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The Visual Elements

  1. 1. The Language of Art > The Visual Elements The Ingredients for a Great Composition
  2. 2. What are the elements of art?
  3. 3. What are the elements of art? <ul><li>The Elements of Art are the “parts” </li></ul><ul><li>that artists use to make art. </li></ul><ul><li>Value Color Line </li></ul><ul><li>Shape Mass Texture </li></ul>
  4. 4. Line <ul><li>Line is the path made by a moving point; a connected and continuous series of points. </li></ul><ul><li>Lines can be measured by length, width, and weight . They can be long, short, thick, thin, dotted or solid. </li></ul><ul><li>And, lines can be directional </li></ul>
  5. 5. Directional Lines Vertical Horizontal Diagonal Curvilinear
  6. 6. <ul><li>Horizontal Lines are generally restful, </li></ul><ul><li>like the horizon, where the sky meets land. </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Freeman. View Of King’s Mountain acrylic, 2008 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Vertical lines seem to be reaching, so they may seem inspirational like tall majestic trees or church steeples </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Diagonal and curvilinear lines tend to create more movement and tension. </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Freeman. Ancient Oak mixed media on panel, 2009 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Implied Line A line that is completed by the viewer. Closure is a concept that accounts for how the viewer perceives a discontinuous line as being continuous. Leonardo. The Virgin of the Rocks
  10. 10. Outline describes the outer edge of a shape
  11. 11. Leonardo da Vinci Proportion of the Human Figure c. 1490, pen and ink Contour lines describe the outer edge of a form. Contour Line
  12. 12. <ul><li>Construction lines are very measured, geometric, directional and angular. They tend to appear to be man-made because of their precision. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Lines can be expressive . They may show excitement, anger, calmness, tension, happiness and many other feelings. Because of this, some are said to be expressive. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Jackson Pollock Abstract Expressionism
  15. 15. <ul><li>Stippling is the use of dots to create shading. </li></ul><ul><li>This is accomplished by </li></ul><ul><li>placing dots very </li></ul><ul><li>close together </li></ul><ul><li>to create dark </li></ul><ul><li>values and </li></ul><ul><li>farther apart to </li></ul><ul><li>create lighter values. </li></ul>Using Line to Create Depth and Texture
  16. 16. Using Line to Create Depth and Texture Elizabeth Catlett. Sharecropper (1968) color linocut Modeling on a two-dimensional surface is the illusion of volume through the use of shading. Hatching is the use of fine parallel lines to represent shading.
  17. 17. <ul><li>Cross-hatching </li></ul><ul><li>is the use of irregular </li></ul><ul><li>lengths of parallel lines </li></ul><ul><li>that cross over each </li></ul><ul><li>other diagonally. </li></ul><ul><li>The closer together </li></ul><ul><li>the lines are placed, </li></ul><ul><li>the darker the value. </li></ul>Using Line to Create Depth and Texture
  18. 18. Shape <ul><li>Shape is an area occupying space in a composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Shape can be defined by a line or an area of value, color, or texture. </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes are two-dimensional (2-D) which means there are two ways they can be measured. You can measure its HEIGHT and its WIDTH . </li></ul>
