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Лекция. Параметры Хофштеде

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Мира Борисовна Бергельсон

Publicado en: Educación
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Лекция. Параметры Хофштеде

  1. 1. Hofstede’s Dimensions and Organizational Implications INDIVIDUALISM - COLLECTIVISM Individualism is a concern for self as opposed to concern for the priorities and rules of the group to which the person belongs (collectivism). Individualism (IDV) focuses on the degree the society reinforces individual or collective achievement and interpersonal relationships. A High Individualism ranking indicates that individuality and individual rights are paramount within the society. Individuals in these societies may tend to form a larger number of looser relationships. A Low Individualism ranking typifies societies of a more collectivist nature with close ties between individuals. These cultures reinforce extended families and collectives where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group.
  2. 2. INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURES Foster contractual relationships that are based on the principles of exchange. Focus on self or - at most - on close loved ones Value independence, self-sufficiency and individual decisions, initiative and achievement Accept confrontation as an attribute Emphasize pleasure, fun & personal enjoyment more than social norms and duties Belong to many in-groups Prefer horizontal relationships
  3. 3. COLLECTIVISTIC CULTURES Social norms and harmony Consider implications of their actions for wider collective Sharing resources and sacrifice personal interest for collective interests Expect the organization to look after them like family A greater tendency toward conformity Favor certain in-groups Believe in group decisions Emphasize hierarchy and harmony within group Regulate behavior through group norms Promote from within and based upon seniority
  4. 4. MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY (Career Success and Quality of Life) The degree to which a society emphasizes work goals (earnings, achievements) and assertiveness as opposed to personal goals (friendly atmosphere, getting along with the boss), cooperation, and nurturance. Masculinity (MAS) focuses on the degree the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power. A High Masculinity ranking indicates the country experiences a high degree of gender differentiation. In these cultures, males dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure, with females being controlled by male domination. A Low Masculinity ranking indicates the country has a low level of differentiation and discrimination between genders. In these cultures, females are treated equally to males in all aspects of the society.
  5. 5. MASCULINE CULTURES (career success) Gender roles are clearly distinct Men are supposed to be assertive, tough and focused on material success Do not place great importance on benevolence Condone interfering in employees’ private lives if for the benefit of the organization Young men are expected to have a career; those who do not are considered a failure Report higher job stress
  6. 6. FEMININE CULTURES (Quality of life) Social gender roles overlap Emphasizes personal goals and nurturance Both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender and concerned with the quality of life Have less occupational segregation by gender Women and men occupy high-level jobs Emphasize non-materialistic aspects of success
  7. 7. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE The degree to which members of a society are able to cope with the uncertainty of the future without experiencing undue stress. Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) focuses on the level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society - i.e. unstructured situations. A High Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has a low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. This creates a rule- oriented society that institutes laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty. A Low Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has less concern about ambiguity and uncertainty and has more tolerance for a variety of opinions. This is reflected in a society that is less rule-oriented, more readily accepts change, and takes more and greater risks.
  8. 8. WEAK UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE CULTURES Take risks,tolerate ambiguity and uncertainty Tolerate differing behaviors and opinions Demonstrate flexibility and willingness to change Have organizations with a relatively low degree of structure and few rules Promotions based on merit Use participatory management
  9. 9. STRONG UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE CULTURES Do not like ambiguity and uncertainty Avoid risk,have organizations that have clearly delineated structures Promote on the basis of seniority or age Have a strong need for consensus Need for predictability Respect for authority
  10. 10. POWER DISTANCE The degree to which power differentials within society and organizations are expected and accepted. Power Distance Index (PDI) focuses on the degree of equality, or inequality, between people in the country's society. A High Power Distance ranking indicates that inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society. These societies are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. A Low Power Distance ranking indicates the society de- emphasizes the differences between citizen's power and wealth. In these societies equality and opportunity for everyone is stressed.
  11. 11. LARGE POWER DISTANCE SOCIETIES Use centralized authority and many hierarchical levels Accept autocratic leadership Prefer a paternalistic management style Closely supervise employees Have large numbers of supervisory staff Accept that power has its privileges Expect inequality and power differences
  12. 12. SMALL POWER DISTANCE SOCIETIES Decentralized authority and flat organizational structures Consultative or participative management style Small proportion of supervisory staff Tend to question authority Rights conscious Tend toward egalitarianism
  13. 13. Confucian Dynamism (Bond)  Long-Term Orientation (LTO) focuses on the degree the society embraces, or does not embrace, long-term devotion to traditional, forward thinking values. – High Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country prescribes to the values of long-term commitments and respect for tradition. This is thought to support a strong work ethic where long-term rewards are expected as a result of today's hard work. However, business may take longer to develop in this society, particularly for an "outsider". – A Low Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country does not reinforce the concept of long-term, traditional orientation. In this culture, change can occur more rapidly as long-term traditions and commitments do not become impediments to change.