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  1. 1. Tissues! <ul><li>Four types of tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Epithelial Tissues <ul><li>A sheet of cells that covers a body's surface </li></ul><ul><li>Lines a body's cavity </li></ul><ul><li>The major function of epithelial tissue includes protection, secretion, absorption, and filtration. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells can be thin, flat to cubic to elongated </li></ul>Simple Stratified
  3. 3. Simple Epithelial <ul><li>Three types of simple epithelial tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple squamous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple cubiodal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple columnar </li></ul></ul>Squamous Cubiodal Stratified Columnar
  4. 4. Simple Squamous Epithelial <ul><li>Allows passage of materials by diffusion and filtration where protection is important. </li></ul><ul><li>All Squamous cells are flat cells with an irregular flattened shape and their cytoplasm is sparse </li></ul><ul><li>Thin and permeable this epithelium is found where filtration or the exchange of substance by rapid diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>A one-cell layer of simple squamous epithelium forms the alveoli of the respiratory membrane. </li></ul>Simple Stratified
  5. 5. Simple Cubiodal Epithelial <ul><li>Consists of a single layer of cells as tall as they are wide </li></ul><ul><li>Forms the wall of the smallest ducts of glands and many kidney tubules </li></ul><ul><li>Functions are secretion and absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Located in the kidney tubules, ducts and secretory portions of small glands </li></ul>Simple Stratified
  6. 6. Simple columnar epithelial <ul><li>Columnar epithelial cells occur in one or more layers </li></ul><ul><li>Functions are absorption, secretion of mucus enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Lines the digestive tract from the stomach through the rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Displays cilia on their free surfaces, which moves substance or cells through an internal passageway. </li></ul>Simple Stratified
  7. 7. Stratified Epithelial <ul><li>Contains two or more cell layers </li></ul><ul><li>The basal cells divide and push apically to replace the older surface cells </li></ul><ul><li>More durable than simple epithelial </li></ul><ul><li>protects </li></ul>Transitional Squamous Cubiodal columnar Pseudostratified
  8. 8. Stratified Squamous Epithelial <ul><li>Thick membrane composed if several layers </li></ul><ul><li>Protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the areas subjected to wear and tear, and its surface cells are being rubbed away and replaced by division of its basal cells </li></ul>Simple Stratified
  9. 9. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium <ul><li>Single layer of cells of differing heights, some do not reach free surface. </li></ul><ul><li>The nuclei lie at different levels above the basement membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes and absorbs substances </li></ul>Simple Stratified
  10. 10. Stratified cuboidal epithelial <ul><li>Rare </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the ducts of some of the larger glands </li></ul><ul><li>Has two layers of cubiodal cells </li></ul><ul><li>The cells function in secretion and protection </li></ul>Simple Stratified
  11. 11. Stratified columnar epithelium <ul><li>Limited distribution in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Small amount are found in the pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs at transition areas or junctions between two other types of epithelium </li></ul>Simple Stratified
  12. 12. Transitional Epithelium <ul><li>Forms the lining of hollow urniary organs </li></ul><ul><li>The cells of the basal layer are cubiodal or columnar </li></ul><ul><li>Stretches readily and permits distension of urniary organ by contained urine </li></ul><ul><li>Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cubiodal </li></ul>Simple Stratified
  13. 13. Muscular Tissues <ul><li>Highly cellular </li></ul><ul><li>Three types of muscle tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smooth </li></ul></ul>Voluntary Involuntary
  14. 14. Voluntary muscle <ul><li>Contractile tissue of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from the mesodermal layer of embyonic germ cells </li></ul>Skeletal
  15. 15. Skeletal muscle <ul><li>Tissue is packed by connective tissue organs, they are called skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to the bones of the skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Form flesh of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Pull on bones or skin causing body movements </li></ul>Voluntary Involuntary
  16. 16. Involuntary muscle <ul><li>Produce movements over which we have no control </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of bundles of fibers which are composed of elongated cells </li></ul>Smooth Cardiac
  17. 17. Cardiac Muscle <ul><li>Found in the wall of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Its contractions help propel blood through the blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Located in the walls of the heart </li></ul>Smooth Involuntary
  18. 18. Smooth muscle <ul><li>Its cells have no visible striations </li></ul><ul><li>Spindle shaped cells with central nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Cells arranged closely to form sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Located in the walls of hollow organs </li></ul>Cardiac Involuntary