  19. 19. Formal Concepts > Elements of Art > Shape > Organic and Geometric <ul><li>Organic shapes are natural shapes which can be symmetrical and asymmetrical. </li></ul><ul><li>Geometric shapes are ‘man-made’ or mechanical shapes, mathematically deduced, with clear, straight, sharp edges. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Shape <ul><li>Geometric shapes might be used to indicate solidity or rigidity. </li></ul><ul><li>Organic shapes may be used to create a more relaxed, natural and fluid feeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Objective shapes have a powerful associative effect, referring to objects in the real world. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonobjective shapes can suggest a sense of artificiality or novelty when they are used abstractly in a non-representational work of art. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Geometric shapes have smooth, even edges and are measurable. The include the square, the circle, the triangle and the rectangle. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Geometric Shapes Piet Mondrian. Composition with Red, Blue, and Yellow (1930) oil on canvas
  23. 23. <ul><li>Organic or biomorphic shapes have more free-flowing edges and are usually found in nature like leaves or clouds. </li></ul><ul><li>Gary Freeman. Red Oak Weather Change acrylic on canvas </li></ul>
  24. 24. Matisse, cut paper
  25. 25. Shape as Icon <ul><li>Some shapes carry with them immediate </li></ul><ul><li>objective associations. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Cross </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jewish Star of David </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese yin yang. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Shape is a powerful visual element, and the representation of shape is a powerful design tool.” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Shape Botticelli. The Birth of Venus (detail) (c. 1482) oil on canvas Elements of Art >
  27. 27. Sandro Botticelli Botticelli. The Birth of Venus (detail) (c. 1482) oil on canvas
  28. 28. Figure-Ground Reversal
  29. 29. Positive and Negative Shapes <ul><li>Positive shapes - the objects or figure on which the viewer focuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative shapes - the empty space (or the space filled with other imagery) left over in the art work. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Mass <ul><li>A form has implied mass. It is a shape that appears to be three-dimensional (3-D). It has HEIGHT, WIDTH, and DEPTH - which is the 3 rd dimension. Depth shows the volume or mass of the object. Forms are defined by contour lines . </li></ul>
  31. 31. Elements of Art > Mass <ul><li>Actual mass has measurable volume and weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Implied mass is the illusion of volume and weight. </li></ul>Edward Steichen. Rodin with His Sculptures photograph
  32. 32. Turning Shapes into Forms <ul><li>A triangle becomes a cone or a pyramid </li></ul><ul><li>A square becomes a cube </li></ul>
  33. 33. Turning Shapes into Forms David Smith. Untitled (1954) ink, tempera The word volume refers to the mass of a three-dimensional work. David Smith. Cubi XX (1964) welded steel, UCLA
  34. 34. Turning Shapes into Forms <ul><li>A rectangle can become a box or a cylinder </li></ul>In order to turn a circle into a sphere, you must shade it. You can’t add another side to it!
  35. 35. <ul><li>Value is the lightness and darkness of areas in a composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar or related terms: light, key, contrast, highlight, shading, shadow, modeling, mid-tone, heightening, chiaroscuro </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling on a two-dimensional surface is the illusion of volume through the use of shading. </li></ul>Value Leonardo. Virgin and Child with St. Anne, cartoon, sanguine and heightened with white chalk
  36. 36. Value Scale of Grays Two values or colors, side by side, interact with one another and change our perception accordingly. The effect of this interaction is called simultaneous contrast .
  37. 37. Value <ul><li>Modeling makes forms appear more real because it imitates natural light. You create the illusion of a highlight , shadow , reflected light , and cast shadow . </li></ul>A light source is where the light is coming from, the darkest shadow areas are always on the opposite side of the light.
