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Triple helix연구와 e-research-방법론(29_dec2009)아시아학연산연구회no3


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Triple helix연구와 e-research-방법론(29_dec2009)아시아학연산연구회no3

  1. 1. Triple-Helix 연구와 e-research 방법론 박한우 영남대학교 언론정보학과 교수 미국 뉴욕주립대 박사 WCU 웹보메트릭스 연구단 사업단장 han [email_address] 아시아 학연산 연구회 (Asian Triple Helix Society 일시 : 2009 년 12 월 29 일 오후 4 시 장소 : 한국연구재단 ( 대전 ) 4 층 회의실 (416 호 ) 아시아 학연산 연구회
  2. 2. 목차 <ul><li>트리플헬릭스 연구란 ? </li></ul><ul><li>트리플헬릭스 주요 연구사례 및 기관 </li></ul><ul><li>논문 데이터를 이용한 분석 </li></ul><ul><li>특허 데이터를 이용한 분석 </li></ul><ul><li>웹 데이터를 이용한 분석 </li></ul><ul><li>e- 리서치 방법론의 적용 </li></ul><ul><li>국제트리플헬릭스학회 창립추진 현황 </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  3. 3. <ul><li>트리플헬릭스 연구란 ? </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  4. 4. 트리플헬릭스 연구란 ? <ul><li>지식경제학 , 과학기술학 등에서 지식기반 혁신체계의 구조를 기술하기 위해서 일반적으로 사용되는 네트워크적 접근법이 Triple-Helix 모델 임 . </li></ul><ul><li>Triple-Helix 모델은 어떤 국가의 지식생산은 대학 , 기업 , 및 정부의 네트워크를 중심으로 한 삼중나선형의 움직임으로 파악 . . </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  5. 5. 아시아 학연산 연구회 “ Laissez-faire” model of university-industry-government relations.
  6. 6. 아시아 학연산 연구회 The Triple Helix Model of University-Industry-Government Relations.
  7. 7. 트리플헬릭스 유용성 <ul><li>Triple-Helix 모형의 장점 </li></ul><ul><li>- 시간이 경과하면서 다르게 나타날 수 있는 대학 , 산업 , 정부의 역할과 각 구성요소간 연계성의 현황파악이 용이함 . </li></ul><ul><li>- 왜냐하면 , 대학 - 산업 - 정부간 네트워크 그 자체는 지식에 기초하여 일어나는 국가혁신시스템의 발전과정에 관한 구체적인 정보를 제공할 수 있기 때문 . </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  8. 8. <ul><li>First, the model can be used in case study analysis. Given the new mode of knowledge production, case studies can be enriched by raising the relevance of the three dimensions of our model. This does not mean that we disclaim the legitimacy of studying, for example, academic-industry relations or government-university policies, but one can expect more interesting results by observing the interactions of the three subdynamics. These subdynamics are: (1) economic exchange relations, (2) the organized production of novelty, and (3) the normative control mechanisms at the relevant interfaces. </li></ul>트리플헬릭스 관점의 유용성 아시아 학연산 연구회
  9. 9. <ul><li>For example, if one compares the science park in Lund with the one in Copenhagen, the rules and regulations in the two national systems are relevant to the study, although the focus can remain on the parks’ contributions to regional and trans-national developments. Thus, the model provides a heuristics for case study research. as a permanent condition because the knowledge-based regime continuously upsets the dynamics of the political economy (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 1998). Conflicts of interest can be deconstructed and reconstructed, both analytically and then perhaps also in practice in an uphill search for innovative solutions to problems of productivity and knowledge growth. </li></ul>트리플헬릭스 관점의 유용성 아시아 학연산 연구회
  10. 10. <ul><li>Second, the model can be informed by the increasing understanding of complex dynamics and simulation studies from evolutionary economics (e.g., Malerba, Nelson, Orsenigo, & Winter, 1999). To these meta-biological perspectives it adds the sociological notion of meaning being exchanged among the institutional agents. Meaning can be codified into knowledge that can feed back on the system in a next-order loop. The “knowledge base” of the economy can thus be operationalized, in principle. How does a knowledge-based economy operate differently from an industry-based one, and why? These questions can be addressed from the Triple Helix perspective because the operation of an overlay is declared. The overlay can be expected to self-organize as another control mechanism within the complex dynamics from which it emerged. </li></ul>트리플헬릭스 관점의 유용성 아시아 학연산 연구회
  11. 11. <ul><li>On the normative side, thirdly, the Triple Helix model provides us with the incentive to search for mismatches between the institutional dimensions in the arrangements and the three social functions carried by these arrangements. These frictions provide opportunities for innovation. We have argued that the “transitions” should now be considered as a permanent condition because the knowledge-based regime continuously upsets the dynamics of the political economy (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 1998). Conflicts of interest can be deconstructed and reconstructed, both analytically and then perhaps also in practice in an uphill search for innovative solutions to problems of productivity and knowledge growth. </li></ul>트리플헬릭스 관점의 유용성 아시아 학연산 연구회
