11. A Polymer Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are…. If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace? ? A NECKLACE ? A TRAIN MONOMER EXAMPLE of POLYMER
12. A Polymer Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are…. If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace? EACH PEARL A NECKLACE THE CARS A TRAIN MONOMER EXAMPLE of POLYMER
13. Now you and your lab partner need to think of at least 2 other analogies for a polymer and its monomers. (Write your analogies in your journal)
26. YOU CREATE IT: You are about to learn all about the BIG 4. Create an organized way to record the information in your journal. You will learn about: Nucleic Acids What they look like Carbohydrates What they do/Where are they Lipids What are they made up of- at the level of atoms Proteins How they help gain energy
44. Cell Membrane The cell membrane surrounds everything in a cell so it doesn’t leak out. It is kind of like the balloon in a water balloon. The cell membrane is made mostly of protein AND lipids.
45. Antibodies are part of the immune system. When something enters the body that isn’t supposed to be there, like certain bacteria, antibodies find the invader and stick themselves onto it. When a white blood cell finds the invader covered with antibodies, it knows it doesn’t belong there and kills it. Antibodies
46. Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions. If you didn’t have enzymes in your stomach to speed up digestion, the food would rot in your stomach because it would take so long! Enzymes
47. Hormones are chemicals made in glands that are in one place in the body and then put into the blood to be used in another. These are where the hormone producing glands are located in your body . HORMONES
48. The thyroid is found in the middle of your neck, by your voice box. Here is a picture of those cells secreting the thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone regulates how fast your body uses energy. If you have an over active thyroid, you use energy quickly and tend to be very thin and have a hard time putting on weight. If you have an under active thyroid gland, you use energy very slowly and tend to carry more body fat and have a difficult time losing it. Don’t be quick to think you have a thyroid problem if you are overweight, chances are it’s actually your eating and exercise habits! (The yellow stuff is thyroid hormone)
58. LIPIPS…Some interesting info Steriods... There are many different types of steroids. They are all lipids. Their functions vary. Some common steroids are: SEX STEROIDS ANABOLIC STERIODS CHOLESTEROL Like testosterone and estrogen They increase muscle
59. LIPIPS…Some interesting info Steriods... Some anabolic steroids are illegal And can be dangerous and very unhealthy NATURAL STERIODS IN OUR BODY INCREASE MUSCLE GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT AND ARE GOOD. THE ILLEGAL ONES THAT ARE SYNTHETIC ARE BAD.
60. Very Common Effects of Illegal Steroids If used when the person is still growing, they will be shorter as an adult, anabolic steroids will decrease bone growth. Males will experience shrinking of the testicles, and with prolonged use, the steroid will be turned into estrogen in the male body and it will start to lay fatty tissue on the chest, otherwise known as breasts . If genetically predisposed to becoming bald, balding will happen more quickly. If clean needles are not readily available, there is a significantly higher risk of getting AIDS. Future risks of liver cancer & disease. Enlarged heart (one pro athlete’s heart grew to the size of a basketball…obviously he’s dead)
61. Illegal Steroid Use in Women Some additional effects… Breasts will decrease in size, the opposite of what happens to men. The woman will start to grow facial hair, how quickly depends on her genetic makeup. If she discontinues use, the facial hair will still continue to grow. If she is genetically predisposed to balding, she will start to lose her hair, just as if she was genetically male. Her voice will start to deepen, how quickly depends on her genetics. If she discontinues use, her voice will remain deep.
64. LIPIDS MADE UP OF... Lipids are chains (polymers) made of monomers. The most common monomer of lipids is… TRIGLYCERIDES
65. The Shape of a triglyceride is like the letter E This is a triglyceride molecule
66. LIPIDS AT THE ATOM LEVEL Each carbohydrate is made up of… Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen THINK: “CHO”
67. OH NO CHO! Lipids like Carbs? You might have noticed that both carbohydrates and lipids have the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. “ CHO” A carbohydrate, has twice as many hydrogen atoms as the number of oxygen atoms. EX: C 6 H 12 O 6 (This is a carb= there are double the number of H compared to O) On the other hand, lipids have a lot more than twice the amount hydrogen atoms as the number of oxygen atoms. EX: C 27 H 46 O cholesterol
69. Quick Review Questions What Big 4 molecule stores energy for the future? What are 4 effects of illegal steroid use in men and 3 effects in women? What are 4 things proteins do in your body? What are the functions of lipids? What is the main function of carbohydrates? Try to answer without looking back or using your notes :)
76. NUCLEIC ACIDS MADE UP OF... Nucleic Acids are chains (polymers) made of monomers. Nucleic acids are made up of Nucleotide Chains Which are nitrogen bases…something we will learn more about when we study DNA
77. The shape of a nucleic acid is: DNA is a double helix RNA is a single strand
78. Nucleic Acids AT THE ATOM LEVEL Each nucleic acid is made up of… Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen THINK: “PONCH”
79. ENERGY Three of the BIG 4 provide us with energy through the food we eat: Number of Calories it provides BIG 4 MACROMOLECULES Nucleic Acids Lipids Proteins Carbohydrates
80. ENERGY Energy that is gained by consuming food is called a CALORIE
81. Energy that we gain by the consumption of food is measured in Calories . If you drink a glass of skim milk, you will get a gain of 90 Calories of energy for your body.
82. Energy Gained From Carbohydrates Eating 1 gram of carbohydrate provides your body with 4 Calories.
84. Energy Gained from Lipids Eating 1 gram of fat provides your body with 9 Calories. Notice if you eat 1 gram of fat, you are gaining more than twice the amount of Calories than from a gram of carbohydrate or protein!
85. Nucleic acids The nucleic acids in food are not considered a substance that the body uses to gain energy.
87. ENERGY So… TEST: Are you smart? If you eat a sandwhich with 46 grams of carbs and 24 grams of protein and 10 grams of fat, how much energy will you gain? 370 Number of Calories it provides BIG 4 MACROMOLECULES 0 Nucleic Acids 9 Lipids 4 Proteins 4 Carbohydrates
89. Which one of the following molecules is a lipid? A carbohydrate? 1.) C 27 H 46 O 2.) C 12 H 24 O 12 Lipid Carbohydrate
91. Final Review Questions Please do not look back at the information in your handout until you have answered all of the following questions. 1. What are 2 examples of simple sugars and 2 examples of complex carbohydrates not mentioned already? 2. What is a polymer? 3. What is a monomer? 4. Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of ________________. 5. Define in your own words: Biochemical Macromolecule 6. Proteins are major structural molecules in living things. List 5 places or things in your body that contain a lot of protein. 7. What are enzymes? What are they made of? 8. What are hormones? 9. What does your thyroid hormone do? 10. Name three types of proteins. 11. What are the functions of lipids? 12. What elements are found in each of the Big 4 molecules? 13. What does DNA do? RNA? 14. How many Calories are found in 1 gram of each of the Big 4 molecules? 15. What are 5 possible effects of illegal steroid use? 16. What are 3 functions of lipids? 17. What is the function of waxes? 18. What are 2 ways simple sugars are different from complex carbohydrates? 19. What are 4 organic macromolecules?