  38. 38. Value <ul><li>In order to have a successful drawing, you will need to show a full value range , which means that there are very light areas, middle tones, and very dark areas. This is a way of giving a work of art contrast and volume . </li></ul><ul><li>In drawing, value </li></ul><ul><li>can be added </li></ul><ul><li>several ways. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Ways to add value : <ul><li>Cross-hatching </li></ul><ul><li>is when you use irregular </li></ul><ul><li>lengths of parallel lines </li></ul><ul><li>that cross over each </li></ul><ul><li>other diagonally. </li></ul><ul><li>The closer together </li></ul><ul><li>the lines are placed, </li></ul><ul><li>the darker the value. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Ways to add value: <ul><li>Stippling is the use of dots to create shade. </li></ul><ul><li>This is accomplished by </li></ul><ul><li>placing dots very </li></ul><ul><li>close together </li></ul><ul><li>to create dark </li></ul><ul><li>values and </li></ul><ul><li>farther apart to </li></ul><ul><li>create lighter values. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Ways to add value: <ul><li>Soft shading is when you use pencil or charcoal to create soft gradation from one value to the next creating a full value range. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Value in Painting Chiaroscuro is a type of modeling that has a soft gradation of value over the form. Tenebrism is a type of modeling that has a sharp contrast in value that gives a spot-light effect on the subject. Leonardo da Vinci. Virgin of the Rocks oil on panel, 1486, Louvre, Paris
  43. 43. Color <ul><li>The visual sensation resulting from the reflection of wave lengths of light from differing surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Color can add interest and reality to artwork. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of a color wheel helps us to understand color theory more effectively. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Triadic Color Wheel
  45. 45. Newton and the Color Spectrum <ul><li>Our modern understanding of light and color began with Isaac Newton (1642-1726) and a series of experiments that he published in 1672. He was the first to understand the rainbow and he used a prism to refract white light into its component colors. </li></ul><ul><li>These colors are: R ed, O range, Y ellow, G reen, B lue, I ndigo and V iolet </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the anagram: ROY G BIV </li></ul>
  46. 46. The Three Properties of Color <ul><li>Hue – the color name </li></ul><ul><li>Value – the lightness or darkness of the color. Yellow is the lightest in value; violet is the darkest. </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity – the saturation of color, purity, chroma, brightness/dullness </li></ul>
  47. 47. Victor Vasarely. Orion (1956) cut paper
  48. 48. Color Pigments <ul><li>Primary colors: Red , Yellow and Blue </li></ul><ul><li>These color pigments are primary for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They can’t be made by mixing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be mixed to make all the other colors on the color wheel </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Lichtenstein Primary Colors
  50. 50. Secondary Colors <ul><li>When you mix two primary colors together, you get a secondary color. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Red and Yellow = Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Red and Blue = Violet </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow and Blue = Green </li></ul>
  51. 51. Intermediate Colors <ul><li>When you mix a primary and a secondary color together you get an intermediate (or tertiary) color. For example: </li></ul><ul><li>Red and Orange= Red-Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow and Green=Yellow-Green </li></ul><ul><li>Blue and Green=Blue-Green </li></ul><ul><li>Red and Violet=Red-Violet </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow and Orange=Yellow-Orange </li></ul><ul><li>Blue and Violet=Blue-Violet </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>When you use only one color plus its </li></ul><ul><li>tints and shades, you are using a monochromatic color scheme </li></ul><ul><li>A tint is a color plus white </li></ul><ul><li>A shade is a color plus black </li></ul>Color Relationships
  53. 53. Color Relationships <ul><li>Colors are related based on how </li></ul><ul><li>they are arranged on the color wheel: </li></ul><ul><li>3-7 colors on either side of a primary creates an </li></ul><ul><li>analogous color scheme </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Triadic color schemes uses three colors </li></ul><ul><li>that are equally spaced apart on the color wheel </li></ul>Color Relationships
  55. 55. Color Relationships <ul><li>Two colors that are directly opposite each other </li></ul><ul><li>complementary colors </li></ul>
  56. 56. Complementary Colors Vincent Van Gogh, Night Cafe
  57. 57. Color Relationships <ul><li>A Split-Complementary color scheme is a complementary color and the two colors on either side of its compliment. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Color Relationships <ul><li>Colors with red or yellow in them are considered to be warm. Cool colors are colors with blue in them. </li></ul>WARM COOL
  59. 59. <ul><li>Warm colors are those that have Reds, Yellows and Oranges. Warm colors seem to advance (or come forward) in an artwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Cool colors are those that have Blues, Greens, and Violets. Cool colors seem to recede (or move backward) in an artwork. </li></ul>Color Relationships
  60. 60. Cool colors with warm accents Romare Bearden. J Mood (c. 1985) paper collage
  61. 61. Local versus Optical Color <ul><li>Local Color - the actual color of objects as created by the light the surfaces reflect under normal lighting condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Optical color - our perceptions of color, which can vary with lighting conditions. </li></ul>
  62. 62. CLAUDE MONET. Haystack at Sunset near Giverny (1891). Oil on canvas. 2 9” x 3 7” .
