated by ERIC BERNE (1960s)
- Berne’s Games People Play(1964) & Thomas Harris’s I’m OK
You’re OK(1947)
- Eri...
HISTORY
1955-1962 – First Phase
Developed Concept Of Ego States.
1962-1966 - Second Phase
he concentrated on ideas about g...
View Of Human Nature
- TA is an optimistic theory
- Its basic assumption is the people can change despite any
unfortunate ...
BASIC PHILOSOPHICAL ASSUMPTIONS
1. People are born OK: psychological disturbances is acquired.
2. People are capable of th...
1. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS – understanding what is
happening within the individual.
2. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS – Describing wha...
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
Berne defines an ego state is “a consistent pattern of
feeling and experience directly related to a
co...
Typical Behaviors
Advising
Criticizing
Ordering
Telling
Fault Finding
Moralizing
Scolding
Nurturing
Caring
Loving
Fact Fin...
1.CHILD EGO STATE
• First ego state to develop is the child, which is that part of
personality characterized by child like...
3 Types -
1. Natural Child - When the child is hateful or loving,
impulsive, spontaneous or playful, self centered.
2. Ada...
2. PARENTAL EGO STATE
• The parent ego state incorporates the attitudes and
behaviours(the don’ts, should, and ought) of p...
Parental Ego State:
1. Nurturing Parent – who comforts praises and aids
others.
2. Critical Parent – who finds fault, disp...
3. ADULT EGO STATE
• The adult ego state is the congruent, aware person attuned to
themselves and their environment , who ...
• Generally, the most effective behavior, human relations,
and performance come from the adult ego state.
• When interacti...
16
BASIC HUMAN EGO STATES
(PERSONALITY STATES)
THREE BASIC
EGO STATES
FURTHER BREAKDOWN OF EGO STATES
P
(PARENT)
A
(ADULT)...
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
• These are the basic unit of communication.
• Transactions occur when a person relates to another
...
• Two basic levels of transactions:
1. Social level – which is observable
2. Psychological level – which is sensed.
A basi...
1.Complementary Transaction
• Both persons are operating either from the same ego state
or from complementary ego states.
...
Crossed Transaction
• An inappropriate ego state is activated, producing an
unexpected response.
• Crossed transactions hu...
Ulterior Transaction
• Transaction is one in which two ego states operates
simultaneously and one message disguises the ot...
GAME ANALYSIS
• Games are ulteriorly motivated transactions that appear
complementary on the surface but end in bad feelin...
STROKE
• These games are played outside awareness as a means of
generating familiar, often negative, unit of recognition o...
• Spitz observed that infants deprived of handling – in other
words, not receiving any strokes – were more prone to
emotio...
SCRIPT ANALYSIS
• Everyone makes a life script or life plan, early in childhood, by
the age of five.
• Life scripts is con...
• Positive messages given to a child function as permissions
and do not limit people in any way.
• Negative messages or in...
Life Positions
1. I’m ok
2. You’re ok
3. I’m not ok
4. You’re not ok
ROLE OF THERAPIST
• Initial role of being a teacher
• TA uses treatment contracts, the therapist make contracts
with the c...
GOALS
1. TA focuses on helping clients transform themselves from
‘frogs’ into ‘princes’ and ‘princesses’.
2. It is emphasi...
TECHNIQUES
1. TREATMENT CONTRACT
A specific , concrete contract that emphasizes agreed upon
responsibilities for both coun...
4. ILLUSTRATION
Enlightens the client or elaborate a point
5. CONFIRMATION
Used when previously modified behaviour occurs ...
7. CRYSTALLIZATION
Consists of an adults - to – adults transactions in which the
client comes to an awareness that individ...
STAGES OF TREATMENT
1st Stage
Establishing a work alliance, mapping the nature problem and
negotiating a preliminary contr...
3rd Stage
De- confusing the child ego state and developing an internal
nurturing parent
 It is important to establish tha...