  12. 12. <ul><li>Methods for breaking out of sub-optimal lock-ins can be expected to come from perspectives grounded in new theoretical insights, from start-ups or innovative developments within existing companies, and/or from competing policies. The neo-evolutionary framework assumes that both integration and differentiation are continuously under reconstruction. While Neurath’s (1933, at p. 206) dictum that “the ship is repaired on the open sea” focused exclusively on science, a knowledge-based society has internalized organized knowledge production into the economy at both the micro- and the macro-level. </li></ul>트리플헬릭스 관점의 유용성 아시아 학연산 연구회
  13. 13. <ul><li>This integration is doubly layered: science is integrated locally in terms of its social organization and globally in terms of its intellectual organization (Whitley, 1984). Society cannot afford to lose these structural differentiations in handling complexity. In this neo-evolutionary model, the institutional structures provide mainly a retention mechanism to preserve the innovative results that have been achieved at the interfaces. Strengthening the public sphere is from this perspective of interest to innovation policies if it leads to the formulation of new research questions and to the generation of public demand by reflecting on the institutional boundaries of established policy-making. </li></ul>트리플헬릭스 관점의 유용성 아시아 학연산 연구회
  14. 14. 트리플헬릭스 유용성 <ul><li>- 사례 </li></ul><ul><li>유럽연합 (European Union) 은 과학기술 분야의 연구지원 프로그램에 소위 우수 연구자들의 네트워크 (NoE: Networks of Excellence) 사업을 추진하고 있다 </li></ul><ul><li>NoE 는 유럽의 어떤 연구기관이 유럽연합 뿐만 아니라 세계 각지에 있는 경쟁력 있는 연구자들과 네트워크를 맺어서 연구과제를 신청하는 것을 장려하는 정책 </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  15. 15. 아시아 학연산 연구회
  16. 16. The Mutual Information in Two Dimensions : T ij = H i + H j – H ij T ij ≥ 0 The Mutual Information in Three Dimensions: T UIG = H U + H I + H G – H UI – H IG – H UG + H UIG T UIG is potentially negative A negative entropy can be a consequence of the mutual relations at the network level . The configuration then reduces the uncertainty. 아시아 학연산 연구회
  17. 17. 아시아 학연산 연구회
  18. 18. Triple Helix vs Triple Felix 아시아 학연산 연구회 The Triple Felix Model by Alistair G.B. Simpson (Dalhousie University, Canada)
  19. 19. <ul><li>트리플헬릭스 주요 연구사례 및 기관 </li></ul><ul><li>논문 데이터를 이용한 분석 </li></ul><ul><li>특허 데이터를 이용한 분석 </li></ul><ul><li>웹 데이터를 이용한 분석 </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  20. 20. 트리플헬릭스 연구사례 - 논문 <ul><li>Can “The Public” Be Considered as a Fourth Helix in University-Industry-Government Relations?  Report of the Fourth Triple Helix Conference, </li></ul><ul><li>Science and Public Policy 30(1) (2003) 55-61. </li></ul><ul><li>Loet Leydesdorff [a] & Henry Etzkowitz [b] </li></ul><ul><li>The Transformation of University-Industry-Government Relations , Electronic Journal of Sociology 5 (4), 2001, at </li></ul><ul><li>Loet Leydesdorff , Henry Etzkowitz </li></ul><ul><li>The Dynamics of Innovation: From National Systems and &quot;Mode 2&quot; to a Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations , </li></ul><ul><li>Research Policy 29(2) (2000) 109-123. </li></ul><ul><li>  Henry Etzkowitz*  and Loet Leydesdorff** (rotating first authorship) </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  21. 21. 트리플헬릭스 연구사례 - 논문 <ul><li>National and International Dimensions of the Triple Helix in Japan: University-Industry-Government versus International Co-Authorship Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60(4) (2009) 778-788; </li></ul><ul><li>Loet Leydesdorff* and Yuan Sun** </li></ul><ul><li>The Decline of University Patenting and the End of the Bayh-Dole Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Scientometrics (forthcoming); (2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Loet Leydesdorff a & Martin Meyer b </li></ul><ul><li>The Knowledge-Based Economy and the Triple Helix Model </li></ul><ul><li>Annual Review of Information Science and Technology , Blaise Cronin (Ed.); 44 (2010) 367-417; </li></ul><ul><li>Loet Leydesdorff </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  22. 22. 아시아 학연산 연구회 Percentages of world shares of publications held by smaller countries, 1995-2005