  63. 63. Colors are expressive <ul><li>Colors can convey emotion and feelings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue is calming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red is exciting or passionate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow is energizing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is important that artists understand the effects of color when they are trying to get the viewers of their art to feel a particular way. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Expressive Colors Van Gogh The Night Café (1888) oil on canvas
  65. 65. The Elements of Art > Texture <ul><li>Texture is the surface character </li></ul><ul><li>of an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic types of texture – </li></ul><ul><li> actual, visual, and simulated. </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Actual Texture (Tactile or Real) is the way the surface of an object actually feels. Examples would be sandpaper, cotton balls, tree bark, puppy fur, etc. </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>Visual Texture is the illusion of texture on a flat surface. This is the type of texture that artists render when they draw and paint. Visual textures may look soft, smooth, fuzzy, or rough. Even to the point of trompe l’oeil – the French phrase that means “trick the eye.” </li></ul>Leonardo. Mona Lisa oil on wood
  68. 68. RACHEL RUYSCH. Flower Still Life (after 1700) Oil on Canvas. 29 3/4” x 23 7/8”.
  69. 69. Meret Oppenheim. Object (1936) Fur-Covered Cup, Saucer, and Spoon Camille Claudel’s The Waltz Creating simulated texture… subversive texture Transition from smooth skin to rough, bumpy, rippling base
  70. 70. DAVID GILHOOLY. Bowl of Chocolate Moose (1989). Ceramic. 10 ” x 6 ” x 7 ”
  71. 71. Elements of Art > Texture > Impasto Impasto is the actual, thick texture of the paint as applied by an artist. Vincent Van Gogh. Irises (1889) oil on canvas
  72. 72. Guitar, Sheet Music, and Glass. paper, gouache, charcoal Elements of Art > Texture > Collage Pablo Picasso – The first artist to attach paper and other materials to his art work.
  73. 73. The Elements of Art in Review <ul><li>The Elements of Art are the “tools” that artists use to make art. They are the basic “foundation” of a good composition </li></ul><ul><li>Value Color Line </li></ul><ul><li>Shape Texture Mass </li></ul>
  74. 74. Components of Art Unity Order/Oneness Subject Form Content Principles of Design Harmony Emphasis Proportion Balance Economy Rhythm Variety Elements of Art Value Color Line Shape Texture Mass
  75. 75. SPACE <ul><li>The environment in which all things exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Objects exist in Three-dimensional space. </li></ul><ul><li>Some art is truly 3D like sculpture and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>And some art just tries to depict space on a 2D surface. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Overlapping <ul><li>You can create the illusion of depth </li></ul><ul><li>by overlapping objects. </li></ul>
  77. 77. Relative Size and Linear Perspective <ul><li>The further objects are from us the smaller they look. </li></ul><ul><li>Things that are closer to us look larger and things that are further away look smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>Artists use different techniques like relative size and linear perspective to create the illusion of depth in a piece of art. </li></ul>NI ZAN. Rongxi Studio (Late Yuan/Early Ming dynasty, 1372 CE). Hanging scroll; ink on paper. H: 29 1⁄4 ”
  78. 78. The Illusion of Depth <ul><li>Vanishing point - The point at which parallel lines cone together, or converge. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizon - the line where the line of sight stops and on which the artist often places the vanishing point. </li></ul><ul><li>Vantage point - where (or the height) the viewer is looking from. </li></ul><ul><li>One-point perspective - when parallel lines in a picture come together at one point, the vanishing point, on the horizon line. </li></ul><ul><li>Two-point perspective - when parallel lines in a picture come together at 2 different points on the horizon line. </li></ul>
  79. 79. RAFFAELLO SANZIO (RAPHAEL). PHILOSOPHY, or SCHOOL OF ATHENS (1509-1511). Linear Perspective in The School of Athens.