  19. 19. Connective tissue <ul><li>Found everywhere in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Widely distrubuted of the primary tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Four main classes of connective tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue proper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood </li></ul></ul>Connective tissue Proper Cartilage Blood Bone
  20. 20. Connective tissue proper <ul><li>Wraps and cushions organs </li></ul><ul><li>Holds and conveys issue fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Located under the epithelia of body </li></ul><ul><li>Two subclasses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose connective tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Areolar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adipose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reticular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense connective tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dense regular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dense irregular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul></ul></ul>Loose Dense
  21. 21. Loose Connective Tissue <ul><li>Loose connective tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Areolar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adipose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reticular </li></ul></ul></ul>Areolar Reticular Adipose
  22. 22. Dense Connective Tissue <ul><ul><li>Dense connective tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dense regular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dense irregular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul></ul></ul>Regular Irregular
  23. 23. Areolar connective Tissue <ul><li>Supports and binds other tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Holds body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Defends against infection </li></ul><ul><li>Stores nutrients as fat </li></ul>Loose Dense
  24. 24. Reticular Connective Tissue <ul><li>A network of reticular fibers in a typical ground substance </li></ul><ul><li>Located in Lymphoid organs </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers form a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types including white blood cells,mast cells and macrophages </li></ul>Loose Dense
  25. 25. Adipose connective tissue <ul><li>Provides reserve food fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Insulates against heart loss </li></ul><ul><li>Supports and protects organs </li></ul><ul><li>Located under the skin and around kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Has high metabolic activity </li></ul>Loose Dense
  26. 26. Dense regular connective tissues <ul><li>Parallel collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>The major cell type is the fibroblast </li></ul><ul><li>Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Located in tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses </li></ul>Loose Dense
  27. 27. De nse Irre gular Connective Tissue <ul><li>Irregularly arranged collagen fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Forms sheets in the body areas where tension is exerted from many different directions </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the skin as the leathery dermis, and forms joint capsules and the fibrous coverings that surround organs </li></ul><ul><li>Able to with stand tension exerted in many directions </li></ul><ul><li>Provides structural strength </li></ul>Loose Dense
  28. 28. Cartilage <ul><li>Stands up to both tension and compression </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks nerve fibers and its avascular </li></ul><ul><li>Receives nutrients by diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Three varieties of cartilage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyaline cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elastic cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fibrocartilage </li></ul></ul>Hyaline Elastic Fibro cartilage
  29. 29. Hyaline Cartilage <ul><li>Supports and reinforces and resists compressive stress </li></ul><ul><li>Forms most of the embryonic skeleton, </li></ul><ul><li>Covers the ends of long bones in joint cavities </li></ul>Cartilage
  30. 30. Elastic Cartilage <ul><li>Identical to hyaline cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Found where strength and stretchability is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the external ear </li></ul>Cartilage
  31. 31. Fibro cartilage <ul><li>Has tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock </li></ul><ul><li>Has tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock </li></ul><ul><li>Located in interverebral discs, pubic symphysis, and disc of knee joint </li></ul>Cartilage
  32. 32. Bone (osseous tissue)‏ <ul><li>Hard calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers, lie in lacunae </li></ul><ul><li>Bone supports and protects </li></ul><ul><li>Provides levers for the muscles to act on </li></ul><ul><li>Stores calcium on other minerals and fat </li></ul>Connective
  33. 33. Blood <ul><li>Transports of respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Classified as a connective tissue because develops from mesenchyme and consists of blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Contained with blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Majority if blood cells are red cells </li></ul>Connective
  34. 34. Nervous Tissue <ul><li>Highly specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons are branching cells </li></ul><ul><li>Transmits electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors with control activity </li></ul><ul><li>Located in brain, spinal cord, and nerves </li></ul>
  35. 35. Credits <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>'s%20Bioslides/119.jpg </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>