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Emergency preparedness & disaster management

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Construction Safety - Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Management Plan

Publicado en: Ingeniería
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Emergency preparedness & disaster management

  1. 1. Emergency Preparedness & Disaster Management Plan
  2. 2. “Hope for the best, but be prepared for the worst !”
  3. 3. Disaster Management Plan For meeting the emergencies caused by major accidents, planning response strategies are termed as Disaster Management Plans (DMPs) / Emergency Management Plans (DMPs) .
  4. 4. Disaster Management Plan The Disaster Management Plan envisages the need for providing appropriate action so as to minimize loss of life/property and for restoration of normalcy within the minimum time.
  5. 5. Emergency Emergency : Potentially life-threatening situation, usually occurring suddenly and unexpectedly. Immediate response is essential  Speed in responding can mean the difference between life and death or between minimal damage and major damage.  Preparation is planning for emergencies. (Plan, practice, evaluate, adjust).
  6. 6. Emergency Classification The emergencies are classified as:  Construction Hazard  Natural Hazard  Operational Hazard DMPs / EMPs cannot be considered as a substitute for maintaining good safety standards.
  7. 7. Emergency Management Emergency management is a comprehensive system set up to address and handle natural and man-made hazards. It has four parts: 1. Prevention / Mitigation 2. Preparedness 3. Response 4. Recovery
  8. 8. Purpose of Emergency Planning  Minimize damage.  Ensure the safety of staff, customers/ clients and Public.  Protect vital records/assets.  Provide for continuity of operations.
  9. 9. Phases in Emergencies Generally, the following five phases are involved in an emergency: 1. Discovery and Notification. 2. Evaluation and Accident Control Initiation. 3. Containment and Counter Measures. 4. Cleanup and Disposal. 5. Documentation.
  10. 10. Emergency Management Planning Pyramid
  11. 11. Phases in Emergencies 1. Discovery and Notification. An event with an imminent threat of turning into an accident must first be discovered and the discoverer should quickly notify the same to the safety officer.
  12. 12. Phases in Emergencies 2. Evaluation and Accident Control Initiation. Based on the evaluation of available information, the safety officer makes a rapid assessment of the severity of the likely accident and initiates the best course of action.
  13. 13. Phases in Emergencies 3. Containment and Counter Measures. Action is first taken to contain and control the accident by eliminating the causes which may lead to the spread of accident. Measures are also taken to minimize the damage to personnel, property and environment.
  14. 14. Phases in Emergencies 4. Cleanup and Disposal. After the accident is effectively contained and controlled, the cleanup of the site of the accident and safe disposal of waste generated due to the accident are undertaken.
  15. 15. Phases in Emergencies 5. Documentation:  All aspects of accidents, must be documented for subsequent analysis for prevention in future, damage estimation, insurance recovery and compensation payment.  It may be noted that photographs, survey reports, main objects involved in the accident, etc. may have to be carried out before the cleanup and disposal phase.  However, the effort in all cases is to recommence the operation as soon as possible.
  16. 16. Emergency Classification Severity of accident and its likely impact area will determine the level of emergency and the disaster management plan required for appropriate handling of an emergency.
  17. 17. Emergency Classification Level 1 Emergency: • A local accident with likely impact only to immediate surroundings of accident site, such as, local fires, and limited release of inflammable material. • The impact distance may not be more than 15 m from the site of primary accident and may require evacuation of the building/area where accident occurred and utmost the adjacent building/area.
  18. 18. Emergency Classification Level 2 Emergency: A major accident with potential threats to life and property upto 500 m distance requiring the evacuation of all personnel from the threatened area except the emergency response personnel. Larger fires, release of large quantities of inflammable materials may belong to emergency level 2.
  19. 19. Emergency Classification Level 3 Emergency: An accident involving a very serious hazard and with likely impact area extending beyond 500 m from the operational area such as, major fire, flood, very large release of inflammable material etc. In a level 3 emergency, evacuation of population in adjacent villages, may sometime become necessary if threatened area extend to adjoining the site of the primary accident in a direction of maximum impact.