Transactional Analysis applies to different
levels:-
1. The clinical side of therapy.
2. The analysis of personality.
3. T...
Transactional Analysis Provides Simple Yet
Powerful Ways To:
1. Increase understanding in communication with others
2. Dea...
STRENGTHS
1. The approach uses terms that are easily understood and
clearly defined.
2. The approach is easily and collect...
CRITICISMS
1. The approach has been criticized for its primary cognitive
orientation.
2. The approach is criticized for it...
SUMMARY
HISTORY
VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE
ROLE OF THERAPIST
GOALS
TECHNIQUES
TREATMENT
APPLICATION
STRENGTHS
CRITICISMS
Reference
1. www.ericberne.com/transactional-analysis/ accessed
date:28/2/16 Time: 2.30 pm
2. www.counselling-directory.or...
Transactional analysis
Transactional analysis
Transactional analysis
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Transactional analysis

  1. 1. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS GREESHMA. T S4 MSW
  2. 2. - TA was formulated by ERIC BERNE (1960s) - Berne’s Games People Play(1964) & Thomas Harris’s I’m OK You’re OK(1947) - Eric Berne was born n 1910 in Montreal, Canada - TA is a model of psychotherapy and theory of personality which integrates psychoanalytic concept with humanistic philosophy
  3. 3. HISTORY 1955-1962 – First Phase Developed Concept Of Ego States. 1962-1966 - Second Phase he concentrated on ideas about games and transactions. 1966-1970- Third Phase He emphasized the reasons some individuals choose to play certain games in life. 1970 – Onwards He emphasised action and energy distribution
  4. 4. View Of Human Nature - TA is an optimistic theory - Its basic assumption is the people can change despite any unfortunate events of the past - TA is also anti- anti deterministic, believing that people have choices in their lives
  5. 5. BASIC PHILOSOPHICAL ASSUMPTIONS 1. People are born OK: psychological disturbances is acquired. 2. People are capable of thinking independently(unless severely brain damaged) 3. People are responsible for the decision they made, and their consequences.
  6. 6. 1. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS – understanding what is happening within the individual. 2. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS – Describing what happens between two or more people. 3. GAME ANALYSIS – understanding transactions between individuals that lead to bad feelings. 4. SCRIPT ANALYSIS – understanding the life plan that an individual is following
  7. 7. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Berne defines an ego state is “a consistent pattern of feeling and experience directly related to a corresponding consistent pattern of behavior” Ego States are dynamic aspects of personality Exteropsyche - Parent Neopsyche - Adult Archeopsyche - Child
  8. 8. Typical Behaviors Advising Criticizing Ordering Telling Fault Finding Moralizing Scolding Nurturing Caring Loving Fact Finding Questioning Analyzing Problem Solving Helping Cooperating Planning Coordinating Scheduling Thinking Laughing Crying Sulking Being Frightened Playing Enjoying Dancing Curiosity Obeying Dependent PARENT ADULT CHILD
  9. 9. 1.CHILD EGO STATE • First ego state to develop is the child, which is that part of personality characterized by child like behaviours and feelings. • The child ego state is the archive of a person’s total life experience to date, moments of which may be evoked and re- experienced in the present. • When we are in the child ego state we act like child we once were. • The ego states are fully experienced states of being, not just roles.
  10. 10. 3 Types - 1. Natural Child - When the child is hateful or loving, impulsive, spontaneous or playful, self centered. 2. Adapted Child – the complaining part of personality that confirms wishes and demands of parental figures 3. Little Professor – when it is thoughtful, creative or imaginative
  11. 11. 2. PARENTAL EGO STATE • The parent ego state incorporates the attitudes and behaviours(the don’ts, should, and ought) of parental figures • In the parent ego state ‘introjected’ parent figures from the past are evoked in the present. They are the beliefs, mannerisms and emotional responses of an actual parent from the past • Outwardly the messages are delivered through prejudice, criticism, and nurturing behaviour
  12. 12. Parental Ego State: 1. Nurturing Parent – who comforts praises and aids others. 2. Critical Parent – who finds fault, displays prejudices, disapproves and prevents others from feeling good about themselves.