  23. 23. 아시아 학연산 연구회 Percentage of world share of publications for leading countries and the EU-25 in nanoscience, 2002-2006
  24. 24. Number of papers by Korean authors in the Science Citation Index and bi- and trilateral relations between TH-sectors within the economy 아시아 학연산 연구회
  25. 25. Mutual information in bilateral relations between the TH sectors in Korea 아시아 학연산 연구회
  26. 26. Mutual information in trilateral Triple Helix relations in Korea 아시아 학연산 연구회
  27. 27. Publication patterns in and between TH sectors using the A&HCI Index 아시아 학연산 연구회
  28. 28. Mutual information measured in bilateral relations between TH sectors using the SSCI 아시아 학연산 연구회
  29. 29. Publication rates of Korean papers and synergy effects among TH sectors on the basis of coauthorship relations in the SSCI 아시아 학연산 연구회
  30. 30. Relative position of Korea TH SCI 2002 Number UI UG IG UIG Univers Industry Govt All 683222 17095 116782 4626 5664 556370 41840 234843 USA 238676 7274 40650 1777 2732 206813 18193 68835 EU 250395 4586 54617 1400 2187 204531 11011 99830 UK 66544 1569 14263 360 763 53972 3617 26673 Germany 59630 1181 14986 405 703 50319 2925 24364 France 39973 431 12214 422 585 26663 1826 25721 Scand 30437 592 8757 170 411 26283 1431 13064 Italy 29795 374 7609 79 321 26680 956 10863 Netherlands 17865 328 4663 78 307 15927 859 6762 S. Korea 14931 533 3115 118 183 13163 996 4904 Japan 68338 4303 13297 1113 1481 57345 9892 22776 PR China 28913 381 6408 111 173 24328 728 11103 Taiwan 9572 183 2772 15 59 8608 295 3757 Singapore 3411 110 622 16 53 2978 202 1085 Russia 20723 81 6637 134 157 11486 443 15960 India 12570 109 2180 92 67 7140 459 7486 Brazil 10888 189 2054 45 81 9584 386 3368
  31. 31. 아시아 학연산 연구회 Co-authorship relations in the Japanese set during the period 1981-2004, series with values lower than 3% are not shown (IG, IF, GF, UIF, UGF, IGF, UIG,UIGF)
  32. 32. 트리플헬릭스 연구사례 - 특허 <ul><li>The determinants of university patenting: Do incentives matter? </li></ul><ul><li>7th International Triple Helix Conference on University-Government-Industry(2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Tomás del Barrio-Castro José García-Quevedo (corresponding author) </li></ul><ul><li>Patent applications and patent rates: evidence from Canadian researchers in engineering and natural sciences Primary Sub-theme: Commercialization of Academic Research Secondary Sub-theme: The Third Mission of Universities </li></ul><ul><li>7th International Triple Helix Conference on University-Government-Industry(2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Nabil Amara, Réjean Landry and Othman Idrissi </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Patents in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>7th International Triple Helix Conference on University-Government-Industry(2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Schleinkofer Nicolai Mallig </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  33. 33. 트리플헬릭스 연구사례 - 특허 <ul><li>Federally funded patents in the United States – A first look of data </li></ul><ul><li>Taehyun Jung </li></ul><ul><li>The different impact on scientific activity of academic owned vs. academic invented patents: evidence from a panel of Italian academic inventors </li></ul><ul><li>Bianca M Potì Ceris-Cnr Giovanni Cerulli Sandra Romagnosi </li></ul><ul><li>University patenting in Germany before and after 2002: What role did the professors’ privilege play? </li></ul><ul><li>Guido Buenstorf Martin Hummel Sidonia von Ledebur(corresponding author) </li></ul><ul><li>Matching analysis to promote Industry-University cooperation: Visual mapping using text mining on a database of patents and papers </li></ul><ul><li>Tomoo Yamamoto </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  34. 34. 아시아 학연산 연구회 US research university patents as a percentage of all domestic-assignee US patent, 1963-1999.
  35. 35. 아시아 학연산 연구회 University patenting (1978-2008) as a percentage of patenting in the USPTO database. (Source : ■ AUTM, 2008; ◆ online search at , 15 January 2009; ● Wong & Singh (2007).)
  36. 36. 아시아 학연산 연구회 Worldwide patents of four leading US universities.
  37. 37. 아시아 학연산 연구회 Patenting by leading non-American universities.
