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Albert Einstein

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Albert Einstein by jeremey p

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Albert Einstein

  1. 1. By Jeremey Ponrajah Einstein
  2. 2. <ul><li>Albert Einstein is born to Hermann Einstein a salesman and engineer and his wife Pauline in Ulm, Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Residences Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity Ashkenazi Jewish </li></ul><ul><li>Known for General relativity, Special relativity, Photoelectric effect ,Brownian motion, Mass-energy equivalence, Einstein field equations, Unified Field Theory, Bose–Einstein statistics </li></ul>Oldest Picture Of Him
  3. 3. <ul><li>Although Jewish, Albert Einstein attended a Catholic School. </li></ul><ul><li>Although Einstein had early speech difficulties (he often said he used to repeat his own sentences), he was a top student in elementary school. </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein family moved to Italy, Einstein had been left behind to finish high school, but he withdrew to join his family . </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than completing high school, Einstein decided to apply directly to the ETH Zurich, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich which he did not get into . </li></ul><ul><li>His family sent him away to finish secondary school. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1901, the year he gained his diploma. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1905 he obtained his doctor's degree. </li></ul>Education
  4. 4. <ul><li>Einstein and Mileva had three children: a daughter born before their marriage and two sons. </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein never met his daughter Lieserl and, though there is no official record of her, it is believed she died before the age of two. </li></ul><ul><li>Their first son, Hans Albert, studied engineering in Zurich and later moved to the United States with his wife and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Their second son, Eduard, spent most of his adult life institutionalized with schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>Albert and Marić divorced on 14 February 1919. </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal, who had nursed him through an illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Elsa was Albert's first cousin maternally and his second cousin paternally. </li></ul><ul><li>Together the Einsteins raised Margot and Ilse, Elsa's daughters from her first marriage. [ </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Before Einstein no one really understood how light really worked. It was a wave, particels,quanta no one really new. Light did not follow Newtonians physics. In 1905 Einstein put out a paper that declared light, travels as both a wave and as particles called quanta, mostly because it has to. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The Einstein field equations are a set of ten equations in Einstein's theory of general relativity in which the fundamental force of gravitation is described as a curved space time caused by matter and energy. They were first published in 1915. The Einstein field equations are used to determine the curvature of space time resulting from the presence of mass and energy. That is, they determine the metric tensor of space time for a given arrangement of stress-energy in the space time. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Theory of Relativity as two parts. First part special relativity second part general relativity. Special relativity is based on two postulates . </li></ul><ul><li>The laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion relative to one another . </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the source of the light. </li></ul><ul><li>The resultant theory has many surprising consequences. Some of these are: </li></ul><ul><li>Time dilation: Moving clocks are measured to tick more slowly than an observer's &quot;stationary&quot; clock. </li></ul><ul><li>Length contraction: Objects are measured to be shortened in the direction that they are moving with respect to the observer. </li></ul><ul><li>Relativity of simultaneity: Two events that are simultaneous to an observer A may not be simultaneous to an observer B if B is moving </li></ul>First Part: Special relativity
  8. 8. <ul><li>The second Part in the Theory of Relativity is general relativity, which </li></ul><ul><li>primarily applies to particles as they accelerate, particularly due to </li></ul><ul><li>gravitation, and acts as a radical revision of Newton’s theory, predicting </li></ul><ul><li>important new results for fast-moving and/or very massive bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the consequences of general relativity are: </li></ul><ul><li>Time goes more slowly in higher gravitational fields. This is called gravitational time dilation. </li></ul><ul><li>Orbits precess in a way unexpected in Newton's theory of gravity. (This has been observed in the orbit of Mercury and in binary pulsars). </li></ul><ul><li>Rays of light bend in the presence of a gravitational field. </li></ul><ul><li>Frame-dragging, in which a rotating mass &quot;drags along&quot; the space time around it. </li></ul>General Relativity
