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Farrington et al. <br />The Cambridge study in Delinquent development<br />Revision... <br />
Aims...<br /> To document the start, duration and end of offending behaviour from childhood to adulthood in families. <br /> To investigate the influence of life events; the risk and protective factors predicting offending and antisocial behaviour; the intergenerational transmission of offending and antisocial behaviour and the influence of family background.<br />
Design...<br /> A prospective longitudinal survey. In the latest report on the group, data was gathered through interviews at age 48 and searches of criminal records. <br />
Participants...<br />The study was based on 411 boys aged 8 and 9 who were born in 1953/4. <br />From the registers of 6 state schools in East London. The boys were predominantly white working class. <br />397 different families were involved and there were 14 pairs of brothers and 5 pairs of twins in the sample. <br />At age 48, of the 394 males still alive, 365 were interviewed (93 %)<br />
Selected results...<br />At age 48 of the 404 individuals searched in the criminal records, 161 had convictions. <br />The numbers of offences and offenders peaked at age 17, closely followed by age 18. <br />Those who started criminal careers at age 10-13 were nearly all reconvicted at least once (91%) and committed 9 crimes on average compared with an average of crimes if they started at 14-16. <br />Self reported crimes not covered by official statistics indicate that 93% admitted to committing one type of offence at some stage in there life. <br />
...continued<br />A small proportion of the males in the study (7%) were defined as ‘chronic offenders’ because they accounted for about half of all the officially recorded offences in this study. On average, their conviction careers lasted from age 14 to age 35. <br />The proportion of men leading successful lives increased from 78% at age 32 and to 88% at the age of 48. The most important finding was that the desisters were no different in life success from the unconvinced. <br />
Conclusions...<br />Farrington concludes that offenders tend to be deviant in many aspects of their lives. Early prevention that reduces offending could have wide ranging benefits in reducing problems with accommodation, relationships, employment, alcohol, drugs and aggressive behaviours. The most important risk factors are criminality in the family, poverty, impulsiveness, poor child- rearing and poor school performance. Hence, there is scope for significant cost savings from effective early-intervention programmes targeted on under 10 year olds. <br />
Key Words... <br />INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION:<br />The occurrence of (criminal) behaviour through successive generations of the same family. <br />RISK FACTORS:<br />Those factors that make it more likely that criminal behaviour will occur. <br />PROTECTIVE FACTORS:<br />Those factors that will prevent criminal behaviour. <br />
...continued<br />CRITERIA OF LIFE SUCCESS: <br />A set of nine criteria that are used to judge whether someone has successfully turned away from crime. They include: No drug use in the last 5 years. No self reported offence. <br />