DEEP FOUNDATIONS

PREPARED BY:

SAQIB NAWAZ
B.ARCH. 3RD YR.
A foundation is the lowest and supporting layer of a structure.
Requirements (Functional)
A properly designed foundation i...
a) Shallow Foundation System
A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building
loads to the earth very...
LOADS ON FOUNDATION
• Dead Load : Refers to the overall weight of the structure.
Includes weight of the materials permanen...
DEEP FOUNDATIONS
“It is a foundation system that transfers loads to a deeper and
capable soil layer.”
Piers are foundation...
WELL FOUNDATIONS
• Well foundations are commonly used for transferring heavy loads to deep
strata in river or sea bed for ...
PILE Foundations rely on driven piles, often have groups of piles connected by
a pile cap (a large concrete block into whi...
METHODS OF INSTALLATION
DROPPING WEIGHT
DIESEL HAMMER
VIBRATORY METHODS OF PILE DRIVING
JACKING METHODS OF INSERTION
DROPP...
Classification of Piles

Based on material
•Concrete
•Steel
•Timber
Based on size
• Micro piles dia. < 150 mm.
• Small pil...
LOAD TRANSFER MECHANISM OF PILES
PRE CAST /PRE STRESS PILES(CONCRETE)
 Size :







150mm to
400mm
Lengths :
3m, 6m, 9m
and 12m
Structural Capacity ...
Advantage of Pre Cast /Pre Stress Piles…..
•Better Bending Resistance
•Higher Axial Capacity
•Better Manufacturing Quality...
Steel H Piles
Size :

200mm to 400mm

Lengths :

6m and 12m

Structural Capacity :

40Ton to
1,000Ton

Material :

250N/mm...
Advantage:
1. Relatively less hassle during installation and easy
to achieve cut-off level.
2. High driving force may be u...
Large Diameter Cast-In-Situ
Piles (Bored Piles)
Size :

450mm to 2m

Lengths :

Varies

Structural Capacity : 80Ton to 2,3...
Advantages:
Fast method of pile installation
Economical, since reinforce-ment is installed after tube
installation, compar...
THANK YOU
Types of foundation
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Types of foundation