  9. 9. <ul><li>Energy equals mass times the speed of light squared. Formula was derived due to Einstein's realization of how closely energy and a mass of a body is connected. This formula suggests that tiny amounts of mass can be converted into huge amounts of energy. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Brownian motion is the seemingly random movement of particles suspended in a liquid or gas or the mathematical model used to describe such random movements, often called a particle theory. Examined molecular action that supported the Atomic Theory. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The photoelectric effect is a phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from matter after the absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation such as x-rays or visible light. Einstein hypothesized that the number of electrons released would not depend on that light's energy. Confirming his hypothesis through several experiments, Einstein won the Nobel Prize of 1921 for his works in his field. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li> Concerned scientists, many of them refugees from European anti-Semitism in the U.S., recognized the danger of German scientists developing an atomic bomb based on the newly discovered phenomena of nuclear fission. In 1939, the Hungarian émigré Leó Szilárd, having failed to arouse U.S. government interest on his own, worked with Einstein to write a letter to U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, which Einstein signed, urging U.S. development of such a weapon. In August 1939, Roosevelt received the Einstein-Szilárd letter and authorized secret research into the harnessing of nuclear fission for military purposes.Einstein formula E=MC² was key in the United States developing the atomic bomb. </li></ul>According to Linus Pauling, Einstein later expressed regret about his letter to Roosevelt. In 1947, Einstein wrote an article for The Atlantic Monthly arguing that the United States should not try to pursue an atomic monopoly, and instead should equip the United Nations with nuclear weapons for the sole purpose of maintaining deterrence.
  13. 13. <ul><li>The Einstein refrigerator is an absorption refrigerator which has no moving parts and requires only a heat source to operate. It was jointly invented in 1926 by Albert Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd. The two were motivated by contemporary newspaper reports of a Berlin family who had been killed when a seal in their refrigerator broke and leaked toxic fumes into their home. Present day there's a project to develop more robust appliances that could be used in locales lacking electricity. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics quantum theory of light, &quot;Generation and Conversion of Light with Regard to a Heuristic Point of View,&quot; for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 was published. The paper dealt with the photoelectric effect and postulated that light sometimes acts like a stream of particles with discrete energies, or quanta. </li></ul>
  15. 15. After the death of the first president of Israel in 1952, the Israeli government decided to offer the post of second president to Einstein. He refused but found the offer an embarrassment since it was hard for him to refuse without causing offence. Albert Einstein, 5 Lirot,1968, Israel The letter offering Einstein the presidency.
  16. 16. In 1999, Albert Einstein was named &quot;Person of the Century&quot; by Time magazine, a Gallup poll recorded him as the fourth most admired person of the 20th century and according to The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, Einstein is &quot;the greatest scientist of the twentieth century and one of the supreme intellects of all time.&quot;
  17. 17. <ul><li>A partial list of his memorials: </li></ul><ul><li>The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics named 2005 the &quot;World Year of Physics&quot; in commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the publication of the Annus Mirabilis Papers . </li></ul><ul><li>The Albert Einstein Institute </li></ul><ul><li>The Albert Einstein Memorial by Robert Berks </li></ul><ul><li>A unit used in photochemistry, the Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>The chemical element 99, einsteinium </li></ul><ul><li>The asteroid 2001 Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>The Albert Einstein Award </li></ul><ul><li>The Albert Einstein Peace Prize </li></ul><ul><li>In 1990, his name was added to the Walhalla temple. </li></ul><ul><li>Barnard Medal of Columbia University in 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Copley Medal of Royal Society in 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>Max Planck Medal of German Physical Society in 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Gold Medal of Royal Astronomical in 1926 </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>True religion is real living; living with all one's soul, with all one's goodness and righteousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Things should be made as simple as possible, but not any simpler. </li></ul><ul><li>The truth of a theory is in your mind, not in your eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I'm not sure about the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Only a life lived for others is a life worth while. </li></ul><ul><li>If A is a success in life, then A equals x plus y plus z. Work is x; y is play; and z is keeping your mouth shut. </li></ul><ul><li>I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones. </li></ul><ul><li>If I had my life to live over again, I’d be a plumber. </li></ul><ul><li>The hardest thing in the world to understand is the income tax. </li></ul><ul><li>If you can't explain it simply you don't understand it well enough. </li></ul>
  19. 19. On 17 April 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an aortic aneurysm. He took a draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it. He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76. Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered. Einstein's last words will never be known as he said them in German and the attending nurse could not speak German . Before the cremation, Princeton Hospital pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey removed Einstein's brain for preservation, without the permission of his family, in hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.
  20. 20. By: Jeremey Ponrajah