  20. 20. Emergency Classification  On-site Disaster Management Plan (DMP) will meet the hazards created due to all Level 1 emergencies and most of the Level 2 emergencies.  In addition to on-site DMP, off-site DMP may also have to be put into operation for some Level 2 emergencies and all the Level 3 emergencies.
  21. 21. Organization and Coordination Responses to emergencies include:  Medical personnel  Fire-fighting personnel  Security personnel  Safety personnel  Specialists from different fields
  22. 22. Organization and Coordination Keys to success in an emergency  One person is In-charge.  Everyone involved knows who is in charge.  Everyone who has a role in responding to an emergency is given ample opportunities to practice in simulated conditions that come as close as possible to real conditions.
  23. 23. Important elements in the Disaster Management Plan 1. Reliable and early detection of an emergency and careful planning. 2. The command, co-ordination, and response organisation structure along with efficient trained personnel. 3. The availability of resources for handling emergencies. 4. Appropriate emergency response actions. 5. Effective notification and communication facilities. 6. Regular review and updating of the EMP 7. Proper training of the concerned personnel.
  24. 24. Infrastructure for Disaster Management Plan 1. First aid boxes 2. Gas masks 3. Telephone line with STD facility 4. Loud hailers 5. Emergency lighting system 6. Stretchers 7. Transport facility 8. Fire-fighting machinery 9. Fire-tenders 10. Ambulance
  25. 25. Assembly Points for Disaster Management Plan  Assembly points are to be set up farthest from the location of likely hazardous events, where pre- designated persons would assemble in case of emergency .  The location near to the entrance gate is one of the safest place. This can be the assembly point.
  26. 26. Communication System for Disaster Management Plan  Different types of alarms to differentiate types of emergencies should be provided.  In case of failure of siren, placards of various colours should be used to indicate the situations.  If everything fails, a messenger should be used for sending the information and the various placards mentioned would also be used.  Alarms should be followed by announcement over Public Address System. In case of failure of alarm system, communication should be by telephone, Walkie-talkie etc.
  27. 27. Emergency Services for Disaster Management Plan  Emergency Services includes fire-fighting system, first aid center, hospital etc.  Alternate sources of power supply for operating fire- pumps, communication with local bodies, fire-brigade etc. should also be clearly identified.  Adequate number of external and internal telephone connections should be installed.
  28. 28. Fire Protection System for Disaster Management Plan Depending upon the size of the construction site, the minimum fire protection system should be place. 1. Hydrant system for all the vulnerable areas of the site (Wherever possible). 2. Portable carbon-dioxide extinguishers for the control room and electrical sheds. 3. Portable fire extinguishers of suitable types/ capacities for extinguishing small fires in selected areas of the plant.
  29. 29. Evacuation Assembly Point
  30. 30. Fire Assembly Point
  31. 31. Evacuation Map for Disaster Management Plan Maps showing evacuation routes shall be displayed should be displayed at prominent places. The map should contain the site related details such as: 1. Emergency escape routes. 2. Location of emergency medical services. 3. Location of dangerous substances. 4. Seat of emergency contact key personnel. 5. Location of emergency control room. 6. The parking points of Ambulances and Fire-fighting vehicles.
  32. 32. Evacuation Map for Disaster Management Plan
  33. 33. Evacuation Map for Disaster Management Plan
  34. 34. Other important elements in Disaster Management Plan  The emergency plan will have the key personnel of the organisation and responsibilities assigned to them in case of an emergency and their contact particulars.  Depend on the severity of the emergency outside agency will be called for the assistance. Details of such emergency services should be displayed at prominent areas.  The safety equipment installed and fire-fighting equipment available will be mentioned in the detailed DMP.
  35. 35. Emergency Items to be maintained
  36. 36. Disaster Management Plan  The emergency management plan gives a broad idea of the detailed emergency preparedness in case of an accident.  The Emergency Management Plan (EMP) envisages the need for providing appropriate action so as to minimize loss of life/property and for restoration of normalcy within the minimum time. Adequate manpower, training and infrastructure shall achieve this.

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