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Types of foundation

  1. 1. DEEP FOUNDATIONS PREPARED BY: SAQIB NAWAZ B.ARCH. 3RD YR.
  2. 2. A foundation is the lowest and supporting layer of a structure. Requirements (Functional) A properly designed foundation is one that transfers the structural load throughout the soil without overstressing of soil which can result in either excessive settlement or shear failure,both of which can damage the structure. Based on their point of transfer of load, Foundations are generally divided into two categories: SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS & DEEP FOUNDATIONS.
  3. 3. a) Shallow Foundation System A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface. Shallow foundations include spread footing foundations, slab-on-grade foundations, rubble trench foundations, and earth bag foundations. b) Deep Foundation System A deep foundation is used to transfer a load from a structure through an upper weak layer of soil to a stronger deeper layer of soil. There are different types of deep footings including impact driven piles, caissons,helical piles, and earth stabilized columns. SHALLOW FOUNDATION DEEP FOUNDATION
  4. 4. LOADS ON FOUNDATION • Dead Load : Refers to the overall weight of the structure. Includes weight of the materials permanently attached to the structure (such as flooring) and fixed service equipment (such as air conditioning) • Live load : Refers to the weight of the applied bodied that are not permanent parts of the structure. Applied to the structure during part of its useful life (e.g. people, warehouse goods). Specified by code. • Wind loads : Acts on all exposed parts of the structure. Calculated using building codes. • Earthquake Forces : Building code is consulted.
  5. 5. DEEP FOUNDATIONS “It is a foundation system that transfers loads to a deeper and capable soil layer.” Piers are foundations for carrying a heavy structural load which is constructed insitu in a deep excavation. Well foundations are commonly used for transferring heavy loads to deep strata in river or sea bed for bridges, transmission towers and harbour structures. Piles are relatively long, slender members that transmit foundation loads through soil strata of low bearing capacity to deeper soil or rock strata having a high bearing capacity. Caissons are a form of deep foundation which are constructed above ground level, then sunk to the required level by excavating or dredging material from within the caisson.
  6. 6. WELL FOUNDATIONS • Well foundations are commonly used for transferring heavy loads to deep strata in river or sea bed for bridges, transmission towers and harbour structures.
  7. 7. PILE Foundations rely on driven piles, often have groups of piles connected by a pile cap (a large concrete block into which the heads of the piles are embedded) to distribute loads which are larger than one pile can bear. PILES are relatively long, slender members that transmit foundation loads through soil strata of low bearing capacity to deeper soil or rock strata having a high bearing capacity. PILES can be of timber, steel or of composite material(steel and concrete).
  8. 8. METHODS OF INSTALLATION DROPPING WEIGHT DIESEL HAMMER VIBRATORY METHODS OF PILE DRIVING JACKING METHODS OF INSERTION DROPPING WEIGHT OR DROP HAMMER is the most commonly used method of insertion of displacement piles. DIESEL HAMMER produces controlled explosions which raises a ram used to drive the pile into the ground. VIBRATORY METHODS can prove to be very effective in driving piles through non cohesive granular soils. The vibration of the pile excites the soil grains adjacent to the pile making the soil almost free flowing thus significantly reducing friction along the pile shaft. JACKING PILES are the most commonly used methods in underpinning existing structures. By excavating underneath a structure short lengths of pile can be inserted and jacked into the ground using the underside of the existing structure as a reaction.
  9. 9. Classification of Piles Based on material •Concrete •Steel •Timber Based on size • Micro piles dia. < 150 mm. • Small piles dia. 151 to 600 mm. • Large piles dia. > 600 mm. Based on Load transfer mechanism •End bearing piles •Friction/Floating piles •Bearing cum Friction piles
  10. 10. LOAD TRANSFER MECHANISM OF PILES
  11. 11. PRE CAST /PRE STRESS PILES(CONCRETE)  Size :      150mm to 400mm Lengths : 3m, 6m, 9m and 12m Structural Capacity : 25Ton to 185Ton Material : Grade M-35 Concrete Joints: Welded Installation Method :  Drop Hammer  Jack-In
  12. 12. Advantage of Pre Cast /Pre Stress Piles….. •Better Bending Resistance •Higher Axial Capacity •Better Manufacturing Quality •Able to maintain Higher Driving Stresses •Higher Tensile Capacity •Easier to Check Integrity of Pile •Similar cost as RC Square Piles Disadvantage: •Difficult to transport •Difficult to achieve desired cut-off.
  13. 13. Steel H Piles Size : 200mm to 400mm Lengths : 6m and 12m Structural Capacity : 40Ton to 1,000Ton Material : 250N/mm2 to 410N/mm2 Steel Joints: Welded Installation Method : Hydraulic Hammer Jack-In
  14. 14. Advantage: 1. Relatively less hassle during installation and easy to achieve cut-off level. 2. High driving force may be used for fast installation . 3. Good to penetrate hard strata Load carrying capacity is high Disadvantage: 1. 2. 3. 4. Relatively expensive Noise pollution during installation Corrosion Bend in piles while driving
  15. 15. Large Diameter Cast-In-Situ Piles (Bored Piles) Size : 450mm to 2m Lengths : Varies Structural Capacity : 80Ton to 2,300Tons Concrete Grade : M-25,30,35 Grade (See IS- 456-2000) Joints : None Installation Method : Drill then Cast-In-Situ
  16. 16. Advantages: Fast method of pile installation Economical, since reinforce-ment is installed after tube installation, compared to precast piles, where reinforcement must be designed with respect to transport and handling.
  17. 17. THANK YOU

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