  38. 38. 트리플헬릭스 연구사례 - 웹문서 아시아 학연산 연구회
  39. 39. <ul><ul><li>Bilateral and Triple Helix relations in the case of gTLDs using only English </li></ul></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  40. 40. <ul><li>Shared links between “university,” “industry,” and “government” at the level of the reference set of combined gTLDs </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  41. 41. 아시아 학연산 연구회 Mutual information in three dimensions (‘university,’ ‘industry,’ ‘government’) as measured by using the AltaVista Advanced Search Engine (15 May 2003). Three-dimensional indicators at the web
  42. 42. 아시아 학연산 연구회 (with Mike Curran), “Mapping University-Industry-Government Relations on the Internet: the Construction of Indicators for a Knowledge-based Economy,” Cybermetrics 4 (2000), Issue 1, Paper 2
  43. 43. 아시아 학연산 연구회 -> The ‘dotcom’ crisis at the Internet hit South-Korea more seriously than The Netherlands and other countries.
  44. 44. 아시아 학연산 연구회 Total number of hits of national languages and domains for South Korea and The Netherlands, respectively (using AltaVista , 26 April 2004)
  45. 45. <ul><li>The Triple Helix at Arizona State </li></ul><ul><li>University </li></ul><ul><li>The International Institute of Triple Helix </li></ul><ul><li>- IITH </li></ul>트리플헬릭스 관련기관 아시아 학연산 연구회 The Institute for Triple Helix Innovation
  46. 46. 아시아 학연산 연구회
  47. 47. <ul><li>e- 리서치 방법론의 적용 </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  48. 48. e- 리서치 방법론의 적용 e- 사이언스의 등장 CERN 의 입자 물리학 (Particle Physics) 연구자들이 과거에 겪지 못한 새로운 문제에 당면하면서 등장 . 엄청난 규모의 데이터 처리 및 교환에 필요한 고성능 컴퓨터 자원 , 연구목적에 특화된 고도 인터넷망 , 버츄얼 협업을 위한 연구 환경등의 수요에 충족하기 위한 정책적 시도 ‘ 고성능 컴퓨터’ , ‘ 디지털 네트워크’의 사용 지식생산의 방식 변화 아시아 학연산 연구회
  49. 49. Development stage of e-Sciene Nentwich(2003) Type Traditional Science ---------------------> e-Science Stage 1 2 3 4 Information gathering Libraries; personal conversations Offline database Online databases; link collections; discussion lists Digital libraries; Knowbots Data production Interviews; experiments Electron, text analysis; simulation/modeling Internet surveys Distributed computing; virtual reality Data management Card files; lists Hypertextual card files; databases Networked card files; de-central databases Data processing/analysis With paper and pencil Electron, data-processing; expert systems Modelling; simulations Artificial intelligence
  50. 50. e- 리서치 방법론의 적용 아시아 학연산 연구회
  51. 51. e- 리서치 방법론의 적용 Birnholtz, J. P., & Horn, D. B. (2007). Shake, rattle and roles: Lessons from experimental earthquake engineering for incorporating remote users in large-scale e-science experiments. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication , 12 (2), article 17. 아시아 학연산 연구회
  52. 52. Famous Quote From Sir Isaac Newton <ul><li>“ If I have been able to see farther than others, it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants.” </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  53. 53. 웹보메트릭 서비스 / 도구의 비교 Smith (2006)   Coverage Identification of institutions Citation count Transparency Google Scholar Research on Web By keyword Individual, cannot display all hits Little documentation of algorithm, selection of sources W eb o f K nowledge Core journals (some digital) Specific field For individual items Sources documented Scopus Core journals + Web sites ( from Scirus) Specific field “ Citation tracker” only for authors Sources documented Wolverhampton Crawler Specific university web sites By domain Link counts Sources documented
  54. 54. 아시아 학연산 연구회
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  57. 57. 아시아 학연산 연구회
  58. 58. 아시아 학연산 연구회
  59. 60. 가상공간의 정보수집 : ‘ CNN’ 의 SL iReports 서비스 아시아 학연산 연구회
  60. 61. <ul><li>국제 트리플헬릭스학회 </li></ul><ul><li>창립추진 현황 </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  61. 62. 국제트리플헬릭스학회 창립추진현황 <ul><li>1) Future Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>2) Journal Development </li></ul><ul><li>3) Executive committee members </li></ul>아시아 학연산 연구회
  62. 63. Discussion issues Configurations may constrain the further TH developments at national system level by generating more uncertainty than can be managed by three TH actors - L. Leydesdorff 아시아 학연산 연구회