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Phylum nematoda

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a summary of phylum nematoda and some of its species

Phylum nematoda

  1. 1. The Roundworms
  2. 2. All are parasitic11 known species compromise the genus2 main clades 1. Encapsulated  species in which the host muscle cells they invade become surrounded by a collagen capsule 2. Non-encapsulated  no encapsulation occurs in the host muscle
  3. 3.  The five species (and three genotypes yet to be defined taxonomically) that comprise the encapsulated clade parasitize only mammals Three species comprise the non-capsulated clade One infects mammals and birds Other two species infects mammals and reptiles There are only two of these parasites, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis, known to complete their entire life cycle independently of whether the host is warm-blooded or cold-blooded
  4. 4. Trichinella papuae Trichinella zimbabwensis
  5. 5.  Greek: trichinos = of hair, -ella = diminutive Latin: Trichinella spiralis means spira, which is a reference to how this organism coils up in its host Well known for its parasitic lifestyle Belongs to the first clade Main hosts are meat eating animals Resides within skeletal muscles Disease caused is “trichinosis”
  6. 6.  Buccal cavity  one of the most important structures for adaptation developed  Has a very similar function to our mouth  Contains teeth to help the organism to adhere to the substrate  Supplies the organism with a place to take up nutrients from its surroundings
  7. 7.  Hydrostatic skeleton  Helps with movement Tail  Helps in locomotion  Supplies a place for claudal glands  responsible for secreting an adhesive mucus that helps this organism stick to the substrate of interest Amphids  Specialized sensing structures  Located on the lateral sides of the head  Gives the organism the ability to sense and then adapt to their surroundings
  8. 8.  Simple nervous system  Consists of dorsal and ventral nerve cords  allows them to interpret information coming from their sensory organs such as the amphids  Enables them to react to their environment better and have an increased chance of survival Cuticle  located on the external aspect of the worm  is shed off to allow these organisms to grow and develop  larger body size all results in a discount metabolic rate per gram of tissue
  9. 9.  Encysted nematode is ingested Travel to the stomach to be digested digestive functions of the stomach allow the nematodes to change from their encysted to their active forms Molts four times for the first 34 hours Female releases pheromones to attract the male Male coils itself around the females genitals Male then inserts its spicule/s into female’s genitals where the amoeboid sperms will crawl When eggs are fertilized, the mother will not release the eggs unless they have hatched within its uterus  Usually the 5th or 6th day of infection
  10. 10.  Greek: enteron = intestine, bios = life Has the broadest geographic range of any helminth Small, white, and thread-like Females: ranging between 8-13 mm x 0.3-0.5 mm  Possess a long pin-shape posterior end Males: ranging between 2-5 mm x 0.1-0.2 mm Dwells primarily in the cecum of the large intestine Females migrate at night to lay 15,000 eggs on the perineum
  11. 11.  Flattened asymmetrically on one side Ovoid Approximately 55 mm x 25 mm in size Embryonate in six hours Can remain viable for about twenty days in a moist environment Viable eggs and larvae were found in the sludge of sewage treatment plants in Czechoslovakia in 1992
  12. 12.  High prevalence in countries with a temperate climate approximately 200 million people are infected internationally The most common intestinal parasite Serves as an exception to the general rule that intestinal parasites are uncommon in affluent societies Does not need to rely on a vector for transmission Infection usually occurs via ingestion of infectious eggs by direct anus-to-mouth transfer by fingers
  13. 13.  Scotch tape test  Most common test  A clear adhesive cellulose tape is applied to the anal area early in the morning before bathing or defecation  It is then observed under the microscope for the presence of eggs  These eggs may also be stained blue with lactophenol cotton blue, which aids in detection and identification  Sensitivity of this test when performed for three consecutive mornings is 90%
  14. 14.  Bathe when you wake up to help reduce the egg contamination Change and wash your underwear each day. Frequent changing of night clothes are recommended Change underwear, night clothes, and sheets after each treatment. Because the eggs are sensitive to sunlight, open blinds or curtains in bedrooms during the day Personal hygiene should include washing hands after going to the toilet, before eating and after changing diapers Trim fingernails short Discourage nail-biting and scratching bare anal areas. These practices help reduce the risk of continuous self reinfection
  15. 15.  Filial nematode that is a thread-like worm Female: 10 cm long and 0.2 mm wide Male: about 4 cm long Adults reside and mate at the lymphatic system Can produce up to 50 000 microfilaria per day microfilaria are 250-300 µm long, 8 µm wide and circulate in the peripheral blood and can live as is up to 12 months Adult s take 6 to 12 months to develop from the larval stage and can live between 4 and 6 years
  16. 16.  Interactions are with humans and mosquitoes Mosquitoes are intermediate hosts Humans are definitive hosts Microfilariae inhabits the mosquito and the mosquito then transfers the microfilariae to humans when it takes a blood meal Some of the common vectors are the Culex, Anopheles, and Aedes mosquitoCULEX ANOPHELES AEDES
  17. 17. RED: EndemicPINK: UnknownGREEN: Unaffected
  18. 18.  This disease is transferred by mosquitoes and is found mainly in the tropics and sub-tropics Very rarely found in Western countries Onset of symptoms is usually slow, but after a couple of years, the lymphatic system will no longer work like it should Lymph nodes become enlarged and clogged Swelling, discoloration, and thickening of the skin occurs Without treatment, the tissue infected with Lymphatic filariasis develops into Elephantiasis
  19. 19.  The thickening of skin and other tissues to produce huge growths on a person’s body Growths result from the blocking of lymphatic vessels by the parasite Usually found in the lower regions of the body W. Bancrofti can affect the arms, legs, and breasts