  13. 13. 3. ADULT EGO STATE • The adult ego state is the congruent, aware person attuned to themselves and their environment , who responds congruently without the contamination of parental prejudice or childhood fantasy • When the adult ego is in control, people behave in a thinking, rational, calculating, factual, unemotional manner. • The adult gathers information, reasons things out, estimate probabilities and makes decision with cool and calm behavior. • When communicating in the adult ego state, you avoid becoming the victim of the other person by controlling your response to the situation.
  14. 14. • Generally, the most effective behavior, human relations, and performance come from the adult ego state. • When interacting with others, you should be aware of their ego state.
  15. 15. 16 BASIC HUMAN EGO STATES (PERSONALITY STATES) THREE BASIC EGO STATES FURTHER BREAKDOWN OF EGO STATES P (PARENT) A (ADULT) C (CHILD) CRITICAL PARENT NURTURING PARENT ADULT ADAPTED CHILD NATURAL CHILD LECTURING, CRITICIZING, MANY “OUGHTS”, “SHOULD” &”DON’TS” CONSOLING, “TAKING CARE” OF OTHERS, SYMPATHY OBJECTIVE, RATIONAL, ORIENTED TOWARD PROBLEM SOLVING, DE-EMPHASIZE EMOTION MODIFIED BEHAVIOUR TO CONFORM TO ADULT EXPECTATIONS, MANUPULATIVE, SUMBISSIVE PLAYFUL, IMPULSIVE, NATULRALLY CURIOUS &CREATIVE, FUN LOVING, REBELLIOUS
  16. 16. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS • These are the basic unit of communication. • Transactions occur when a person relates to another person • Each transaction is made up of a stimulus and a response • Within ego states there are three different types of trans action: complementary, crossed, and ulterior
  17. 17. • Two basic levels of transactions: 1. Social level – which is observable 2. Psychological level – which is sensed. A basic rule of communication is that when transactions are made at both levels, the outcome will be determined at the ulterior, psychological level
  18. 18. 1.Complementary Transaction • Both persons are operating either from the same ego state or from complementary ego states. • Responses are predictable and appropriate.
  19. 19. Crossed Transaction • An inappropriate ego state is activated, producing an unexpected response. • Crossed transactions hurt. • Persons tend to withdraw from each other or switch topics
  20. 20. Ulterior Transaction • Transaction is one in which two ego states operates simultaneously and one message disguises the other. • They appear to be complementary and socially acceptable even though they are not
  21. 21. GAME ANALYSIS • Games are ulteriorly motivated transactions that appear complementary on the surface but end in bad feelings. • Games are a series of transactions with a familiar pattern and predictable outcome. • Those who are involved start out in one of three classical game roles : - Persecutor, Rescuer or Victim. • A game is characterized by the sudden switching of roles and the collection of a payoff.
  22. 22. STROKE • These games are played outside awareness as a means of generating familiar, often negative, unit of recognition or ‘stroke’ • Stroke – the fundamental unit of social action • A stroke is a unit of recognition, when one person recognizes another person either verbally or non verbally. • In infancy strokes are essential for survival and comes mainly from close physical contact with a primary parent figures.. • Later strokes are symbolized by word and gestures.
  23. 23. • Spitz observed that infants deprived of handling – in other words, not receiving any strokes – were more prone to emotional and physical difficulties. • Berne took Spitz’s observations of these infants and developed theories about the needs of adults for strokes. • Berne postulated that adults need physical contact just like infants, but have learned to substitute other types of recognition instead of physical stimulation. • Berne also reasoned that any stroke, be it positive or negative, is better than no strokes at all.
  24. 24. SCRIPT ANALYSIS • Everyone makes a life script or life plan, early in childhood, by the age of five. • Life scripts is constructed in infancy in response to parental influence. • The scripts passes from consciousness but it is often faithfully acted out. • Infants, depends on parental figures for survival, reach conclusions based on themselves and others on the basis of perceived messages from parents and adapt accordingly .
  25. 25. • Positive messages given to a child function as permissions and do not limit people in any way. • Negative messages or injunctions, are more powerful and may become the basis for destructive scripts • The script decisions in response to these messages reflect a fundamental belief about the self in relation to others.