  80. 80. GUSTAVE CAILLEBOTTE. Paris Street: Rainy Day *1877). Oil on Canvas. 83 1/2” 108 1/4”. Perspective in Caillebottoes’s Paris Street: Rainy Day.
  81. 81. Atmospheric Perspective <ul><li>(Also called aerial perspective.) </li></ul><ul><li>Texture gradient - closer objects are perceived as having rougher or more detailed surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Brightness gradient - distant objects are less intense. </li></ul>
  82. 82. SYLVIA PLIMACK MANGOLD. Schunnemunk Mountain (1979). Oil on canvas. 60 ” x 80 1⁄8 ” .
  83. 83. Time and Motion <ul><li>Actual Motion: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic Art - art that moves. Example: Mobiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photography </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. ALEXANDER CALDER. Untitled (1972). East Building mobile.
  85. 85. Implied Motion <ul><li>Stopped Time - a style of art that “stops time” in order to imply motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Time implied & Motion Implied - Some works try to imply that motion or time has occurred. </li></ul>
  86. 86. GIANLORENZO BERNINI. Apollo and Daphne (1622–1624). Marble. 7 ’ 6 ” .
  87. 87. The Illusion of Motion <ul><li>There is a difference between implied motion and the illusion of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>One implies that the motion has already occurred and the other indicates that the motion is happening right now. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Early photographic experiments of multiple exposures of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>The blurring of shapes and the repetition of linear patterns blurring the contours of a figure. </li></ul><ul><li>Blurring outlines to create the illusion of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Op Art ! </li></ul>
  88. 88. THOMAS EAKINS. Man Pole Vaulting (c. 1884). Photograph.
  89. 89. UMBERTO BOCCIONI. Dynamism of a Soccer Player (1913). Oil on canvas. 6 ’ 4 1⁄8 ” x 6 ’ 7 1⁄8 ” .
  90. 90. BERNHARD JOHANNES AND ANNA BLUME. Kitchen Tantrums (1986–1987). Photo-piece. 51 1⁄8 ” x 35 7 / 8 ” .
  91. 91. Op Art <ul><li>Op Art - Optical Art, is based on creating optical sensations of movement through the repetition and manipulation of color, shape, and line. </li></ul><ul><li>Afterimage - when we look at a color for a long period of time and then look away you may briefly see the opposite color due to fatigue of the cornea in the eyes. </li></ul>
  92. 92. Fig. 2-76. P.65 BRIDGET RILEY. Gala. (1974). Acrylic on canvas. 5’ 2 3/4” square.
  93. 93. Other Ways of Creating the Illusion of Motion <ul><li>Cinematography and video </li></ul><ul><li>Stroboscopic motion </li></ul><ul><li>(Real movement involves illusion) </li></ul>

Notas del editor

  • Pyramidal structure of the composition
  • Rubin Vase This ambiguous figure demonstrates our ability to shift between figure and ground which provides the basis for the two interpretations of these figures.
  • Volume refers to the mass or bulk of three-dimensional works. This work by David Smith is a good example of geometric form.
  • In its original historical meaning, a cartoon (from the Italian cartone , meaning &amp;quot;big paper&amp;quot;) is a full-size drawing made on paper as a study for a further artwork, such as a painting or tapestry. Cartoons were typically used in the production of frescoes, to accurately link the component parts of the composition when painted onto plaster over a series of days. Such cartoons often have pinpricks where the outline of the design has been picked out in the plaster. Cartoons by painters such as Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci are highly prized in their own right. Sanguine refers to a reddish, often tending to brown, color of chalk used in drawing. The word may also refer to a drawing done in sanguine.
  • Op Art
  • Primary colors with neutrals Pop Artist, Roy Lichtenstein, c. 1960’s
  • J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angelos, CA