  26. 26. Life Positions 1. I’m ok 2. You’re ok 3. I’m not ok 4. You’re not ok
  27. 27. ROLE OF THERAPIST • Initial role of being a teacher • TA uses treatment contracts, the therapist make contracts with the client.
  28. 28. GOALS 1. TA focuses on helping clients transform themselves from ‘frogs’ into ‘princes’ and ‘princesses’. 2. It is emphasis is on attaining health and autonomy. 3. Help individuals to identify and restore distorted or damaged ego states 4. The major emphasis of TA is on learning about the self in order to decide who one wishes to become
  29. 29. TECHNIQUES 1. TREATMENT CONTRACT A specific , concrete contract that emphasizes agreed upon responsibilities for both counsellor and client 2. INTERROGATION Speaking to a client’s adult state until the counsellor receives an adult response 3. EXPLANATION Occurs on an adult to adult ego state level. The counsellor teaches the client about some aspects of TA
  30. 30. 4. ILLUSTRATION Enlightens the client or elaborate a point 5. CONFIRMATION Used when previously modified behaviour occurs again and the therapist points this out to the client 6. INTERPRETATION Involves the therapist’s explanation to the child ego state of the client the reasons for the client’s behaviour
  31. 31. 7. CRYSTALLIZATION Consists of an adults - to – adults transactions in which the client comes to an awareness that individuals game playing may be given up if so desired 8. CONFRONTATION It involves the therapist’s pointing out inconsistencies in the client’s behaviour or speech
  32. 32. STAGES OF TREATMENT 1st Stage Establishing a work alliance, mapping the nature problem and negotiating a preliminary contract 2nd Stage De-contamination of the adult ego state  The therapist help the client to identify the parental prejudices and childhood fantasies that they have used to distort reality and reign force their life script
  33. 33. 3rd Stage De- confusing the child ego state and developing an internal nurturing parent  It is important to establish that they have decided to keep themselves safe, act safely with others and stay touch with the reality 4th Stage Integration of new decisions and bringing to a close therapeutic relation ship.  This stage often involves the client reviewing other relationships, discovering disowned aspects of their authentic self and experimenting with new ways of being
  34. 34. Transactional Analysis applies to different levels:- 1. The clinical side of therapy. 2. The analysis of personality. 3. The interpersonal communication. 4. The group dynamics. 5. The organization analysis (organizational theory of Eric Berne). 6. Used in the domains of education, consulting, training, coaching, recruitment, skills assessment and organization.
  35. 35. Transactional Analysis Provides Simple Yet Powerful Ways To: 1. Increase understanding in communication with others 2. Deal with stress and change healthily 3. Handle and resolve conflict 4. Understand human behaviour 5. Gain autonomy and build self-esteem
  36. 36. STRENGTHS 1. The approach uses terms that are easily understood and clearly defined. 2. The approach is easily and collectively companied with other more action – oriented approaches 3. The approach puts the responsibility of change on the client 4. The approach is goal- directed
  37. 37. CRITICISMS 1. The approach has been criticized for its primary cognitive orientation. 2. The approach is criticized for its simplicity, structure, and popularity 3. The research behind the approach is relatively weak. 4. The approach has not developed much after Berne’s death in 1970
  38. 38. SUMMARY HISTORY VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE ROLE OF THERAPIST GOALS TECHNIQUES TREATMENT APPLICATION STRENGTHS CRITICISMS
  39. 39. Reference 1. www.ericberne.com/transactional-analysis/ accessed date:28/2/16 Time: 2.30 pm 2. www.counselling-directory.org.uk/transactional analysis.html date: 28/2/16 Time: 4.00 pm 3. http://www.transactional-analysis.info/menuglossaire.html Date: 28/2/16 Time: 4.30 pm 4. Stein M Samuel. Essentials of psychotherapy. Oxford Auckland Boston Johannesburg Melbourne. New Delhi. 5. Gladding ,T. Samuel Counseling A Comprehensive Profession. Indian edition published by Dorling Kindersley India pvt ltd 2009
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